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What is the beta2 test for pregnancy lady? What is importance of beta2 Igg and Igm positive problem.
Diabetic nephropathy refers to diabetic kidney disease (nehpro=kidneys, pathy=disease). In 2011, diabetes caused nearly 44% of kidney failure cases. This makes diabetic kidney disease the number one complication of diabetes; one that is likely to affect almost every diabetic to some extent. In nearly half the cases of kidney disease, it could lead to kidney failure as well.
Diabetes and kidneys:
The kidneys filter nearly 200 quarts of our blood every day. Diabetes is a disease of excess sugar in our blood. Read these two sentences together and the link between diabetes and kidneys becomes obvious!
Every single day of our lives, the kidneys perform these functions:
Remove waste from our body (in the form of urine) retain whatever proteins, vitamins and other nutrients we can still usebalance the fluids in the bodyhelp maintain proper blood pressure by managing potassium and calcium levelskeep bones healthyhelp make red blood cells.
Diabetes damages the kidneys and the urinary system in three main ways:
Damage to blood vessels in the kidneys: too much sugar damages the filters in the kidneysdamage to nerves: fine nerves in the hands, feet, etc. Are corroded by the extra sugar in the blooddamage to the urinary tract: nerves run from our bladder to our brain and let us know when the bladder is full and we need to go. Damage to these nerves could mean we don’t react when our bladder is full. Result: extra pressure on the kidneys. Retained urine can also allow urinary tract infections to grow and migrate back to the kidneys.
Diabetes damage to blood vessels inside kidneys: The filtering units of the kidneys are called glomerules. They have tiny blood vessels that are easily clogged and damaged by excess sugar in our blood. Damage to these vessels also causes albumin, a kind of protein to leak via the urine. Ideally, albumin should be retained in the body. It is a condition called microalbuminuria in the early stages and albuminuria in the later stages.
Diabetes damage to nerves: Diabetes can also damage nerves everywhere in the body, a condition that is called diabetic neuropathy. When this happens in our hands and feet, we lose sensation there or begin to feel ‘pins and needles’. Nerves also convey messages from the brain to the urinary bladder and back. They inform the brain when our bladder is full. However, when these nerves are damaged by excess blood sugar, the brain does not realize when the bladder is full. The pressure from a full bladder can damage our kidneys over time.
Diabetes damage to urinary tract damage: When urine is retained in the bladder for long, the risk of bacterial infections increases. Bacteria also thrive on sugar, so diabetes increases infection risk. These infections usually stay limited to the urinary bladder. However, if they last for long, they may migrate to the kidneys and damage them too.
Consider all this in an organ that is working 24×7. Now you see why diabetic kidney failure is such a real danger for diabetics over the long term.
Diabetic kidney failure: early stages and symptoms
Diabetic kidney failure is a very real threat. It is a slow but relentless process that is divided into five stages of deterioration. The last stage called diabetic kidney failure or end stage renal disease (esrd)
The 5 stages leading to diabetic kidney failure are:
Stage 1: Kidney damage with normal gfr (90 or more). Gfr or glomuler filtration rate is the most widely accepted measure of kidney function. There are often no symptoms at this stage.
Stage 2: Kidney damage with mild decrease in gfr (60 to 89). Again, most patients feel no specific symptoms till this point.
Stage 3: Moderate decrease in gfr (30 to 59). At this stage, you may be losing too much protein, calcium and other nutrients. Some patients may feel breathless (due to loss of iron and anemia). Some puffiness and water retention could also be visible in the body. Urine may turn brown in colour. Some patients feel back pain too.
Stage 4: Severe reduction in gfr (15 to 29). All of the symptoms of stage 3 will are felt even more acutely now. Some blood may be seen in the urine. Breathlessness and swelling are usually quite severe. The stage at which you will need to finalize dialysis or kidney transplant options
Stage 5: Kidney failure (gfr less than 15). The kidneys give up at this stage. You will need dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Symptoms of kidney disease in diabetic patients
• Frequent urination, especially at night
• Blood or other dark discharge in the urine
• Swelling in the ankles
• Cramps in the calf muscles of the legs
• Feeling sick, feeling like throwing up, first thing in the morning
• Feeling weak, tired, breathless, looking pale
• Unexplained and consistent high blood pressure
• Unexplained urge to itch
• Lab tests: protein or albumin in the urine
• Lab tests: higher than normal levels of creatinine or bun in the blood
Diabetes and kidneys: how to protect yourself
First, you doctor needs to be sure that the underlying diabetes is the main cause of the kidney damage. Once this is done, the standard approach is to keep the kidneys working well for as long as possible. You doctor will likely add the hypertension-reducing medications called angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors to your regimen. This is because ace inhibitors have been shown to help slow the loss of kidney function.
Here’s what diabetics can do to protect themselves from kidney damage:
• Control your blood sugar better. Don’t rely only on medications, but make changes to diet and lifestyle too. Many doctors endorse intermittent fasting to reverse diabetes today.
• Control high blood pressure. Take prescribed medicines on time. Daily moderate exercise and stress management techniques like meditation can help too.
• Watch out for and get timely treatment for urinary tract infections
• Don’t take medications like over-the-counter pain medications without telling your doctor. These may damage the kidneys, especially if you’re already at risk.
• Watch out for and take steps to prevent diabetic neuropathy. Damaged urinary tract nerves can lead to urinary retention and kidney damage. Some drugs like& metformin can contribute to diabetic nerve damage and supplements like vitamin b12 (as part of a good vitamin b complex) and alpha lipoic acid can help prevent this. Be aware and act soon.
• For people with diabetes, kidney screening once a year is mandatory. This can help to detect any protein or other substances that shouldn’t normally be in the urine.
• Use the right dietary supplements to protect your kidneys from diabetes damage.
Diabetic nephropathy: dietary supplements that help
Vitamin c (200mg- 1250mg per day)
Vitamin c is known to reduce excretion of urinary albumin. This suggests it may slow progression of diabetic nephropathy.
In a study published in the scientific journal nephron, researchers found that supplementation with vitamin c (also known as ascorbic acid or aa) reduced micro albumin loss in diabetic patients. The researchers concluded that “dietary supplementation of aa in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications”
Vitamin e (100iu-680iu per day)
Studies have found that vitamin e, when administered along with vitamin c, has the ability to reduce urinary albumin excretion. In the first study, published in the journal diabetes care, one groups was given just vitamin e and vitamin c. A second group received these and also the minerals magnesium and zinc. Both groups showed improved kidney function on lab parameters. In the second study, published in the diabetic medicine journal, type 2 diabetics took 1250mg of vitamin c plus 680 iu of vitamin e daily. In four weeks, their albumin excretion rate or aer was 19% lower compared to the placebo group.
Alpha lipoic acid (600mg per day).
Alpha lipoic acid (ala) is found in spinach, broccoli and potatoes and is a known anti-oxidant. A research study in 2001 set out to see if ala could help patients with diabetic kidney damage. The study group received 600 mg of alpha lipoic acid as a supplement. Another group received no supplement. The first group was able to maintain the same rate of urinary albumin loss, while the control group, saw their albumin loss worsen during the same period. Since alpha lipoic acid helps diabetics fight diabetic nerve damage too, it may well be a useful addition to all diabetics.
Everything we eat, including dietary supplements, has to be processed by the kidneys at some point of time. So do involve your doctor in your choice of dietary supplements if you have diabetic kidney disease.
Just remember: diabetic nephropathy or kidney damage is a result of the underlying diabetes. M. D. S are today saying that type 2 diabetes is reversible, through dietary and lifestyle changes. The better your control over the underlying blood sugar levels, the fewer the complications of diabetes. There are dietary supplements that are proven to help you improve blood sugar control, often without the side effects of prescription medications.type diabetes
Hello doctor. My friend has white discharge more for past two days. Whats the reason and what should she do to recover from that. She is unmarried.
Infertility is a bigger issue than it was a couple of decades ago, and it is only going to get worse. The decreasing sperm count and quality are the main contributors for infertility. This has happened due to the changing lifestyle with lack of physical activity, increased stress, relationship issues, a greater amount of pollutants, and digital exposure. These are some of the common issues, and each couple presents a unique case.
There is, however, good news in that there are simple, effective ways to improve sperm count and density, which in turn can help cure infertility.
- Smoking: Nicotine harms the body in multiple ways and lowering sperm count is one of the significant ones. For most men going to infertility clinics, stopping smoking is one of the first prescribed remedies. It helps sex drive, boosts sperm count, improves performance, and leaves the couple happy.
Reduce Chemical Exposure: There are plastics all around us. These plastics contain BPA and phthalates which have been shown to reduce sperm count. Plastics have entered all areas of life in the last 40 to 50 years, and it is during the same time that sperm count has reduced by (hold your breath) 50%!!!
Reduce Plastic Use: Reduce plastic use in all forms – from sex toys to plastic food storage to water containers. Chemicals also need to be reduced in terms of eating foods where pesticides would be used. Another source of chemicals is the shampoos, soaps, deodorants, cosmetics, and other toiletries. Try organic products as much as possible. These have an adverse effect on the sperm count.
Water: Avoid chlorine exposure – be it in tap water, bleach or other products. Hydrogen peroxide is a safer option.
- Diet: Reduce caffeine intake. Avoid grilled foods. Increase fresh fruits and vegetable intake. Eat whole grains. Avoid canned and packaged foods. Avoid processed and half-cooked foods. Reduce refined carbohydrates. If required, talk to a doctor and get vitamin C and zinc supplements. These are essential for the formation of testosterone hormone and can play a role in improving sperm count.
Exercise: A regular exercise of about 30 minutes daily is highly beneficial in improving overall circulation and increasing sperm count. A word of caution, though – over-exercise can lead to reduced sperm counts and infertility in males.
Stress Management: Another major reason for infertility, reduced sex drive, reduced sperm count, and poor sexual performance is stress. Be it exercise or music, meditation or cooking, identify what works to keep you calm and do it.
Check your Medical Kit: There could be some medicines which may be helping you curing one disease but could be leading to infertility. Talk to a doctor and if there is a culprit, switch to a safer drug.
Hi, How to make bone stronger and always feel no energy, get a back pain and foot pain during periods.
When the chances of getting pregnant are more? What to do to avoid pregnancy if discharge is done inside?
One my friend had a self wanted abortion in Jan and she regret for a her decision and decided to get pregnant again. Then she had miscarriage at 6 weeks in april. She is planning to take a break of 2 to 3 months then try again. From past 20 days she started taking calcium tablet in afternoon, iron and folic acid tablet in nite. I studied in some sites saying intake of more iron will increase the chance of miscarriage. Is this true? She has already started what can be done now? She shud stop taking iron tablet now? And try after 3 months? Pls help.
Hello Doctor, I am trying for baby but my periods are not regular. I already taken medication in noida. But nothing work out. Kindly advice how I can make my period regular. Right now I am taking Fol- xt and Normoz since may.
1. It keeps your immune system at great -- sexually active people take fewer sick days. People who have sex have higher levels of what defends your body against germs, viruses, and other intruders. Studies found that college students who had sex once or twice a week had higher levels of certain antibody compared to students who had sex less often.
You should still do all the other things that make your immune system happy, such as:
Eat right- balance diet.
Stay active - do morning workouts.
Get enough sleep- at least 6-8 hours.
Always use a condom if you don't know both of your std statuses.
2. It boosts your libido -- having sex will make sex better and will improve your libido. For women, having sex ups vaginal lubrication, blood flow, and elasticity, she says, all of which make sex feel better and help you crave more of it.
3. It improves women's bladder control -- a strong pelvic floor is important for avoiding&nbsp;incontinence, something that will affect about 30% of women at some point in their lives.
Good sex is like a workout for your pelvic floor muscles. When you have an orgasm, it causes contractions in those muscles, which strengthens them.
4. Can be counted as an exercise -- sex is a really great form of exercise. It won't replace the treadmill, but it counts for something.
Sex uses about five calories per minute, four more calories than watching tv. It gives you a one-two punch: it bumps up your heart rate and uses various muscles.
So get busy! you may even want to clear your schedule to make time for it on a regular basis. Like with exercise, consistency helps maximize the benefits.
5. It lowers your blood pressure -- research suggests a link between sex and lower blood pressure. There have been many studies - one landmark study found that sexual intercourse specifically (not masturbation) lowered systolic blood pressure. That's the first number on your blood pressure test.
6. Can lower heart attack risk -- a good sex life is good for your heart. Besides being a great way to raise your heart rate, sex helps keep your estrogen and testosterone levels in balance. When either one of those is low you begin to get lots of problems, like osteoporosis and even heart disease.
Having sex more often may help. During one study, men who had sex at least twice a week were half as likely to die of heart disease as men who had sex rarely.
7. As a pain-reducer -- before you reach for an aspirin, try for an orgasm. Orgasm can block pain -- it releases a hormone that helps raise your pain threshold.
Stimulation without orgasm can also do the trick. It has been found that vaginal stimulation can block chronic back and leg pain, and many women have genital self-stimulation can reduce menstrual cramps, arthritic pain, and in some cases even headache.
8. Reduces the chances of prostate cancer -- men who ejaculated frequently (at least 21 times a month) were less likely to get prostate cancer. You don't need a partner to reap this benefit: sexual intercourse, nocturnal emission, and masturbation were all part of the equation.
However it is still not clear that sex was the only reason that mattered in this aspect. As lot of factors affect cancer risk. But more sex won't hurt it rather.
9. It improves sleep -- you may nod off more quickly after sex, and for good reason. After orgasm, the hormone prolactin is released, which is responsible for the feelings of relaxation and sleepiness.
10. Stress reliever -- being close to your partner can soothe stress and anxiety. Touching and hugging can release your body's natural feel-good hormone. sexual arousal releases a brain chemical that revs up your brain's pleasure and reward system.
Sex and intimacy can boost your self-esteem and happiness, too.
It's not only a prescription for a healthy life, but a happy one.