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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I am 26 years old, married for 5 years but not able to conceive it. Had may uterus scanned 2 days back, results are: normal TSH levels (2.8) and all other things are normal. But ovary size is low (10mm * 10mm) and multiple small follicles are seen in both ovaries.
I am 29 years old I am suffering from breast pain and abdominal pain with back pain and white discharge. These symptoms are of which disease .What should I do ?Which medicine is good?
Hey How much time to get pregnant after stopping oral contraceptive pills Its already 2 months to stop it and m.not pregnant yet Pills are yamini tablets 21 days 7 days off Any advice.
I'm 25 years old female I have irregular periods on the of march 20 2015 I got sudden pain in S5 /L 4 From that I took ortho tablet so from April I'm getting periods 35 days once now this month its 47 the day till now I dint get my periods kindly tell what should I do?
With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier.
Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer:
- The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded.
- Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- Breast or nipple pain
- Nipple retraction (turning inward)
- Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
- Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer:
- Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography.
- Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
- For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered.
Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are:
- Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue.
- Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further.
- Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance.
Cervical cancer ( Carcinoma Cervix)
Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix, which is the opening of the uterus and connects the uterus to the vagina. Indian women in particular are susceptible to cervical cancer as more than 1/3rd of the cervical cancer related deaths in the entire world happens here in India, which is about 74000 deaths annually. The leading cause for cervical cancer is HPV or Human Papillomavirus infection, which if left untreated and unchecked will result in cancer.
Alarming Signs of Cervical Carcinoma:
- Early lesions and precancerous lesions have no symptoms
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse, bleeding after menopause, bleeding and spotting between periods or longer/heavier periods
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Pelvic pain
- Late stage disease may cause lower extremity swelling, problem with urine and/or stool passage
- Cervical cancer screening is most effective screening programme of any cancer disease resulting in significant decrease in mortality from carcinoma cervix
- United state preventive services task force (USPSTF) recommend cervical cancer screening starting at age 21 yrs.
- Between age 21-30 years cytology recommended at 3 year interval and HPV testing is not recommended.
- Between 30-65 years cytology every 3 year or cytology +HPV testing every 5 year.
- If previously adequately screened screening can be discontinued after 65 years.
- Women with prior total hysterectomy and no CIN can discontinue screening.
Apart from breast and cervical cancers, certain other cancers have also reported an alarming increase such as:-
Ovarian cancer (Carcinoma Ovary)
Starting in the ovaries, diagnosis of this type of cancer is usually delayed due to lack of visible symptoms in the initial stages. About 85% to 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Epithelial ovarian cancers tend to spread to the lining and organs of the pelvis and abdomen (belly) first. This may lead to the buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (called ascites). As it advances, it may spread to the lung and liver, or, rarely, to the brain, bones, or skin. The main treatments for ovarian cancer are surgery and chemotherapy.
Cancer of the endometrium (Carcinoma Endometrium)
Endometrium is the lining of the uterine wall and has along with ovarian, uterine and cervical cancer is also increasing in occurrences throughout India and the world.
The grade of an endometrial cancer is based on how much the cancer forms glands that look similar to those found in normal, healthy endometrium.
- Grade 1 tumors have 95% or more of the cancerous tissue forming glands.
- Grade 2 tumors have between 50% and 94% of the cancerous tissue forming glands.
- Grade 3 tumors have less than half of the cancerous tissue forming glands. Grade 3 cancers tend to be aggressive and have a poorer outlook than lower-grade cancers.
Cervical cancer along with Ovarian, uterine and endometrial cancer can be treated using the following methods:
Surgery: Radical Hysterectomy primarily preferred option for early stage disease. Both open and minimal invasive approaches are suitable.
- For precancer high-grade lesion conisation is also an option for compliant patient.
- In young suitable patient willing for childbearing trachelectomy is also possible in a very early lesion.
- Depending on risk factors after surgery adjuvant treatment may be advised.
Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer
The two types of highly targeted radiation treatments are combined with chemotherapy to treat advanced-stage cervical cancer.
The radiation oncologists deliver high radiation doses to cancerous cells in the cervix, while sparing healthy tissue. By focusing the radiation directly on the tumor, these therapies are designed to reduce the risk of common gastrointestinal and sexual function side effects associated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer.
The two types of radiation treatment for patients with cervical cancer are:
- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT): Delivers high doses of radiation to cervical cancer cells from outside the body, using a variety of machine-based technologies.
- High-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy (internal radiation): Delivers high doses of radiation from implants placed close to, or inside, the tumor(s) in the cervix.
Certain prevention techniques that would be advisable to detect cancer in its early stages would be,
- Regular Pap smear tests for cervical cancer
- Taking vaccines for cervical cancer
- Regular mammograms and checkups for breast cancer
- Changing lifestyles to reduce stress
- Changes in diet to reduce risks
- Leading a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
Though im ovulating its kind off very late ovulation like d 25th or 26th day. I went to my doc yest and she said wel try ths mnth with tablets so has put me on ova shield D S and Progynova wil ths help me conceive in 1 cycle?
Light periods refer to menstrual periods that have very light flow and are characterized by a lesser number of days than usual. Although the menstrual cycles vary from a woman to another, the duration for a normal period is around every 28 days. Each period lasts for approximately four to seven days. The amount of blood loss in a normal period is around 20 ml to 80 ml. However, loss of blood below 20 ml can be considered as light periods.
The causes of light periods can vary for different woman. Some of them are:
- An imbalance in hormone levels in the body like PCOD (polycystic ovarian disease).
- Light periods are most common in women who are approaching menopause. This is because, at this time, women tend to produce less estrogen, a hormone responsible for regulating menstrual periods.
- Light periods can be common in girls who have just started to menstruate.
- Excessive bouts of exercise, a thyroid condition or an eating disorder can be also responsible for light periods in women.
- Women who use hormonal or oral contraceptives may also have a chance of experiencing light periods.
- An important cause of scanty menses is implantation bleeding. That means sometimes, despite being pregnant, little amount of bleeding can happen at the expected time of menses in the first three months of Pregnancy. So it's important to rule out pregnancy at the earliest.
Certain symptoms usually follow light periods. These symptoms vary according to the underlying causes of this condition.
Some of the common symptoms which accompany light periods are:
- Abdominal pain
- Frequent infections, namely yeast and other fungal infections
- Painful sexual intercourse
- Missed periods
In some cases, light periods might turn out to be a sign of a fatal condition that should be immediately administered to. An example of such would be an ectopic pregnancy, which can cause light or heavy bleeding. Although light periods are rarely due to serious diseases, neglect can lead to heightened complications and irreversible damage.
Some of the complications can are:
- Serious discomfort and pain
- Difficulty in conception or infertility
- Osteoporosis and osteopenia
Related Tip: All About Irregular Periods - Their Types and Causes