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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
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Hi! My 4 months old baby boy is fearing from sounds from last 2-3 days, he suddenly wakes up from fear and cries. He is also fearing from very small sounds even when he is awake. He was never like this until from last 2-3 days. I am really worried. Please guide me.
1) my baby sleeps fast while drinking milk, she is one month old, m not sure if I have enough milk or if she is tried sucking and than sleeps. I am giving her lactogen as top up 2) also I wanted to know if lactogen is good as top up or mum mum.
Hi all, My 8th months baby boy got CPR result Positive which is 48 mg/dl. And advised by doctor some anti biotic. For 5 days. Can you pls suggest me ,is it better admit hm in hospital immediately or we have to wait for 5 days after using medicines? Pls suggest me btr one. Pls pls.
Sir kindly advise recent blood report of my son are as under 1. ALP 769 U/L 2. Calcium 10.2 mg/dl 3. Phosphorus 5.1 mg/dl 4. Calcium serum 9.8 mg/dl 5. PTH 53.9 pg/ml may please advise what problem is with him.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.
My one year baby has suddenly not drinking milk why? and what I do for make her good health pls tell me.
My wife periods not come from last 3 months so how I can do something for her. Because I do not want baby I already have a baby of 5 months..
Mera beta 15 month ka hai. Baki bachho k mukable thoda slow growth kr raha hai. Use sardi hamesha rahti hai. Jb 4 month ka tha tb nimoniya hua tha, aur janam k bad 1 month tk he mera dudh piya hai. 10 month tk hone tk me use bachhe k Dr. ko he dikha rahi thi. Doctors ne uske slow growth ka karan, mera dudh na mil pana, aur weakness bataya, hamne new jagh shift kiya bachhe ko sardi hone pe waha k ek GP Dr. ko dikhaya to wo Dr. ne bataya ki bachha delayed milestone hai, wo Dr. k kahne pe sare reports bhi humne nikale ,dr ne kaha report dekh k bataunga ki bachhe ko neurologist ko dikhne ki jarurat hai ya nahi. Reports dekhne k bad Dr. ne kaha reports thik hai. Abhi neurologist ko dikhane ki jarurat nahi hai. Meri samjh me nahi aarha kya karu. Isse pahle kisi Dr. ne aisa kuchh nahi kaha tha, even mere samne se puchhne pe bhi Dr. ne kaha tha ki mera bachha ek dam normal hai. Aur ab me confuse ho gyi hu. Me apne bachhe ko samjh nahi parhi hu. Ki wo normal hai ya nahi. Pls help me Dr.
My baby is 7months old can any doc prescribed me what all foods should I start to my baby. As she is too weak.
Dear doctors We have 2 months old child. I want to know that can we give water to drink? If yes then how many times & if no then why? Pls give ans me.
Diabetes is caused due to hormonal imbalance in our bodies. When the equilibrium between insulin and glucagon (hormones related to the sugar levels in the body) is disturbed, an individual suffers from diabetes. The disease is of two types: Diabete mellitus (Type-I and Type II) and Diabetes insipidus. When your body fails to release adequate insulin, the food that we consume is not properly converted into sugar or glucose. This is Type-I diabetes. On the contrary, if body releases defective insulin, one suffers from Type-II diabetes. Type-1 diabetes is sometimes called juvenile diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 occurs more frequently in children and young adults, but accounts for only 5-10% of the total diabetes cases nationwide. The basic symptoms of diabetes include changing sugar levels, excessive urination, thirst, weight loss and a lack of energy. Diabetes is caused due to a number of factors, ranging from environmental matters or hereditary links.
Homeopathic Remedies for Diabetes
Diabetes requires prolonged treatment. Long exposure to allopathic drugs can hamper your body organs due to its side effects. Therefore, it is advisable to take up homeopathic remedies, which have a long lasting effect on the patient. These medicines don’t cause side effects. Here are some of the remedies:
- Uranium nitrate: This compound reduces the sugar levels in the bloodstream and also keeps a check on frequent urination. It is prescribed for patients who develop the disease due to assimilative derangements. The symptoms that are looked for while prescribing medicines containing this compound include digestion problem, languor and debility, excess sugar in urine, huge appetite and thirst.
- Phosphoric acid: This compound is best for the treatment of diabetes that has a nervous origin. The symptoms that are looked for include excess urine and the colour of the urine is milky; poor mental force and general lethargy. The patient can also develop a bruised feeling in the muscles.
- Phosphorus: This compound is given to patients, suffering from diabetes and pancreatic diseases, especially tuberculosis or gouty diathesis. The symptoms include dry mouth, dark and watery stool and restlessness.
- Lactic acid: It is helpful for treating gastrohepatic type of diabetes. The symptoms that will have to be present in the patient include light yellow coloured urine, dry skin and tongue, thirst, nausea, and costive bowels.
- Insulin: Insulin therapy is an important as it helps in maintaining a balance in the sugar levels and keeps the urine free from sugar.
I am 35 year old. I have one daughter 8 year old and 1 year old son. My son does not sleep at night. He do not play only crying with close eyes Please suggest proper treatment for him.
baby boy age 3.5 year .just started fever 102 and vomiting tendency. Can you suggest medicine and respective dose pz. Weight 13 kg.
A nutritional disorder, the problem of rickets occurs if your child suffers from a deficiency of calcium, phosphate or Vitamin D. It causes softened and damaged bones, skeletal deformities, impaired development of the bone's growth plate (a spot of growing tissue found near the end of a long bone in adolescents and children) and stunted growth.
Here are few very simple ways you can prevent your child from getting it:
1. Having Vitamin D and calcium rich foods - One of the best ways to prevent this nutritional disorder from affecting your child is by making sure he or she have foods that are high in Vitamin D and calcium. Egg yolks, fish oil or fatty fish like salmon and mackerel are some of the Vitamin D foods that your child can have to strengthen his bones. Even foods that have Vitamin D added to it such as cereals, orange juice, milk and infant formula can also be given to your child. Sources of calcium can be soyabeans, nuts, broccoli, cabbage, cheese and yoghurt.
2. Going out in the sun - Considered to be an excellent source of Vitamin D, getting your child exposed to sunlight is another excellent way of getting most of this nutrient, as well as preventing him or her from developing rickets. Although the exposure time may vary from individual to individual, about 10-15 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen can help.
3. Having Vitamin D supplements - Even the consumption of Vitamin D supplements can reduce your child's risk of getting rickets. Since mother's milk contains less than the recommended Vitamin D amount, infants too need to be put on Vitamin D supplements of 400 IU each day. For teenagers and young children, the recommended dosage is 600 IU of Vitamin D every day.
My daughter aarushi she is 1 year and 5 months old, today after breast feeding she vomit 3 more times with light fever (99.4f). What should i do?
My son age is 12 years old, he is suffering stomach problem since 5 or 6 years of age. Everyday he has a tendency to go to latrine 3 to 4 times and also feeling stomach pain off and on. Generally Most of the days he is going spit type of latrine. Please help me what to do?
What Causes Eczema? Ways to Prevent Eczema Outbreaks
A skin inflammation, eczema, also known as atopic eczema, refers to the changes that occur in the upper skin layer. These skin changes can be thickened and cracked skin, skin redness, crusting of the affected area and swollen raw skin, among others. The exact cause of this skin condition is not yet known but a mix of factors have been found to be behind this health problem.
The factors that play a role in causing eczema are:
- Dry skin brings down your skin's ability to fend off irritants as well as allergy causing substances from entering your skin, resulting in an inflammatory condition.
- Genetics is also one of the factors that may affect the proper functioning of your skin as a barrier against harmful substances. Therefore, if either one of the parent or both suffers from the condition, it is very likely that their children too will suffer from it.
- Abnormal functioning of your body's immune system can also lead to this skin condition. This is because it's your body's immune system that fights off infections as well as harmful intruders.
- The presence of the bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus, which brings about sweat buildup, inflames the skin considerably, leading to this condition.
- Even environmental factors like pollen, cigarette smoke lead to the flaring of eczema.
How can you prevent an eczema outbreak?
It is very common for this skin condition to flare-up from time to time. But you can avoid such outbreaks or reduce their severity by following these very simple ways:
- Keep your skin well-moisturized so that it doesn't dry out causing further irritation.
- Sudden changes in temperature can cause the skin condition to break out. So, when the weather is hot, keep yourself cool but during cold weather, use a humidifier to prevent the skin from drying out.
- Keep sweating in check as it can cause an outbreak very easily
- Avoid the use of harsh detergents and soaps, woolen materials as well as the consumption of foods that may lead to flare-ups