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I'm 22years old. I'm suffering from stammering. I am not a born stammer. This problem is from childhood when I tried to used to copy one of my friend. This problem has now become a huge trouble for me. I cannot communicate with people properly. When I'm in tension my stammering level goes to its pick. Im unable to face any interview. I know its moreover a mental problem than physical. But I don't know how to come over with this problem. Please help me.
I am 31 years old female my skin looking very dark now a days which day cream can I use regularly. please give me suggestion to developed my skin whitening.
Whether soda contains caffeine ? Whether soda is more dangerous than other soft drinks ?Please tell.
My eye was paining once I go to the doctor but not find a perfect check up what can I do the doctor says that I do not neet gogle.
My name is giri reddy, age 30, male iam suffering piles from last one week hevy pain and bleeding, please suggest me good treatment.
I'm 20 years old .studying mbbs. I have severe back pain which comes and goes. Wen it comes I have to lie on a flat surface and also I must apply volini spray only den it goes. I started to get the pain only after suffering from dengue in 2012. What must I do for not getting pain. please do not give drugs. Thk you Dr. REGARDS.
Sir my back of the head is some Times paining. I am feeling very pain at that time How can I cure from my head pain. Please suggest me.
My friend is suffering from stomach problem. He has a stone in his kidney. How to over come this situation?
My father age is 60 years has acute pian in both knees. Consulted many doctors in these five years but no shy of relief. Please suggest the proper advice. Thanks.
Ideally, surgical incisions are primarily designed to allow easy access to the desired areas in addition to possibilities of extension, if required. Further, they should be designed to split muscles rather than cut them, with minimal scarring along with the aim of boosting regenerative and healing qualities.
Incisions can be classified under these three groups; Vertical, Transverse and Oblique incisions.
- Vertical incision
1. Midline incision: Almost all abdominal incisions can be performed using this technique. Starting from the midline of the abdomen, it can extend all the way down to the umbilicus.
a) Minimal blood loss
b) Minimal nerve injury
c) Minimal muscle injury
a) Midline scar
2. Paramedian incision: This technique provides more laterality to midline incisions, allowing access to such lateral organs such as spleen, kidney and adrenals.
a) Easy access to lateral structures
b) Closure between incisions in anterior and posterior sheath is more secure
c) Rectus muscle remains undivided
a) More time consuming
b) Difficulty in extension
c) Can result in atrophy of the muscle
3. Mayo-Robson incision: This incision is typically a paramedian incision, but which bend towards the xiphoid process and consequently allows for a larger and wider opening.
- Transverse incision
1. Transverse incision: This type of incision is made just above the umbilicus, and can dissect either one of the rectal muscles.
a) Least amount of pain and damage
b) Muscular segments can be reattached
c) Easier access to upper GI structures
a) Limited lateral access
b) Higher risk of wound infections
2. Subcostal incision: Also referred to as the Kocher subcostal incision, this type of incision starts from the midline and runs parallel to the costal margin. A double Kocher incision is known as a rooftop of Chevron incision and allows for access to the esophagus, kidney, stomach and liver. The Mercedes incision is yet another variant, characterized by a vertical incision from the rooftop incision to form the shape of a Mercedes sign.
a) Heals faster
b) Less risk of post-operative complications
a) Lengthy and time-consuming
- Oblique incisions
They are also known as Thoracoabdominal incisions, these incisions may either be situated in the RUQ or LUQ. They provide entry to the liver, lungs and spleen, as well as to the stomach and esophagus.
- Laparoscopic incision
This technique comprises of tiny cuts in the skin that allow laparoscopic tools and instrument access into the abdominal cavity
Related Tip: "Caring For Your Incision After Surgery?"