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Klinefelter's syndrome is a medical condition in which a boy is born with an extra copy of the 'X' chromosome. Klinefelter's syndrome has an adverse effect on testicular growth and results in the formation of smaller than normal testicles. This affects the production of the sex hormone testosterone. It can also cause lower retention of muscle mass, facial or body hair and enlarged breast tissues. It is difficult for people who are diagnosed with Klinefelter's syndrome to father children because they produce little to no sperm and often has to resort to take help from assisted reproductive procedures to procreate.
Generally Klinefelter's syndrome is not diagnosed before adulthood because of the fact that there are few noticeable symptoms which might indicate Klinefelter's syndrome during infancy, childhood or adolescence period.
The few characteristics which might indicate the condition are listed below:
1. Development of weak muscles.
2. Taking above average time to develop basic motor skills.
3. Delaying in speaking.
4. The testicles haven't descended into the scrotum.
Boys and teenagers develop the following characteristics:
1. They tend to have longer leg and broader hips than their peers.
2. Onset of puberty is delayed or in some cases absent or incomplete.
3. After puberty, less muscular bodies and less facial and body hair compared with other teens
4. Smaller than average size of penis.
1. Klinefelter's syndrome occurs due to the occurrence of an extra 'X' chromosome in the cells instead of the normal combination on 'XY' chromosomes.
2. In some severe cases, there is the occurrence of more than one extra 'X' chromosome in each cell.
3. This is not inherited or a genetic condition. This occurs due to a random error during the formation of the egg , the sperm or post conception.
Diagnoses and Treatment:
1. Chromosome analysis and hormone testing are the two main ways to diagnose this condition.
2. Abnormal hormone levels present in blood and urine, might indicate Klinefelter's syndrome.
Early diagnosis and medication minimizes the effects of Klinefelter's syndrome. These include:
1. Testosterone replacement therapy. In treatment, testosterone is injected at regular intervals from the onset of puberty to ensure normal growth.
2. Patients also need educational support as well as speech therapy to overcome any barriers the patient is experiencing.
3. Removal of excess breast tissue and fertility treatment.
4. With the help of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, it is possible for patients with low sperm production to father children.
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes where the blood sugar levels of the body increase during pregnancy. When you are expecting, your body is more repellent to insulin so that a larger amount of glucose is manufactured for the baby’s nourishment. However, this excess blood glucose can build up within the body which causes gestational diabetes. This can lead to health problems for both the mother and the baby. At the end of the gestational period i.e. once the baby is delivered, blood sugar reduces to normal.
When are you at a risk for gestational diabetes?
- Gestational diabetes can also be hereditary. If a family member or a relative has diabetes, you are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.
- If you are overweight, you are more susceptible to developing gestational diabetes.
What causes gestational diabetes?
During pregnancy, the placenta connects your baby to the blood supply. This produces other hormones which reduce the levels of insulin. This increases the level of blood sugar in your blood. As your baby develops, your body manufactures more of such hormones which block your insulin levels leading to gestational diabetes. This usually occurs from the 20th week of your pregnancy.
- Increase in Birth Weight – Extra glucose crosses through the placenta which instigates the baby’s pancreas to manufacture more insulin. This can make your baby very large. Sometimes, it becomes difficult for the baby to pass through the birth canal during childbirth as a result.
- Premature Birth and Respiratory Diseases – High blood sugar may increase the risk of an early labor. It may make the baby due before the 37th week of pregnancy. This also makes the baby more susceptible to respiratory disorders.
- High Blood Pressure – Gestational diabetes also raises your risks for high blood pressure. This can be fatal for you as well as your baby’s health.
- Book an appointment with a dietitian and follow a healthy eating schedule. Limit the amount of carbohydrates and ensure you have a healthy and balanced meal.
- Do light exercises regularly during pregnancy. This helps you to control your blood sugar level. Physical activities which require low levels of energy utilization such as swimming and walking will control your blood sugar level without exerting you too much.
- Taking insulin shots and medicine for diabetes will also control your blood sugar levels if you have a pre-existing condition. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Hello doctor I have suffering from fibroadima in breast so please tell me how will remove my cyst permanently because due to my this problem I 'm too much disturb please help me doctor.
Is having a period cycle of 22 days normal? if not then what can be problem area? my thyroid is normal. I would like to have homeopath treatmnt
Hello! My age is 23. 5 months have passed since my delivery. I have processed the surgery This is my first surgery process. And now I often get itching on the cut and it seems to be stretching the skin. So is this normal or major? Please tell me.
Hello. I got my periods last month on 28th but l again got them on this 11th in just 10days after my previous cycle. This never happened to me before. This cycle preceded with severe backache and fatigue levels higher than every time. It is all like brown clotted blood very less bleeding and not like regular flow. May I know why this happened suddenly?
Thyroid disease is a condition that affects the thyroid gland, a small, wing shaped gland that secretes the thyroid hormone. The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland and its proper functioning. These thyroid hormones are responsible for the metabolism of the body and a slight tweak in the levels can also lead to the onset of thyroid diseases like hyperthyroidism (excessive production of the thyroid hormone) or hypothyroidism (inadequate production of the thyroid hormone), as well as other conditions. The thyroid hormone has a crucial role to play as far as pregnancy is concerned. Let us find out how.
- Estrogen and hCG: There are two distinct hormones that are related to pregnancy, the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen. These hormones can cause an increase in the thyroid hormone levels that are contained in one's blood. The hCG is usually created by the placenta and is quite similar to the TSH or thyroid hormone. The hCG is known to mildly stimulate the thyroid gland, which causes greater production of the thyroid hormone. Also, once the estrogen in the body increases, it can lead to higher levels of globulin, which is a thyroid binding substance. This is a protein that takes the thyroid hormone to the blood and is also known as thyroxine binding globulin. When these hormones change on a less than normal basis, it can lead to difficulties in the thyroid reading during pregnancy.
- Nervous System: The thyroid gland is known to be especially important for the development of the baby's brain and nervous system. In fact, the thyroid hormone supplied by the mother in the first trimester will have a direct bearing on the development and growth of the foetus. This thyroid hormone travels through the mother's placenta. Once the first trimester has been completed, the baby will start to produce its own thyroid hormone.
- Enlarged Thyroid during Pregnancy: While the thyroid does enlarge slightly during one's pregnancy, it cannot really be detected merely with a physical examination. While a noticeable enlarged thyroid may point at the advent of thyroid disease, it will need to be properly evaluated as these problems are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. This is due to the high levels of thyroid in the bloodstream during pregnancy, as well as an increase in fatigue and the other symptoms that are most commonly associated with thyroid disease.
- Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: This condition during pregnancy can cause congestive heart failure as well as the risk of preeclampsia, which can cause the rise of blood pressure during pregnancy.
- Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy: This can cause anaemia due to a low count of red blood cells which prevents proper oxygen supply for the baby. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.