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With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier.
Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer:
- The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded.
- Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- Breast or nipple pain
- Nipple retraction (turning inward)
- Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
- Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer:
- Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography.
- Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
- For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered.
Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are:
- Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue.
- Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further.
- Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Breast cancer is a medical condition that refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells in the breast. These cells can be like small tumours or lumps. The tumour can be malignant if it is found that the cells are growing into surrounding tissues or are spreading. It occurs mostly in women.
Breast cancers can originate from any part of the breast. Most of these cancerous growths start in the milk-carrying ducts. There are also cancerous growths in the glands that produce milk. These are known as lobular cancers. In rare cases, cancer may also start from the breast tissues. These are known as sarcomas and lymphomas.
Here are some of the ways to get prevented from the possibility of developing breast cancer:
- Check your weight: It is important that you maintain a healthy weight. You don’t need do follow the hard and fast dieting charts or starve. But eat a balanced diet and exercise a bit to maintain a stable and healthy weight throughout. Being obese or overweight increases the chance of developing breast cancer.
- Be Active: A sedentary lifestyle devoid of activities is something that invites diseases. It has been found that women who are physically active and exercise for at least 30 minutes a day are at a low risk of developing breast cancer.
- Don’t avoid fruits and vegetables: It is important for you to have a balanced diet. Include lots of leafy vegetables and fruits in your diet to avoid the possibility of developing any form of cancer. Don’t drink excessive alcohol on regular basis. Remember a healthy diet is a key to a healthy life.
- Don’t Smoke: Smoking increases the chance of developing heart diseases, stroke and 15 types of cancers. It also increases the risk for breast cancer.
- Breastfeed your baby: It is mandatory for good health that you breastfeed your baby. Exclusive breastfeeding is best for the health of your baby as well as yours. It lowers the chances of developing breast cancer.
- Avoid Birth Control Pills: These pills have side-effects. They increase the risk of developing breast cancer. It also increases the chances of developing heart diseases and ovarian cancer.
- Avoid Post-Menopausal Hormones: Post-menopausal hormones have an adverse effect on the health. They increase the risk of some diseases while lowering the effects of other ones. It should be taken for a shorter period and its prolonged use must be avoided. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
MRI findings are suggestive of disc desiccation with posterior disc protrusion at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels. More severe at L5-S1 level. This is my MRI report says, is there anything to worry about it. Please tell me what should I do in this condition.In the initial days I had lower back pain and pain in both knees also but the pain is decreasing day by day.
I am suffering from renal cell carcinoma and removed my right kidney and left kidney effected to 13-14 mm tumor please suggest me any right way in this condition.
I want to know about exercises being done in case of diffuse disc bulge at l1-l2 level indenting anterior the cal sac mildly with bilateral mild neural foraminal narrowing.
1. You felt a lump in your breast and it always means you have breast cancer.
It's a small percentage of breast lumps only that will turn out to be cancer. If you discover a persistent lump in your breast or notice any changes in breast tissue, never ignore it. You must see a physician for a clinical breast examination. He or she may possibly order breast imaging studies to determine if this lump is of concern or not.
Take charge of your health by performing routine breast self-exams, establishing ongoing communication and counseling with your doctor, getting an annual clinical breast exam, and scheduling your routine screening mammograms.
2. Only women get breast cancer, men do not.
Quite the contrary, each year it is estimated that approximately 2,190 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 410 will die. While this percentage is still small, men should also check themselves periodically by doing a breast self-exam while in the shower and reporting any changes to their physicians.
Breast cancer in men is usually detected as a hard lump underneath the nipple and areola. Men carry a higher mortality than women do, primarily because awareness among men is less and they are less likely to assume a lump is breast cancer, which can cause a delay in seeking treatment.
Treatment for right paracentral disc protrusion at c5-c6 level with right uncovertebral arthropathy causes compression on right c6 nerve root. Done mri and this is report. Sometimes in sleep in morning numbness and tingling sensation in left hand fingers and some times in right hand fingers also is this serious.
I am suffering from slip disc problem since 15 years, now pain is unbearable and there is very much stiffness in my left leg unless to walk since last week, what is the cure please help me out, is there any treatment without surgery or I have to go through surgery process, is surgery is only solution and hie much it is successful. I am 38 years old and my weight is 120 kg.
As per my MRI report for lumber spine, disc protrusion seen at L5-S1 indenting anterior thecal sac and narrowing left neural recess. Disc hydration is Los at L5-S1. I have severe lower back pain for last one month. What is the ideal plan for treatment?
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!