Here are some effective types of contraception
Hello everyone I am Dr. Meenu Goyal, a consultant obstetrician gynecologist at Goyal medical center Vasant Vihar. Today we are here to discuss about Contraception.
Choosing an optimal birth control depends on a variety of factors like your lifestyle, your age and your requirement. That is whether you want to space your pregnancy or you want to delay your pregnancy or you have completed your family and you want to just wind up with the family planning issues. Now if you are a young girl and you don't want to think about the pregnancy in the near future you can easily use the birth Control pills. They are the best measure for you.
The newer alternatives are not easily available in India. But the birth control pills cannot be used in a breastfeeding mother because it interferes with the breast milk so at that time the injection depo provera is a good solution for the nursing mothers. As it also helps in delaying pregnancy intrauterine devices with or without hormones is also a good alternative for a long duration of delaying of pregnancy. In India people normally don't want to discuss about the contraceptive measures that is why it is not being commonly used also its surrounded by lots and lots of myths but if you choose it correctly and wisely it helps you a lot.
If you want to discuss about this issue you can visit your nearest gynecologist or you can meet me at the Goyal's Medical Center, Vasant Vihar. You can also chat with me or text me or make a video call with me at lybrate.com. Thank you.read more
Here are some postpartum tips for mothers
Good morning everybody. I am Dr. Meenu Goyal, consultant obstetrician and gynecologist at Goyal Medical Center, Vasant Vihar. Today we are here to discuss the postpartum issues. Bringing home a new child is one of the happiest moment in a woman's life but with that comes emotional and physical challenges. Physically she may feel weak, she may feel be having sore breasts or hemorrhoids or fecal incontinence or constipation or the stitch line side pain or she can even have a vaginal discharge or the weight gain issues. Emotionally she may be Feeling the baby blues, the postpartum depression and as regarding the partner she might be having some struggles with her intimate life. The husband might want to pick up from where they left before the baby's arrival but a woman would be struggling through and would be craving more for a good night sleep.
So we ask the ladies to take care of her certain things, drink plenty of water at least two to three liters of water in summers and at least eight to ten glasses in winters. Also they should be taking care of their sleep. They should have a good night sleep. They should expect vaginal discharge. Consult your doctor in case you have fever, you have a painful menstruation or you are having problems in Menstruation, you have any swelling redness or pain or any kind of a fouls smelling discharge from your stretch line or you have any new belly pain or you have any kind of swelling tenderness or swelling in the legs or you have any problems with defecation like you have constipation or in case of any dirty discharge or any red colored discharged from your nipples.
Don't worry in case of any problem you just consult a gynecologist or you can chat with me or text me or email me or you can connect me through lybrate.com or at my clinic at Goyal Medical Center, Vasant Vihar.read more
Here are some symptoms and causes of PCOS
Today we are here to discuss the most burning topic PCOS.
PCOS is the most common hormonal cause of female infertility. When a woman has PCOS she ultimately has the hormonal dysfunction which doesn't allow her ovaries to fully mature an egg. It's not that a woman with PCOS cannot become pregnant, it just takes longer. the majority of women with PCOS just can get pregnant naturally if they have a proper protocol or if they meet a health practitioner who is a best practitioner with the hormonal balances. Don't think that you are out of luck if just because you have got a diagnosis of PCOS.
The most common symptoms of which may be associated with PCOS are male pattern baldness, irregular or absent menstrual cycles or you can have a apple shaped body or you can have a male pattern baldness or you can have acne problem or you can have anxiety or depression or you can be struggling with your weight gain. So you don't need to be overweight to be diagnosed with PCOS. Just now discuss about the treatment part you have to practice regular exercise, practice stress management, try and lose weight. You need to bump up the antioxidants in your diet and follow the hormonal protocols. If you need to and also get your sugar levels tested just do remember that don't run after getting these goals overnight because that will be a stressful process and it will be counterproductive.
If you are suffering from such symptoms or you are struggling with your fertility issues you can visit your nearest gynecologist or you can visit me at my lybrate account at lybrate.com. You can chat with me, text me or video call me or you can visit me at my clinic at Goyal Medical Center at Vasant Vihar.read more
Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 44 years of experience on Lybrate.com. Find the best Gynaecologists online in Delhi. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
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Menopause is the time in a woman’s life at which she cannot procreate anymore. Side effects of pre-menopause, menopause and post menopause, shift incredibly from woman to woman. Nonetheless, normal side effects of menopause incorporate:
The majority of the side effects connected with menopause really occur during the pre-menopause stage. A few women experience menopause with no complications or disagreeable symptoms. However, others find menopausal side effects crippling and they usually happen during pre-menopause and go on for quite a long time. The symptoms that women experience are basically identified with decreased levels of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Side effects change generally due to the many impacts that these hormones have on the female body.
Your period may not be as regularly as it used to be. You may bleed heavier or lighter than usual, and at times experience spotting. Additionally, your period might be shorter or longer in time length. In case that you do miss your period, try to rule out pregnancy. In case you are not pregnant, a missed period could show the beginning of menopause. In case you start spotting after not having your period for twelve continuous months, try to converse with your specialist to discount any genuine conditions, for example, cancer.
Symptoms of untimely menopause are frequently the same as those seen by women experiencing common menopause and may include:
- Unpredictable or missed periods
- Periods that are heavier or lighter than normal
- Hot flashes (a sudden warmth that spreads over the abdominal area)
- These symptoms are an indication that the ovaries are delivering less estrogen.
- Vaginal dryness (the vagina may likewise get to be distinctly more dry and less adaptable)
- Bladder fractiousness and increased of loss of bladder control (incontinence)
- Emotional changes (crabbiness, mood swings, mellow stress)
- Dry skin, eyes, or mouth
- Diminished sex drive
Keeping in mind the symptoms recorded above, in case that you are less than forty years old and experience any of the accompanying conditions, you need to see your specialist to figure out if you are experiencing untimely menopause:
- You have experienced chemotherapy or radiation
- You or a relative has an immune system issue, for example, hypothyroidism, Graves' infection, or lupus
- You have unsuccessfully attempted to wind up distinctly pregnant for over a year
- Your mom or sister experienced untimely menopause
To analyze untimely menopause, your specialist will in all likelihood carry out a physical exam and extract blood to diagnose different conditions, for example, pregnancy and thyroid illness. He or she may likewise arrange a test to quantify your estradiol levels. Low levels of estradiol, a type of estrogen, can demonstrate that your ovaries are beginning to fall flat. At the point when estradiol levels are beneath thirty, it might show that you have early menopause. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomy
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
The female reproductive organ is an area of the human body where many microbial organisms inhabit together and it is a necessary requirement for its health. These organisms may include fungi and bacteria and play important roles individually in maintaining the pH levels (the acidic and alkaline balance) levels of the vagina. However, when one of these, especially the fungi go out of balance and begin to propagate, it results in a vaginal yeast infection.
A yeast infection or vaginal candidiasis is a fungal infection that causes extreme itchiness of the vulva (which is the opening of the vagina) and the further insides of the vagina as well. It may result in a white discharge from time to time and causes vaginal inflammation. Some of the other symptoms are:
- Pain in the vagina akin to a burning sensation while urinating or when having sex
- Rashes in the vagina
- General soreness and pain
- White odorless discharge, which is thick in consistency
- Colorless watery discharges can occur as well
- Swelling and redness near the vulva or the vagina in general
The type of fungi that causes vaginal yeast infections is the ‘candida fungus’. Usually, this fungus is present within the vagina, but is kept in check by the Lactobacillus bacteria. These are bacteria naturally present within the vagina and secrete acids, which keep the fungi in check. However, when the levels of bacteria are reduced, it will cause the levels of fungi to increase causing a yeast infection.
The below mentioned factors can aggravate the risks of this disease:
- Problems brought on by diabetes
- A compromised immune system
- Pregnancy may also disturb the balance
- Starting to use or stopping the use of oral contraceptive pills
- Hormone therapy
- Usage of antibiotics that may kill off lactobacillus bacteria within the vagina
Generally, yeast infections are not considered to be sexually transmitted, although yeast infection could be spread through sexual contact as well.
The primary treatment includes a course of anti fungal oral medication to lessen the levels of the fungi within your vagina. It could be supplemented with vaginal creams, which may reduce the itching and the inflammation. If you have recurrent infection multiple times within a year, then you may have to go for a longer course of treatment and correct the underlying conditions that may be causing it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Skin rashes are a regular problem in both men and women. These can be caused by a variety of factors, both internal and external to the body. However, rashes on the genitals and the groin area can be very problematic, painful and embarrassing. Some could be caused due to problems within the body while some could be contracted externally such as rashes caused by STDs (sexually transmitted diseases).
Types of groin rashes in women
Women tend to be affected by rashes as the genital area along with the innerwear tends to be a fertile breeding ground for microorganisms. Infections can also grow uninhibited if medications or appropriate precautions aren’t taken. Some of the common types of groin rashes in women along with their causes are mentioned below.
- Chaffing or intertrigo: This is one of the most common forms of rashes, which are both painful and can be unsightly as well; these look like inflamed spots. This is primarily caused by the rubbing of the inner thighs against each other.
- Jock itch: Although more commonly associated with men, Jock itch can affect women as well. Medically known as ‘tinea cruris’, jock itch occurs when the moisture from your sweat gets trapped within the folds or creases of skin in the groin area thus, encouraging fungi (dermatophyte fungi) to grow there. It is more common among obese people or if you happen to wear tight clothing during exercise. The rash will look like raised papules, which are red in color and quite itchy.
- Infections caused by the imbalance or proliferation of fungi such as yeast: Yeast infections caused by fungi candida usually occur when the pH (the alkaline to acidity) balance of the vagina is disrupted. This will not only result in vaginal discharge, itching pain and discomfort, but will also result in rashes around the vagina along with swelling.
- Contact rashes: Dermatitis may be transferred either through skin to skin contact or by using shared utensils and clothing items such as towels. Contact dermatitis or skin infections look like red rashes and can happen anywhere within the body, including the genitals and groin.
- Friction rashes: Some rashes occur as a result of adverse reactions to items of clothing rubbing against the skin such as jeans or using razors or the use of nylon thongs. These rashes occur due to the body reacting to these and look more like inflammation of the skin.
- Rashes caused by STIs and STDs: Certain rashes may develop on a woman’s groin as a manifestation of sexually transmitted diseases and infections. Some examples of these are Chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis and herpes; just to mention a few. These are usually accompanied by mild to severe pain and can only be cured after a proper consultation with the doctor.
Get to the doctor: Heat rashes, intertrigo and friction rashes usually go away by themselves. Vaginal yeast infections may require topical creams while other forms of bacterial infections can be treated by creams or oral antibiotics after proper consultation with a physician. If the pain is unusual and the rashes tend to persist along with other symptoms, you should immediately visit your doctor for further analysis and treatment. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is characterized by an infection in the vagina. The vagina consists of both good and bad bacteria which remain in a state of balance. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the balance of bacteria in the vagina gets disrupted. The count of bad bacteria in the vagina tends to increase as compared to the count of good bacteria.
It occurs when the balance of bacteria in the vagina is upset. There are certain factors that may make you prone to this disorder; some of them are:
Douching: Douching is a process of cleaning the vagina with water or cleansing agents. This process leads to an imbalance in the amount of good and bad bacteria in the vagina.
Multiple Sex Partners: Women who have multiple sex partners are at an increased risk of getting affected by bacterial vaginosis.
Lack of Good Bacteria in the Vagina.
The usual symptom of this disorder is a foul smelling vaginal discharge. The color of the discharge may be yellow or gray. The foul smell emanating from the vagina may intensify post coitus.
Given below are the treatments for this disorder –
Clindamycin: Clindamycin is a cream that helps treat bacterial vaginosis.
Metronidazole: This medication may be either administered orally or applied in the form of gel. It is advised to stay away from alcohol during the course of this treatment, as it reduces the efficacy.
Tinidazole: This is an oral medication administered to treat bacterial vaginosis. Akin to metronidazole, it is advised to avoid alcohol during the course of this treatment.
Following certain tips can help prevent bacterial vaginosis.
Avoid Douching: Douching can upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina; hence it is best to avoid it entirely.
Do not use scented toiletries: Using scented toiletries is not good for the vagina as it can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the vagina.
People who suffer from Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections.
Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus, which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion.
Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman have to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment.
- Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.
- Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control, but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
- Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer in HIV positive women.
- Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women.
Gestational trophoblastic disease is a rare condition. It only happens when trophoblast cells abnormally grow inside the uterus. Also, this only happens after conception. These cells surround the egg which has been fertilized in the uterus. It is also worth note that the trophoblast cells usually connect the fertilized eggs to the uterus' walls and also form a part of the placenta. It is only when there is a tumor that this disease is diagnosed. There are many forms of gestational trophoblastic disease. Here they are:
- Complete hydatidiform moles
- Partial hydatidiform moles
- Invasive moles
- Placental-site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT)
- Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT)
It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far the cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.
Testing for cancer:
- Chest X-ray: This is simply an X-ray of the chest.
- MRI: An MRI is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.
- CT scan: This is similar to an X-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure. There are several ways to treat it depending on how far the cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:
- Surgery: Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.
- Chemotherapy: This is a less-ideal option but has to be taken if the mole has become cancerous.