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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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My son is 20 days old, from 2 -3 days he is crying a lot. He will not stop crying until unless his mother feeds him. He wants her mother to feed him round the clock even if he is not hungry also, if she moves or sleep for while he will start crying. We are very tensed. Please suggest us what to do and how to understand our son problem.
I am 3 months 2 days pregnant. However my pregnancy is through IVF 1st cycle. I am on duphaston & sustain (insert one), frolic acid, iron & calcium tablet. Still my doctor says to continue all 3 for 1 more month and later will see. I am confused. How long I have to take these many medi.
My son is 2 years plus, we have been giving him ascoril ls syrup but he pukes every time. Please suggest.
My baby is 1.9yrs old with 8.9kg he has cold and cough from past 4 days. I'm using montair-lc (5ml at night) and ambrodil-s (5ml twice daily). Shall I continue for another 3 days or else any other medicine?
I am 31" year old having 2 kids one 6 years old and other one 4 months old. On Feeding. I was taking multivitamins tablet prior to birth of my second kid. I want to ask A question that can I take Calcium Supplement tablet to Retain my Bones Strength. I am a Lactating women.
Puberty results from activation of gonads (testes in boys/ ovaries in girls) by pituitary hormones LH and FSH. Activated gonads produce sexual hormones (testosterone in boys and estrogen in girls ) which are responsible for gender specific physical changes at puberty along with behaviour changes. Testosterone in boys is responsible for hair growth over pubic area and face with maturation of genital organs, breaking of voice, development of muscular and skeletal system. Similarly, estrogen in girls is responsible for breast development, maturation of genital organs with feminisation of body. Bone maturation with rapid height gain is seen at puberty both in boys and girls. Various systemic and hormonal disorders can result in either late or early puberty.
LATE PUBERTY -
Most of the boys show signs of puberty latest by age of 14 years and most girls start showing signs of puberty latest by age of 13 years. The earliest sign of puberty in boys is enlargement of testes and in girls is height spurt/breast development. When boys older than 14 years and girls older than 13 years don't have any signs of puberty it is called delayed puberty.
CAUSES OF DELAYED PUBERTY -
- Constitutional delay is most common cause of delayed puberty. The constitutional delay means child is not having any illness and he is going to develop puberty spontaneously at later age. But diagnosis of this condition can be made only after physical examination and investigations so that other causes of delayed puberty are ruled out.
- Functional hypogonadotropic Hypopogonadism - Delayed but spontaneous puberty develops. This condition can be seen in systemic illnesses like chronic infections, poor nutritional status etc.
- Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism - Disorders of pituitary gland result in low LH and FSH so that testes/ovaries are not stimulated and sex hormone is not produced. This can be caused by various genetic disorders, brain tumours, head injury, brain radiation etc.
- Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism - In this scenario, LH and FSH levels are normal but gonadal are not able to produce sex hormones resulting in delayed puberty.
CONSEQUENCES OF DELAYED PUBERTY -
The absence of age specific pubertal changes cause anxiety and distress in children and their parents. These children may develop low self-esteem and are teased by their peers. Along with the poor development of physical signs of puberty, fertility is also affected in hypogonadism. And most importantly, delayed puberty can be the symptom of serious underlying illness like intracranial tumours etc. These children deserve medical attention to get best results.
Serum testosterone/estradiol with LH and FSH is done to find out where is defect i.e. whether at the level of pituitary gland or at the level of testes/ovaries. Further investigations depend on levels LH, FSH, estradiol/testosterone. Other useful investigations include prolactin, T4, TSH, ray hand for bone age, ultrasound pelvis, MRI pituitary gland etc.
After diagnosis is established, Testosterone/estrogen replacement should be started to boys older than 14 year and girls older than 13 years respectively. Hormone replacement is very effective and usually safe. In adulthood those with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be treated with LH and FSH to produce sperms/ eggs so that they can achieve fertility. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
Sometimes, during consumption of certain food items many children get itchy throat, eyes, ears, asthma, sneezing, rashes, diarrhea and eczema. This can be due to food intolerance in children. It is a form of allergic disease in children. Every 1 out of 10 children suffer from food intolerance. These days, food allergies are becoming more and more common in children who are allergic to nuts, milk and eggs. In some cases it can also be life threatening. This condition is known as anaphylaxis. Milk and egg allergies are more common throughout the world.
Symptoms of food intolerance:
Your bowels start becoming irritable.
Stomach starts to ache.
Cough and cold is a common symptom.
Itchy skin rash
Causes of food intolerance in children:
There are enzymes in your body, which help you to digest the food you consume. Some enzymes in your body are insufficient; which further causes food intolerance in children. For instance, lactose intolerance causes spasms, stomach aches, diarrhea and so on so forth.
Some food products can also cause food intolerance such as undercooked beans containing aflatoxins can cause extreme stomach infections in children.
Some children are also intolerant to certain food products which have salicylates such as majority of fruits, vegetables, herbs and also additives. Processed food contains a high amount of salicylates.
Children can be allergic to antioxidants like artificial food coloring, artificial flavoring and preservatives.
What to do if you think your child has food intolerance?
Take your child for a skin prick test. In this test, the skin is pricked with a thin needle and when the blood oozes out, supplements of different food products are put in that area. If that particular area becomes reddish and begins to itch, your child has allergy to that certain food product
A blood test should be done. It verifies the level of lgE present in your blood and finds out if your child is suffering from food intolerance or not. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.