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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Pulmonary hypertension mainly occurs due to narrowing of the arteries of the lungs as a result of which the flow of blood is restricted. In this kind of condition, blood fails to carry oxygen to your heart and thus your heart gets adversely affected. The blood pressure of your body will get increased to a great extent if this situation remains untreated, thus leading to bdreadful consequenses, specifically situation like heart failure, serious pulmonary diseases, blood clots in lungs and congenial heart defects, etc.
There are certain forms of pulmonary hypertension, which are serious in nature and worsen with time, so much so that they are even fatal at times. It also includes forms which are non curable in nature, however, in order to improve the quality of life, symptoms can be reduced with proper treatment. The treatment for pulmonary hypertension is often complex and it takes some time to find the most appropriate treatment and requires extensive follow-up care. Your doctor might also need to change your treatment if it's no longer effective. However, when pulmonary hypertension is caused by another condition, your doctor will treat the underlying cause whenever possible.
Common Treatments for pulmonary hypertension:
- Blood vessel dilators (vasodilators): Vasodilators open narrowed blood vessels. They are one of the most commonly prescribed vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension is epoprostenol (Flolan, Veletri). The drawback to epoprostenol is that the effect lasts only for few minutes. This drug is continuously injected through an intravenous (IV) catheter via a small pump that you wear in a pack on your belt or shoulder.
- Ventavis: Another form of the drug, iloprost (Ventavis), can be inhaled six to nine times a day through a nebulizer, a machine that vaporizes your medication. Because it's inhaled, it goes directly to the lungs.
- Treprostinil (Tyvaso, Remodulin, Orenitram): It is another form of the drug, which can be given four times a day and can be inhaled or can be taken as an oral medication and can also be administered through injection.
- Endothelin receptor antagonists: These medications reverse the effect of endothelin, a substance in the walls of blood vessels that causes them to narrow. These drugs may improve your energy level and symptoms. However, these drugs shouldn't be taken if you're pregnant. Also, these drugs can damage your liver and you may need monthly liver monitoring.
- Sildenafil and tadalafil: Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat pulmonary hypertension. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.
- High-dose calcium channel blockers: These drugs help relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. They include medications, such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine (Procardia, others). Although calcium channel blockers can be effective, only a small number of people with pulmonary hypertension respond to them.
- Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulator: Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulators (Adempas) interact with nitric oxide and help relax the pulmonary arteries and lower the pressure within the arteries. These medications should not be taken if you're pregnant. They can sometimes cause dizziness or nausea.
- Anticoagulants: Your doctor is likely to prescribe the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to help prevent the formation of blood clots within the small pulmonary arteries. Because anticoagulants prevent normal blood coagulation, they increase your risk of bleeding complications. Take warfarin exactly as prescribed, because warfarin can cause severe side effects if taken incorrectly. If you're taking warfarin, your doctor will ask you to have periodic blood tests to check how well the drug is working. Many other drugs, herbal supplements and foods can interact with warfarin, so be sure your doctor knows all of the medications you're taking.
- Digoxin: Digoxin (Lanoxin) can help the heart beat stronger and pump more blood. It can help control the heart rate if you experience arrhythmias.
- Diuretics: Commonly known as water pills, these medications help eliminate excess fluid from your body. This reduces the amount of work your heart has to do. They may also be used to limit fluid buildup in your lungs.
- Oxygen: Your doctor might suggest that you sometimes breathe pure oxygen, a treatment known as oxygen therapy, to help treat pulmonary hypertension, especially if you live at a high altitude or have sleep apnea. Some people who have pulmonary hypertension eventually require continuous oxygen therapy.
- Atrial Septostomy: If medications don't control your pulmonary hypertension, this open heart surgery might be an option. In an atrial septostomy, a surgeon will create an opening between the upper left and right chambers of your heart (atria) to relieve the pressure on the right side of your heart.
- Lung Transplantation: In some cases, a lung or heart lung transplant might be an option, especially for younger people who have idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
- The complications need to be reduced by taking proper health care. Healthy diet needs to be taken regularly along with proper medications. Smoking should be stopped and exercising sessions should be attended daily without any fail
- Overweight or obesity needs to be controlled properly for reducing the complications. Specialized caring strategies need to be maintained for avoiding severe kinds of health complications that are quite annoying. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.
Hi, main 6 month running pregnant hu, mujhe bhtt jyada acidity ho rahi h, jo pet se lekar gale tak hoti h, pls koi fast relief bataiye jisse ye door ho jaye.
I am 5th months preganant. I had Level 2 scan . Report said that my baby is fine. The placenta is anterior, grade 1, coverin os.The placental myometrial interface appears normal.The three vessel cord is seen The cord insertion is normal. Please guide me as i am very tensed.
Traditional open surgery requires an 8-10 cm incision to expose the surgical area of the abdomen which needs to be operated. This large incision is a major post-operative side-effect which results in longer recovery period.
The alternative technique, laparoscopy also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical procedure in which small incisions of about 0.5–1.5 cm are made far from the location of the operation. One or more such holes on the abdominal wall serve as passageways for a specialised instrument called a laparoscope. A long, thin tube headed by a high-resolution camera and a high-intensity guiding light is inserted through the incision. As the instrument moves along, the camera transmits images to a video monitor enabling your surgeon to see inside without opening up your body for surgery.
This process is used to diagnose unidentified abdominal or pelvic pain. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is usually performed when all non-invasive alternatives have been tried. Imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sometimes unable to provide enough data for diagnosis.
Laparoscopic surgery is used for the removals of an inflamed appendix, gall bladder, hernias, and cancer-affected organs, fibroids from the uterus, the womb (hysterectomy) and also for performing weight-loss surgeries.
Laparoscopy has a lot of advantages over the more common, open procedure. They are:
1. Less post-operative pain
2. Smaller scars
3. Reduced haemorrhaging and blood loss
4. Shorter recovery period
5. Less pain medications and analgesia requirements
6. Reduced exposure to internal organs
7. Faster return to normal activity
8. Reduced risk of infection
Laparoscopy is a proven safer choice with a fast-healing process side-stepping conventional surgery! If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
Hi Mam I am tested positive for pregnancy and I have started bleeding. What are my chances for sustaining pregnancy. Please advise.
Hi, My wife is 25 years old and we got married a year ago. She has been suffering from frequent white discharge with bad odor. She has been to various doctors and taken several antibiotics for all fungal, bacterial and protozoal infections. But still, the problem is persisting. Any advice?
The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer is called oncology. The subdivisions of oncology include medical oncology, radiation oncology and surgical oncology. Cancer is an umbrella term for a group of diseases which involves abnormal cell growth causing potential invasion to other parts of the body and the branch of science dealing with the treatment of cancer is oncology.
Radiotherapy is a kind of cancer treatment which involves the usage of high energy rays, such as X-rays or rays of electrons to treat the disease. In this therapy, the cancer cells are destroyed using these rays. Normal cells along with the cancerous cells also get destroyed due to exposure to the strong rays. However, normal cells can restore themselves but cancerous cells cannot.
Radiotherapy is planned very carefully to avoid the damage to as many healthy tissues as possible. However, damage to some healthy tissues is inevitable, which is the major side effect of this treatment.
Usage of Radiotherapy
A lot of patients with cancer have radiotherapy as a part of their cancer treatment. The reasons behind using radiotherapy could be-
- Curative reason- radiotherapy is suggested with the aim of destroying a certain tumour and thus curing cancer with it. This is also known as a radical treatment.
- Palliative reason- radiotherapy is recommended to the patients when there is no possible way to cure cancer, but with this treatment. The further growth of the tumor can be controlled or the various symptoms such as pain or coughing can be relieved.
Ways of Radiotherapy Treatment
There are two ways in which radiotherapy is commonly given-
- The radiotherapy which is given from outside the body is known as external beam radiotherapy.
- The radiotherapy given using a material that is placed inside the body is called internal radiotherapy.
The type of radiotherapy to be given to the patient depends on the type of cancer the patient has and the body part which is affected by it. Some cancers require both external and internal radiotherapy.
In certain situations, chemotherapy is required to be given to the patients along with radiotherapy. This is called chemo radiotherapy or chemo radiation. Chemotherapy basically uses anti-cancer drugs which make the cancerous cells more sensitive to radiotherapy, thereby enhancing the treatment process. However, both these therapies are very powerful, each with their own side effects. Hence, chemo radiation can sometimes have worse side effects.
- IMRT: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a new technology in radiation oncology that delivers radiation more precisely to the tumor while relatively sparing the surrounding normal tissues. IMRT is being used most extensively to treat cancers of the prostate, head and neck, and central nervous system. IMRT has also been used in limited situations to treat breast, thyroid, lung, as well as in gastrointestinal, gynecologic malignancies and certain types of sarcomas. IMRT may also be beneficial for treating pediatric malignancies.
- IGRT: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the use of imaging during radiation therapy to improve the precision and accuracy of treatment delivery. IGRT is used to treat tumors in areas of the body that move, such as the lungs. Radiation therapy machines are equipped with imaging technology to allow your doctor to image the tumor before and during treatment. By comparing these images to the reference images taken during simulation, the patient’s position and/or the radiation beams may be adjusted to more precisely target the radiation dose to the tumor.
- Stereotactic radiation therapy is mainly used to treat small brain tumours that are either malignant or benign. It is used to treat:
- Tumours deep within the brain: Tumours that are hard to reach or that cannot be removed by surgery because doing so would damage too much normal brain tissue
- A recurrence or metastasis in the brain
- Stereotactic radiation may also be used to give an additional dose of radiation (boost) to the brain after conventional external beam radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.
This is just the basic overview of radiotherapy. One important thing that should be kept in mind is that radiotherapy treatments are planned depending on the condition of the patient. So even if two individuals suffer from the same type of cancer, the radiotherapy treatments might be different.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The fallopian tubes are not mere passages for the egg to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. It is here that conception occurs and hence healthy fallopian tubes are essential for the fertilization of an egg.
Damaged fallopian tubes are the most common cause of infertility. This damage can fall under three categories.
1. Blocked fallopian tubes
2. One blocked and one open fallopian tube
3. Tubal scarring
The third is usually an effect of pelvic infections or natural healing after a pelvic surgery. Sadly, in most cases, this condition is discovered only after infertility has been diagnosed. Other causes of fallopian tubal scarring include
Fallopian tubal scarring has no recognizable symptoms. Chronic pelvic pain is the only known symptom of this damage and that too can be seen only in severe cases of tubal scarring. On diagnosing infertility, your doctor will perform one of these tests to determine the condition of your fallopian tubes.
This is a type of X-ray. Your doctor will open the vagina with a speculum and inject a liquid into the uterus with the help of a catheter. If the liquid does not pass through the fallopian tubes, it is said to be blocked. This however does not say much about tubal scarring.
A small incision is made below the belly button and a slim, flexible tube with a camera is passed through the incision. This gives your doctor a clear view of the condition of your fallopian tubes. A laparoscopy can also be used to rule out other causes of infertility such as endometriosis or blocked fallopian tubes.
Treatment for infertility caused by tubal scarring is of two types:
This is suggested in cases where tubal scarring is minimal. Depending on the intensity and placement of scar tissue, your doctor may decide to perform one of many types of surgeries. He may choose to remove the scarred section of the fallopian tube, create a new opening (in case of blockages) or rebuild the damaged edges of the fallopian tubes.
2. In vitro Fertilization(IVF)
Women with badly scarred fallopian tubes usually have poor chances of conceiving naturally. Hence, IVF is the preferred treatment route. However, your doctor may still advise you to undergo surgery and remove the damaged tubes prior to IVF to prevent the tubes from filling with fluid. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Symptoms of psycho-sexual disorder you need to know
Psychosexual disorders are conditions that occur when there are discrepancies in sexual functioning caused by mental or emotional problems. These have various manifestations in the form of sexual dysfunction, sexual perversion and gender identity crisis.
The primary characteristic feature of psychosexual disorders is that these are not caused by any external physical factors or medical conditions, but are a result of internal conflicts that arise in the mind. These conflicts can be due to intense personal experiences that lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and guilt. Sexual trauma and negative body image issues are also known to cause psychosexual disorders in men and women.
The symptoms of psychosexual disorders have different kinds of indications in men and women. In many cases, it leads to the development of phobias towards sex and sexual activities. In other cases, it may create strong recurrent desires for unusual sexual situations and activities such as voyeurism, fetishism, exhibitionism, sexual sadism, necrophilia or pedophilia.
Each case is unique and different as it is caused by an exclusive set of factors, which affect every individual in a distinctive capacity.
What are the symptoms of the psychosexual disorder in women?
Psychosexual disorders in women are characterized by the following signs:
- inability to get sexually aroused despite adequate stimulation
- inability to achieve orgasm
- reduced sexual drive and the lack of desire for sex
- inadequate vaginal lubrication
- unconscious tightening of the vaginal muscles that causes interference in sexual activities
- experiencing pain during sexual intercourse
What are the symptoms of the psychosexual disorder in men?
Some of the signs of psychosexual disorder in men are as follows:
- inability to get or hold an erection (erectile dysfunction)
- premature ejaculation
- being unable to ejaculate
- reduced libido and inhibited sexual desire
- inability to achieve orgasm
- lack of sexual arousal through stimulation
Whatever is the cause, rest assured that it can be resolved completely with the help of a good therapist. So don't hesitate and continue suffering without getting help.
Related Tip: Why is having sex very painful for some people?
Ramadan fasting myths that you should avoid!
The spirit of ramadan has taken over the city and along with the surge of spirituality, the air filled with the sweet aroma of ramadan special foods. Even as the harsh summer has come to an end with breezy evenings, people are lining up to enjoy the treats of ramadan food. However, for those diabetics who are fasting, there is still a bit of apprehension.
Though many diabetics are aware of their condition, most of them approach ramadan fasting without a proper ramadan meal plan. The fear of hypoglycemia haunts them, but their fervor to fast in this holy month has renewed.
Be it due to lack of awareness or misinformation, fasting in diabetes can cause serious complications. Many people tend to have some dangerous preconceived notions regarding their disease condition and often have to stop midway to end their fasting.
I found that people have these three common myths on fasting in the month of ramadan.
1. Can a type2 diabetes fast?
This is another question that constantly crops up. It all depends upon the blood glucose control a patient has along with other factors including the prevalence of complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. However, patients who have been admitted to the hospital for hypoglycemia in the past six months should not fast.
Here are three major ramadan fasting myths busted!
• Fasting in diabetes can be a real challenge. Ramadan fasting can be a daunting task for diabetics if they do not make proper preparations before starting off. It is very important to have a preliminary evaluation by a qualified diabetologist.
• Also, blood sugar levels have to be monitored regularly during this month.
Myth 1: It is okay for diabetics to skip taking their insulin injections during the ramadan month.
Fact: It is dangerous to stop taking your insulin injections as it can lead to serious complications. One should consult a doctor to create an altered plan along with dosages, and timings of the injections. It can be worthwhile to consult a dietician for a ramadan diet plan.
Myth 2: Diabetics need not wake up for suhoor.
Fact: Instead of having all the meals at midnight, it is better for the diabetic to have a meal with low glycemic index early in the morning before sunrise. This is very important as diabetics have to go without meals for long hours and this increases the risk of hypoglycemia.
Myth 3: There is no need to change the current diabetic medications during the ramadan fasting month.
Fact: This can go seriously wrong for some diabetics. It is advised that one should have an assessment before the ramadan month and then start fasting. The timings and dosages of medications might be altered with respect to the blood glucose control of the patient as the meal timings change and there is both fasting and feasting.
It is very important for you to maintain a good blood glucose control in order to successfully complete the fasting during this month.