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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
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My son is 3 years old. His hb is 7. 7. Last 6 months ago there was d same problem. and most important thing is that whatever we eat means green veg. and pulses. We give him. We don' t take fast food. What should I do
Puberty results from activation of gonads (testes in boys/ ovaries in girls) by pituitary hormones LH and FSH. Activated gonads produce sexual hormones (testosterone in boys and estrogen in girls ) which are responsible for gender specific physical changes at puberty along with behaviour changes. Testosterone in boys is responsible for hair growth over pubic area and face with maturation of genital organs, breaking of voice, development of muscular and skeletal system. Similarly, estrogen in girls is responsible for breast development, maturation of genital organs with feminisation of body. Bone maturation with rapid height gain is seen at puberty both in boys and girls. Various systemic and hormonal disorders can result in either late or early puberty.
LATE PUBERTY -
Most of the boys show signs of puberty latest by age of 14 years and most girls start showing signs of puberty latest by age of 13 years. The earliest sign of puberty in boys is enlargement of testes and in girls is height spurt/breast development. When boys older than 14 years and girls older than 13 years don't have any signs of puberty it is called delayed puberty.
CAUSES OF DELAYED PUBERTY -
- Constitutional delay is most common cause of delayed puberty. The constitutional delay means child is not having any illness and he is going to develop puberty spontaneously at later age. But diagnosis of this condition can be made only after physical examination and investigations so that other causes of delayed puberty are ruled out.
- Functional hypogonadotropic Hypopogonadism - Delayed but spontaneous puberty develops. This condition can be seen in systemic illnesses like chronic infections, poor nutritional status etc.
- Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism - Disorders of pituitary gland result in low LH and FSH so that testes/ovaries are not stimulated and sex hormone is not produced. This can be caused by various genetic disorders, brain tumours, head injury, brain radiation etc.
- Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism - In this scenario, LH and FSH levels are normal but gonadal are not able to produce sex hormones resulting in delayed puberty.
CONSEQUENCES OF DELAYED PUBERTY -
The absence of age specific pubertal changes cause anxiety and distress in children and their parents. These children may develop low self-esteem and are teased by their peers. Along with the poor development of physical signs of puberty, fertility is also affected in hypogonadism. And most importantly, delayed puberty can be the symptom of serious underlying illness like intracranial tumours etc. These children deserve medical attention to get best results.
Serum testosterone/estradiol with LH and FSH is done to find out where is defect i.e. whether at the level of pituitary gland or at the level of testes/ovaries. Further investigations depend on levels LH, FSH, estradiol/testosterone. Other useful investigations include prolactin, T4, TSH, ray hand for bone age, ultrasound pelvis, MRI pituitary gland etc.
After diagnosis is established, Testosterone/estrogen replacement should be started to boys older than 14 year and girls older than 13 years respectively. Hormone replacement is very effective and usually safe. In adulthood those with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be treated with LH and FSH to produce sperms/ eggs so that they can achieve fertility. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
Sir, My son is suffering from fever. Blood test carried out TLC. 17000. Age three year six month. Fever 103. Please advice.
My child is suffering from fever. On the first day, he is having 102 Fahrenheit and now i. E. After three days - 101 Fahrenheit. He is 15 years old. His eyes are red. When he eats spicy food, he is having motions too. Would you consult me tablets.
He always eats what is on the floor. Anything which we give he puts in the mouth. Is this a common problem. Or else my child has some problem. What is the solution for it? Any tonic.
How can we increase the weight of 7 days old baby boy at the time of delivery he is 2.5 kg but due to some fever and jaundice his weight reduced to 2 kg then how will we increase his weight.
My daughter is 8 years old and reads in class 2, her problem is se cannot remember her lessons. Does this have any remedy.
Sir/Mam I have 2 month old baby. I what to know about wheezing symptoms for 2 month baby. My baby makes sound from nose while feeding and sleeping. please tell me quickly.
My 8 months old baby want to be held always and very clingy and fussy most of the time don't show interest in toys more than 10 mins and love to be outdoor got examined with doctors all says he is perfectly normal but I am worried.
Teaching children how to get their personal needs met and to help around the house is an important and integral part of growing up. It helps them to become independent and also help others. They learn to appreciate dignity of work and cooperation, responsibility contribution and collaboration with co workers and spouses as they become adults. These tasks are as much for boys as for girls. The chores suggested below are a rough guideline of age appropriate jobs for children. Keep in mind that kids are different both developmentally and physically. Some children may be able to do more than others. So here goes:
2-4 year olds: help make bed, put away toys, fetch diapers and plastic bottles, put dirty clothes in bucket, help feed the pets. All tasks would need adult supervision.
4-7 year olds: set the table, help with bed making, watering the plants, feeding pets, start putting on own clothes, bathing, clean up messes, put away toys, put away clothes, carry light bags. Adult supervision would be required as child is learning new skills.
8-10 year olds: water plants, make bed, clean up room, clear the table, do small dishes, do small dusting around the house, cooking basic food like eggs, maggi, milk, keep the garbage out, fold clothes, basic sweeping and swabbing of the floor. Please note that adult supervision would be needed for new tasks.
11 year olds and older children: clean bathroom, clean kitchen, cooking simple to complex dishes, wash dishes, wash clothes, dusting.
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