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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Hello Doctor, one of my friend her age is 28 years and she had a sex once with her ex boyfriend and now her marriage fixed she had a fear that her husband will come to know that she has lost her virginity. Is there any solution so that she can prove that she is virgin?
Me and my wife don't want a child now we had a sex on 29th may 2018 night 10: 45 pm and on 30th morning 9: 30 she took ipill contraception pill and just now on 9th she is having a pain in her breast and her nipples are tight on 10th she had a brown discharge from her vagina. Why is this happening can I know.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the condition when a woman's sex hormone levels get imbalanced. This can cause women to have irregular periods and may also have an impact on their fertility. Women suffering from PCOS also tend to grow small cysts in their ovaries which can also lead to severe health problems like diabetes and heart disease, if left untreated.
What causes PCOS?
The exact cause of PCOS is not known. However, the condition may be triggered by hormonal imbalances and genetic factors. Women are more susceptible to developing this condition if their mother or a female family member also has the condition. Excessive production of androgen, which is a male sex hormone, may also lead to this condition. Women suffering from PCOS tend to have high levels of androgen. The formation of eggs and their release during ovulation can be delayed by high levels of androgen. High androgen levels may result from excess insulin present in the blood. Poor lifestyle and irregular eating habits contribute to obesity which intern leads to increased insulin resistance and hence delayed ovulation and irregular cycles leading to infertility.
What are the symptoms of PCOS?
The type of symptom in case of PCOS varies from person to person. Since PCOS is characterized by low levels of sex hormones, this condition may lead to symptoms such as:
- Excessive hair growth on stomach, face, chest, toes and thumbs
- The breast size starts to shrink
- There is a change in voice, making it deeper
- There is excessive loss of hair from your scalp
- Sometimes the face is filled with acne and the skin turns oily
- There are fertility problems like having trouble in ovulating or recurring miscarriages
- Frequent depression or mood swings
- Facing breathings problems while sleeping
On examination, findings in women with PCOS may include the following:
- Virilizing signs
- Acanthosis nigricans
- Enlarged ovaries: May or may not be present; evaluate for an ovarian mass
Lifestyle modifications are considered first-line treatment for women with PCOS. Such changes include the following:
Pharmacologic treatments are reserved for so-called metabolic derangements, such as anovulation, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularities. First-line medical therapy usually consists of an oral contraceptive to induce regular menses.
If symptoms such as hirsutism are not sufficiently alleviated, an androgen-blocking agent may be added. First-line treatment for ovulation induction when fertility is desired are letrozole or clomiphene citrate. [2, 3, 5]
Surgical management of PCOS is aimed mainly at restoring ovulation. Various laparoscopic methods include the following:
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