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Detecting a lump on your breasts can be stressful for any women. Breast cancer is a common type of cancer and is said to affect primarily affect women though 1% of breast cancer cases affect men. Breast cancer can be categorized into different types based on their capability to affect surrounding tissues.
The most common amongst these are:
- Ductal carcinoma in situ
- Invasive ductal carcinoma
- Invasive lobular carcinoma
Breast cancer is caused by mutations of a person’s DNA cells. This could be inherited from one’s parents or acquired by an unhealthy lifestyle. These DNA mutations cause cells in the breast tissue to multiply rapidly and turn cancerous. The risk factors for breast cancer can be categorized as modifiable and non-modifiable.
Modifiable risk factors:
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Use of combined hormone therapy after menopause
- Lack of exercise
Non-modifiable risk factors:
- Family Medical History
- Personal Medical History
- Atypical hyperplasia
- Early start of menstruation cycle
- Presence of dense breast tissue
- Inherited genetic mutations
As with any other type of cancer, the earlier it is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. In its early stages, breast cancer is not painful and has negligible symptoms. In most cases, it is detected only by finding a lump on the breast or through a mammography. This lump may also be present in the armpit or above the collar bone. Some of the other symptoms of breast cancer include:
- Nipple inversion
- Discharge from the nipples
- Changes in the colour and texture of skin covering the breast
Breast cancer has five stages beginning from 0 and going up to 4. This is based on the size of the tumour, involvement of lymph nodes and whether or not metastasis has occurred.
- Stage 0: At this stage, the tumour does not affect the lymph nodes and has not metastasized. Thus at this stage, it is noninvasive.
- Stage I: In this case the tumour is smaller than 2 cm in diameter and has not spread to any of the surrounding tissues.
- Stage II: In this stage, the cancerous tumours are still fairly small in size but also affect the surrounding lymph nodes.
- Stage III: These tumours are larger than 5 cm in diameter and involve the lymph nodes to a greater extent.
- Stage IV: This is also known as metastatic breast cancer. In this stage, the cancer cells metastasize to other parts of the body.
Surgery is the most preferred form of treatment for breast cancer. This may be combined with radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or hormone therapy depending on the stage and type of cancer, the patient's overall health, age and personal preferences. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Post kidney transplant, most people have a low immunity due to the powerful medications that are prescribed to avoid rejection of the organ. These medications tend to make the patients more prone to infections and hence, following strict dietary guidelines is necessary to avoid any complication. Also, as most people suffering from kidney failure are diabetic, hypertensive or suffer from heart disease, dietary control is mandatory. Moreover, the use of immunosuppressive drugs can increase your risk of diabetes, hypertension or heart disease.
#1: eat a protein rich diet
After a kidney transplant, the body requires more proteins to aid in the healing process and improve immunity. This is the reason, why consuming proteins should not be limited. Also, patients who were previously on dialysis had a lower protein intake, post kidney transplant, the consumption of proteins is recommended to be increased. Here are 6 protein sources for vegetarians.
#2: do not eat raw fruits
Intake of raw fruits is not advised as there is a high risk of infection due to raw food. However, you can eat fruits in stewed form as cooking lowers the active bacterial load, thereby lowering your risk of infection.
#3: include curd in your diet
Curd contains good quality protein, which is required for healing post-transplant, hence, curd should be eaten. As far as sour foods like lime and tamarind are concerned, eating them is also okay. But avoid eating grapes as they are known to interact with immune suppressive drugs and hinder healing of the kidney. Also read about 11 diet do’s and don’ts for people with kidney problems.
#4: you need not avoid fruits/ vegetables with seeds
Foods with seeds like tomato, brinjal, ladies finger, guava, watermelon, etc are considered harmless and can be taken after transplant, provided other biochemical parameters like electrolytes and cholesterol are within normal range. Also, ensure that the level of potassium in the blood is within control. However, if you are suffering from kidney stones, it is better to avoid these foods.
#5: you might need to take protein supplements
People who undergo kidney transplants are recommended protein supplements during the initial stage, however, it varies from person to person. In most cases, post kidney transplant, patients recover their appetite, hence there’s no need for any supplements. However, if the patient feels that his protein intake is not optimal, he can continue taking supplements post-transplant, but only after consulting a nephrologist.
Unlike the common misconception that kidney transplant recipients can eat everything after a transplant, you need to follow a disciplined dietary routine with numerous restrictions, depending upon your overall recovery and health. You can start eating out after three to six months of kidney transplantation, as it is the average time taken for the immuno-suppression to be stable and be at a low level. However, raw food, salads, fruits and foods kept open should be strictly avoided, even in general.
Most commonly known as a military neck a straight or forward curve of the neck is abnormal and may cause an unkind progression of symptoms leading ultimately to cervical disk degeneration.
Reversal of cervical lordosis explained
The anatomy of the neck features a lordotic curvature in its typical and healthy state. This means that the cervical region has a gentle curvature with the open end of that curve facing the rear of the body. The base and top of the curve will be further posterior than the mid point, which will be further anterior.
When the lordosis is straightened, the neck becomes more upright and linear. This is more common than the next progression of atypical curvature, which is the subject of this article.
Actual reversal of curvature means that part or all of the cervical spine develops a kyphotic profile, with the open end of the curve facing anteriorly. Usually, this reversal is extremely mild, but is still very abnormal. What we now see is the middle of the curve being positioned posterior to the top and bottom.
In essence, picture the letter c and now turn it backwards: This is the shape of a reversed cervical lordosis.
Reversal of cervical lordosis causes
The spinal curvature in the neck is constantly in flux to some degree.
Congenital conditions and developmental conditions can have lasting effects on the natural degree of curvature typically demonstrated from patient to patient. These circumstances may be explainable due to injury or degeneration, or may be idiopathic:
Scoliosis can affect the normal lordotic curvature in the neck.
Cervical spondylolisthesis is a major source of reversed lordotic curvature.
Severe disc pathologies can facilitate a gradual loss or reversal of cervical lordosis.
Vertebral irregularities, such as wedging, can definitely contribute to lordotic alteration.
Traumatic injury, including vertebral fracture, can create the ideal circumstances for a reversal of lordosis to take place.
Severe neck muscle spasms can actually reshape the spinal curves, although these are usually temporary expressions and not actual structural conditions.
Effects of reversal of cervical lordosis
The neck is designed to curve in order to balance the spine, absorb stress, distribute force and provide proper movement of the head. When this curvature is diminished or reversed, symptoms may result, although this is not an inherent part of any altered lordotic condition.
Patients may experience stiffness and tension in the neck. Pain may be present and may even be severe in rare cases. Neurological dysfunction is possible in extreme cases, since the neuroforamen might not align properly, thereby causing a cervical pinched nerve.
In the worst circumstances, central spinal stenosis in the neck might affect the viability of the spinal cord, possible enacting the most dire of symptoms throughout the body.
Patients will also be more prone to injury, since the normal shock absorption qualities of the typical curvature have been lost.
While all these effects are certainly possible, they are not usual. In fact, a great majority of patients have minor symptoms or even no symptoms at all from mild reversed lordotic curvatures.
The pathology leading to a neck curve reversal (cervical kyphosis shown below right) may be inspired by a multitude of conditions as follows:
Post head injury
Poor sitting/working postures
Congenital spinal curvatures
Degenerative cervical discs (a form of osteoarthritis that can either be the cause of or the result of a cervical kyphosis)
Compression fracture of vertebral body
Anatomy: straight vs. Curved
I've always heard that it was good to stand up straight.
stand upright, stick your chest out and hold your shoulders back! otherwise you're going get widows hump.
Are these expressions as familiar to you as they are to me? one might think that having a curved neck goes against what we heard from parents and teachers as we were growing up, but the reality is that there is a little bit a truth in both. Maintaining good posture throughout our lives is crucial to both the health of our spine and vital organs. On the contrary, a special type of curve called a lordosis is a good thing, both in the neck and lower back.
When we look at a person from the back their spine should be truly straight, so that the left and right sides of one's body is symmetrical. However, when we view a person from the side, the front and back of their body is different and this is reflected in a coinciding curvature of the spine. Both the lower back and neck are hollowed out (concave) and the mid or thoracic spine is protrudes (convex). Thus there is an alternation of curves functioning to provide stability, shock absorption and aid in propulsion. A straight spine would be very stiff and not flexible. Imagine the plight of a pole vaulter with an inflexible pole.
Nature's design of our spine and rib cage facilitates breathing and offers protective and supportive framework for vital organs. Spinal disks are shock absorbers and because they are in the front of the spine, lordotic curvatures keep them from having to bear weight. Kyphosis or loss of such curvatures bears weight upon the disks, leading to their ultimate degeneration. This process of deterioration is a form of osteoarthritis and in the spine is known as degenerative spondylosis.
Although most physiotherapists or conservative orthopedists can recognize a cervical curve reversal upon viewing the patient's posture, a definitive diagnosis may be obtained via a standing lateral (side view) x-ray of the neck. Cause can often be determined by corroborating a comprehensive history, a thorough examination, x-rays and questions about sleep, work and lifestyle.
In my professional career I found that the majority of young adults presenting with cervical kyphosis either had a whiplash or were stomach sleepers from an early age. For desk jockeys 40-60 years of age, many hours of sitting with their head flexed forward almost dictates the fate of developing kyphosis. In prior years I considered cervical kyphosis a job hazard for the careers of accountants, attorneys and often teachers because of years spent with their head in a book or paperwork. However, the digital age offers some relief in that respect. A well-planned, ergonomically-friendly office can do wonders for protecting the spine in the sedentary worker.
Treatment for cervical curve reversal (kyphosis)
During my chiropractic practice I had the opportunity to note a good percentage of correction toward a more normal lordosis (noted on x-ray) for 70% of patients under my care. This was almost always consistent with those patients that followed all recommendations and were model participants in their own care. Here is the recommended treat plan:
Spinal manipulation of stiff and fixated spinal segments by a qualified physio
Flexibility exercises for flexion and extension of cervical spine
Resistance exercises for flexors and extensors of the neck
Learn the Alexander technique for maintaining good posture (hint: the basic philosophy is to sit and stand like you were hanging by a string from the vertex of your skull. Liken it to a puppet on a string).
Elimination of stomach sleeping
Avoid standing on your head, although some yoga postures may be beneficial
Use of orthopedic neck pillow while sleeping.
Uterine prolapse is a condition which occurs due to a weakness in the muscles and ligaments of the pelvic floor which are responsible for supporting the uterus. This condition results in the bulging out of the uterus from the vagina. The continuous stretching in the muscles of the pelvic floor due to the lifting of heavy things might initiate uterine prolapse. If you suffer from severe uterine prolapse, the doctors might suggest laparoscopic surgery to get rid of the pain. Lack of diagnosis might form infected ulcers in the pelvic regions.
The risk factors that can trigger a uterine prolapse are as follows:
- You are more prone to suffering from uterine prolapse as you age because aging causes a significant reduction in the estrogen (the hormone responsible for the overall development of the pelvic muscles) levels of the body.
- If your pelvic muscles and the adjoined tissues have suffered sustained damage during pregnancy or childbirth, you have a higher risk of suffering from uterine prolapse.
- Obesity, sustained episodes of constipation or coughing make you more vulnerable to uterine prolapse.
- In women, estrogen levels reduce significantly after menopause.
- A woman who has undergone vaginal childbirth multiple times can suffer from uterine prolapse.
- Having undergone surgery in the pelvic region and experiencing severe pain during excretion raises the risk levels even more.
The symptoms of uterine prolapse vary with the severity of the condition. If the prolapse is a minor one, there will be no symptoms. But severe uterine prolapse might bring with it the following symptoms:
- Severe pain in the lower back region along with significant problems during urination such as leakage of urine.
- Bulging out of tissues from the vagina.
- Recurrent instances of constipation and abnormal discharges from the vagina.
- Infection in the bladder and experiencing severe problems during sex intercourse.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have a back disc doctor has advised to take complete bed rest for 3 months but I am preparing for competitive exam which is not possible. is there any way so that I will be ok?
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.
Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:
- Abnormal blood vessels
- Blood clots in the brain
- When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
- Due to nerve damage
- Parkinson's disease
- Any kind of pressure after an injury
- Skull fractures
- In case of stroke and tumors
A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.
Types of brain surgeries:
- Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
- Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
- Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:
- Allergic reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clot formations
- Swelling of the brain
- A state of coma
- Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
- Problems in memory
- Strokes and seizures
- Infections in the brain
A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I am a man of 50 years and have no complications except slip disc between l4-l5 which is ok if I take proper precaution. From last few months I feel considerable pain in my both knee after sitting on a chair for few hours constantly and then trying to move. When I am keep walking pain is not there. I have to sit in front of computer whole day long. Kindly advise.
My dad has a disc problem and in morning time he suffers from stiffness in lower back area. What should he do?
बच्चेदानी में गाँठ, कई महिलाओं के लिए परेशानी का कारण बन जाती है. इस दौरान गर्भाशय की आंतरिक परत की कोशिकाएं आवश्यकता से अधिक मोटी और बड़ी हो जाती हैं. फाइब्रॉइड होने के कारण जो लक्षण प्रकट होते है वो इस बात पर निर्भर करते है की ये किस जगह स्थित है , इनका आकार कैसा है और इनकी संख्या कितनी है. यदि फाइब्रॉइड बहुत छोटे हों और कम हों तो किसी प्रकार की तकलीफ नहीं होती और मेनोपॉज होने के बाद या अपने आप सिकुड़ कर मिट जाते है. लेकिन यदि फाइब्रोइड बढ़ जाते है इस प्रकार की परेशानी पैदा हो सकती है. गर्भाशय आकार में नाशपाती जैसा होता है. बच्चेदानी, महिलाओं का वो ख़ास अंग है जहां जन्म से पहले बच्चे को रखती हैं. आप इसे दो भागों में बाँट सकते हैं. एक तो है गर्भाशय ग्रीवा का पहला भाग जो योनी में खुलता है, वहीँ दुसरा भाग जो गर्भाशय का उपरी हिस्सा है जिसे कॉर्पस कहते हैं. महिलाओं के गर्भाशय में गाँठ का एक कारण कैंसर भी हो सकता है. आइए बच्चेदानी के गाँठ के कारणों और इसके संभावित उपचारों पर एक नजर डालें.
क्या है बच्चेदानी में गाँठ का कारण
इस्ट्रोजन और प्रोजेस्ट्रोन नामक हार्मोन ओवरी में बनते है. हार्मोन के कारण हर महीने गर्भाशय में एक परत बनती है. जिसके कारण माहवारी होती है. ये हार्मोन ही इन परत के बनने के दौरान फाइब्रॉइड बनने की वजह भी बनते है.
अनुवांशिकता पारिवारिक कारण
यदि दादी, नानी, माँ या बहन को फाइब्रॉइड की समस्या है तो आपको भी यह होने की पूरी संभावना होती है.
गर्भावस्था के समय एस्ट्रोजन और प्रोजेस्ट्रोन हार्मोन्स का स्राव बढ़ जाता है. इसलिए ऐसे समय फाइब्रॉइड होने संभावना भी बढ़ जाती है.
वजन ज्यादा होने की वजह से भी गर्भाशय में फाइब्रॉइड बनने की संभावना बढ़ जाती है. इसका कारण गलत प्रकार का खान-पान, शारीरिक गतिविधि का अभाव तथा गलत प्रकार की दिनचर्या भी हो सकता है.
क्या हैं इसके लक्षण?
- माहवारी के समय या बीच में ज्यादा रक्तस्राव जिसमें थक्के शामिल होते है.
- नाभि के नीचे पेट में दर्द या पीठ के निचले हिस्से में दर्द.
- पेशाब बार बार आना.
- मासिक धर्म के समय दर्द की लहर चलना.
- यौन सम्बन्ध बनाते समय दर्द होना.
- मासिक धर्म का सामान्य से अधिक दिनों तक चलना.
- नाभि के नीचे पेट में दबाव या भारीपन महसूस होना.
- पैरों में दर्द.
- पेट की समस्याएं सूजन.
- सम्भोग के समय दबाव महसूस होना.
- फाइब्रॉइड का पता कैसे चलता है
यदि उपरोक्त लक्षण दिखाई दें तो महिला चिकित्सक से जाँच करानी चाहिए. जाँच करने के बाद यदि उन्हें गर्भाशय में गांठ यानि फाइब्रॉइड होने का शक हो डॉक्टर सोनोग्राफी कराने के लिए कह सकते है. सोनोग्राफी से गर्भाशय की सही स्थिति का पता चलता है. कहाँ, कितनी संख्या और कितने बड़े फायब्रॉयड है इसका भी पता चल जाता है. यह सोनोग्राफी दो तरह से होती है – पहली समान्य प्रकार से पेट के ऊपर से और दूसरी योनी के अंदर से जिसे ट्रांसवेजिनल अल्ट्रासॉउन्ड कहते है.
योनि के अंदर से सोनोग्राफी होने पर फाइब्रॉइड की स्थिति का ज्यादा स्पष्ट रूप से पता चलता है. क्योंकि उसमे मशीन गर्भाशय के ज्यादा पास तक पहुँच पाती है. डॉक्टर के बताये अनुसार सोनोग्राफी कराने से किस प्रकार का इलाज होना चाहिए यह पता चलता है. इसके अलावा एम.आर.आई., एक्सरे या सीटी स्केन की जरुरत के अनुसार कराने की सलाह दी जा सकती है.
क्या है इसका उपचार
यदि फाइब्रोइड के कारण किसी प्रकार की तकलीफ ना हो तो सामान्यतः किसी प्रकार के इलाज की आवश्यकता नहीं होती है. यहाँ तक की थोड़ा बहुत अधिक रक्तस्राव की स्थिति से निपट सकें तो कोई इलाज ना लें तो चलता है.
मेनोपॉज होने के बाद इसके कारण हो रही तकलीफ कम हो जाती है या कभी कभी बिल्कुल मिट भी जाती है. लेकिन यदि तकलीफ ज्यादा होती है तो इलाज लेना जरुरी हो जाता है.
फायब्रॉइड का इलाज उम्र , शारीरिक स्थिति , फाइब्रॉइड का आकार , उनकी संख्या और उनकी स्थिति के अनुसार तय किया जाता है. हो सकता है कुछ दवाओं से फाइब्रॉइड ठीक हो जाएँ अन्यथा ऑपरेशन की जरुरत भी पड़ सकती है. आपरेशन कई प्रकार से होते है. जिसमें मशीनों की सहायता से फाइब्रॉइड को बिना किसी चीर फाड़ के लेजर से नष्ट किया जाता है.
यदि इसके द्वारा इलाज संभव नहीं हो तो गर्भाशय को निकाल देना पड़ता है. उस स्थिति में माँ बनने की संभावना समाप्त हो जाती है. इस आपरेशन में ओवरी निकाल देनी है या नहीं यह डॉक्टर मरीज की परिस्थिति और जरुरत को देखते हुए निर्णय लेते है.
फाइब्रोइड होने पर डॉक्टर से इस प्रकार के प्रश्न किये जा सकते है. इनके जवाब समझने पर यह निर्णय करना आसान होता है कि अब क्या करना चाहिए. दवा लें या सर्जरी करायें. डॉक्टर की राय भी ली जा सकती है ताकि निर्णय लेना आसान हो जाये.
यदि गर्भाशय में मौजूद गांठ या रसौली प्रारंभिक अवस्था में हो या छोटी हों तो आयुर्वेदिक दवाओं से या होमिओपेथिक दवाओं से इन्हें ठीक करने की कोशिश की जा सकती है. ज्यादा बड़े फाइब्रॉइड होने पर और ब्लीडिंग अधिक होने पर सर्जरी जरुरी हो जाती है. सर्जरी के बाद महीने डेढ़ महीने कुछ परहेज रखने की जरुरत होती है. सर्जरी के बाद सभी तरह की परेशानियों से मुक्ति मिल जाती है.