Good morning, I am Dr Dinesh Singh I am the director of radiation oncology at Max hospital Vaishali. Today we are going to discuss about the lung cancer, what is lung cancer, how it happens and what a person should do when a lung cancer is diagnosed. Lung cancer is cancer which is developing in the lungs or into the channels of the respiration in the lungs. Majority of patients who have lung cancer they are smokers or alcoholics or then 80 to 90% of them and what happens the tobacco smoke it contains carcinogenic, which promotes cancer. Now it is like we are living in Delhi, Delhi is one of the most polluted cities in the world and the pollution it acts on to the damage which is done by the smoking and the alcohol. So one should totally abstain from the smoking either active or passive smoking, passive smoking is when someone else is smoking sitting with us in the same environment, in the same room, in the same vehicle or into the same compartment so that has to be avoided in totality. The commonest symptom of the lung cancer is a cough, normal khansi jo hoti hai, the patient starts coughing and it doesn't go away even after 2 to 3 weeks have passed. So any a cough which is persisting for more than 2 to 3 weeks it has to be investigated, the first investigation is chest X-Ray and if you suspect on that you can go for CT Scan of the chest or we go for a Bronchoscopic evaluation. When we see that there is an audio or there is an abnormality we have to go for a biopsy of that region either endobronchealy, bronchoscopically or CT guided biopsy is done and after that, once we confirm that it is lung cancer. Next step is to find out where all it has spread for that we do various investigation like PET-CT Scan is one investigation in which we examine from head to toe the entire body is screened and it will tell us which all areas cancer might have spread or we can go for CT Scan of the Thorax, abdomen and the neck to find out, if lung cancer is localised, if it is in the early stage to get operated then we have to go for surgery of the lung cancer and those patients of lung cancer who are able to undergo surgery they are in the curable stage. Another alternative treatment which has been tried and proved is giving a stereotactic radiotherapy to these patients. There was a study done in America which are shown that this stereotactic radiation in the same result as the operation or this surgery of the lung. In little-advanced stages we have to go for radiotherapy along with current chemotherapy this statement last for above 4 to 6 weeks and give good results and in those patients get cancer has spread even beyond that, those patients we go for chemotherapy treatment and if cancer has spread to the brain or to the bones then in these cases we go for radiotherapy of the patient. So I would say we have to avoid smoking and alcohol in totality, we have to do our bit to control pollution in our city, in our surroundings whenever you see any person burning leaves or any garbage we have to go and stop that person, we have to douse the fire and control that pollution so that we are able to contribute, diesel vehicles are polluting we should try to avoid using diesel vehicles and especially young children, school going they are very vulnerable for the diesel exhaust of the vehicles, they should be protected and when we get any symptoms like a cough or any other problem in those cases we have to take proper care proper investigation and proper treatment. Thank you.read more
Good morning, I am Dr Dinesh Singh I am director of Radiation Oncology at Max Hospital, Vaishali. Today we are going to discuss about cancer, the cancer is a group of about 100 disease different diseases and it is basically the cells they start developing, multiplying and then they do not stop first they grow locally and there and then they spread out to different parts and what are the different symptoms of the cancers, well it depends upon which part of the body the cancer is developing like we are discussing about the brain tumors that the patient might have difficulty in vision, he may be having headache, he may be having vomiting or he may be having fits. Then to further investigate we need do a contrast study of the MRI then we diagnosed and then we keep recording it. For head and neck cancers like they can wear ulcer or a soar which doesn't heal, there can be a change in the voice the person might have difficulty in swallowing or so these are the early symptoms of cancers originating into the head and neck area. Then we further investigate we take a biopsy and then we diagnose the patient. For breast cancer, the earliest symptoms is a painless lump usually in Cancer in early stages pain is not there, so whenever there is a lump in a breast it should be investigated to allowed cancer. More than 90% of the lump in the breast on cancerous but it should be evaluated and cure, when we come to the lung cancer the common symptom is a mild cough. So any cough which is not getting the cure for more than two weeks it should be taken seriously it can be tuberculosis, it can be cancerous, so it has to be evaluated and investigative. Talking about the GI cancers of the intestinal cancers, well it present like indigestion or the patient is not getting well some might discomfort in the abdomen. So any problem persisting more than 2 weeks should be investigated by ultrasound, by endoscopy and then we do it. Carcinoma of the rectum and anal canal usually present with a bleeding associated with the stools or without stool should not be confused with the piles because they have the same presentation. So any problem persisting for more than 2 weeks is the thumb rule has to be investigated diagnosed and they have to be treated. Once we see that there is a problem then what we do we have to do an investigation and the first investigation is the biopsy many times a general people they have a false notion that if a biopsy is done then cancer will spread, well it is absolutely wrong. The biopsy is a must and it does not spread cancer. Thank you.read more
Good morning, I am Dr Dinesh Singh I am director predation oncology at Max hospital, Vaishali and today I will be talking about the most common cancer of women in India, it is breast cancer and there is no age bar. We have seen patients as young as 17 to 18 years and as old as 80 to 90 years. So every woman is at risk of getting the breast cancer, now which are the ladies which are more prone to get breast cancer when those ladies who do not have the breastfed their child, those who are very obese or those who have history of a breast cancer in their first relative like in the father, mausi, sister they are at higher risk, but then any population is at risk of developing cancer. What we need to understand is that we should be aware about our body and we should do a self breast examination every month, so that we know the change which happens in our breast over a period of time and once you notice that there is a lump in the breast, usually, pain is not initial symptom of Cancer any cancer in the body and whenever you notice that there is a lump in the breast then it has to be further investigated. The age is less than 40 years we go for an ultrasound of the breast which is more than 40 years we go for mammography of the breast. And then further investigation like a biopsy of the lump and if it is found cancerous, then we do for the test to see whether it is spread to another part of the body or not. Well, that tells us about the stage the breast cancer is and then depending upon the stage the treatment is decided. That let us say that we diagnose breast cancer at a very early stage that means it is less than 3 to 4 cm and at that time we do not need to remove the entire breast of the person to cure the person, we can remove only a portion the cancerous portion plus a little bit of arching around the tumor and in the axilla we have to do surgery to get out the nodes. For that now it is a sentinel node biopsy is done what happens in that is that we identify the draining lymph nodes we take them no we study them then and there when the patient is still under anaesthesia and if they are not cancerous then we do not take out the further lymph nodes of the axilla, if they are cancerous then we take them out. After that then the further treatments depends upon the final histopathology report of the tumor, if the tumor is very small If in case very sensitive to hormones these patients don't need any chemotherapy, radiotherapy becomes a part of the every breast conservation surgery and if that tumor is larger or it is not sensitive to hormones then we have to give chemotherapy. In chemotherapy now very latest medicines are available there are called targeted therapy and the cure rates have become very high. All the cancers especially breast cancer the side effects are very minimal, we have all the medicines which can take care of the vomiting, the infection and other side effects which are happening along with the chemotherapy. And regarding radiotherapy, the latest technology is targeted radiation or image-guided radiation along with other things we are able to do a very pinpoint radiation to the area where it should go. So that it saves the underline normal structures from getting exposed to radiations the cure rates become very high and the side effects are very low. So I will say that all the girls and all the ladies they should do a self-examination try to be familiar with their normal body oncology, diagnose cancer early to treat it properly and be the cure of cancer. Thank you.read more
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It occurs when abnormally dividing cancerous cells form growth like tumors in the voice box, vocal cords & other parts of the throat like the tonsils, and the pharynx which is the hollow tube that runs from behind the nose to the top of the windpipe.
The common symptoms of throat cancer include coughing, trouble swallowing, hoarseness, and swollen lymph nodes. There are two primary types of throat cancers according to where they start in the throat- pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. Pharyngeal cancer forms in the pharynx while laryngeal cancer forms in the larynx or the voice box.
Causes of Throat Cancer
Recognizing potential signs of throat cancer in the early stages of the disease is not easy. Hence, it’s critical to know the causes and risk factors for developing this type of cancer in order to be able to diagnose it at a relatively early stage of the disease and prevent a fatality. Common risk factors and causes of throat cancer include:
- Gender – Men are up to five times more likely to get throat cancer as compared to women.
- Age - Now even young persons in their twenties and thirties are coming with throat cancer.
- Exposure to certain chemicals like Asbestos, Nickel, and Sulphuric acid fumes.
The common ‘lifestyle’ causes for throat cancer are smoking or chewing tobacco, as per WHO there is no minimum safe limit of alcohol, vitamin A deficiency due to a diet deficient in green vegetables, and infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) which causes cervical cancer in women and occurs due to unsafe sex.
The association of throat cancer with HPV infection, a sexually transmitted virus is very interesting. The Cancer Treatment Centers of America has stated that HPV infection is a risk factor for certain oropharyngeal throat cancers.
Cancer Research UK also warns that oral sex, especially with multiple partners, leads to oral cancers due to HPV infection. It further states that men are also more prone to get infected with HPV through oral sex than women and HPV infection is more common in men who have oral sex with multiple partners.
Apart from this, throat cancer has also been linked to other types of cancers like esophageal, lung or bladder. So, if you’ve been diagnosed with any of these, you are at greater risk of contracting throat cancer. These cancers also often have the same risk factors.
You can take a few steps to reduce your risk for throat cancer like stop smoking, reduce alcohol intake, maintain a healthy lifestyle – eat plenty of greens, reduce fat and salt intake, and lose excess weight by exercising regularly. You can also reduce your risk of HPV infection by limiting your sex partners and using condoms. Stop alcohol rather than reduce.
My mother is being diagnosed with breast cancer which is "infiltrating mammary carcinoma" (invasive) as per biopsy report she is done with her lumpectomy. First thing I want to know about is after 1 month of her surgery their is light redness on the area of the breast and very little warm sensation. What should we do to treat it and if its not necessary can it be left or cured untreated? Secondly. After lumpectomy biopsy report suggest she is having infiltrating mammary carcinoma with er and pr positive 10% and her 2 negative score 0 and "pt2n0" size of tumor was 4×3×3 she is 43 and she has menopause at the age of 36 have 3 children age 20,17,14 .with this info we have consulted Dr. (medical oncologist at hospital, mathura) and he advised us a "ki 67" test to be done so that he decide further treatment he was saying if ki67 report was good enough then my mother may not get chemotherapy and only radiation and hormonal treatment for 10 years will be enough. We are waiting for ki 67 report which we are expecting will come in upcoming 3 to 4 days. I just want a second opinion of yours. Please respond as soon as possible. thank you.
Though breast cancer has become very common, the good news is that more women than ever are living a healthy life to tell their survival stories. They have not just survived, but are thriving. Let us take you through a couple of survivor stories which not just gives strength and hope, but also the immense courage to stand up and fight it. The names are, however, changed to prevent identity.
Help yourself and others too: For most women, getting diagnosed with blood cancer can mean the end of life. While for the medical person, it is just another individual, for the individual, there is an entire world to think of, her world. What will happen to her family, her job, her life in total. Each person is different, and so the approach has to be different. It should not be a routine combo of surgery, chemo, and radiation. While some hospitals do it, giving a personalized touch helps. That is what happened Susan, who had a complete set of people including dietitian and psychiatrist to help her. The change that she saw with this approach led her to give a helping hand to others. She presently helps people fight and overcome breast cancer and has an extremely fulfilling life.
Shrink the tumor, not your life: For a person with two kids, Tina was aghast when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. She was just 31, and her second daughter was just turning 1, she was extremely distraught. But, her family stood with her through those testing times when she would not have time to run with her daughter or walk along with her mother. With immense support from her family, she is now free of cancer and is a Zumba instructor and now spends quality time with her daughter.
An experiment that worked: At 46 years of age, Maya was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer. She found a lump in her breast, which turned out to be breast cancer. The doctor said she would need it removed, and she also opted for surgery. What worked for her, though, is the fact that she was advised to try tamoxifen, which was not so strongly recommended during the initial times. She went ahead and tried, and even after 30 years down the line, is still free of cancer.
Two lives saved: At 23, Sonia was diagnosed not just with stage 4 breast cancer, but also with pregnancy. Re-testing yielded negative results. So she went ahead with chemo and radiation, but the abdominal fullness continued, and when tested again, the tests confirmed her pregnancy. She carried it through, and delivered 4 weeks prematurely but is very healthy and cancer-free now. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cancer, be it in any part of the body, has an increased success rate of cure and survival, when it is diagnosed early. The same is true with uterine cancer, the most common form of female reproductive cancer. However, unfortunately, a limited section of the society is aware of the necessary information about this fatal disorder, which is incidentally treatable if caught at early stages. To help the cause, here is a brief note on what one should be aware of when it comes to uterine cancer.
What is uterine cancer?
Cancer which begins at the tissue lining of the uterus also referred to as the endometrium, is called uterine or endometrial cancer which occurs due to the abnormal growth of the cells that can invade the other parts of the body. Some people tend to confuse this with uterine sarcomas which start developing when there is cancer growth in the muscles and other supporting tissues in the uterus. Also, uterine sarcomas account for a small percentage of cancers in the uterus.
Who are at higher risk of being affected with uterine cancer?
It is presumed that post-menopausal women are at a higher risk of being affected by uterine cancer. The average women diagnosed with the disease is 60 years. It is very uncommon in women who are aged below 45 years, and the causes are not yet precisely known.
While menopausal and post-menopausal women are at a higher risk of developing uterine cancer, it is crucial to understand that women who don’t belong to any of the risk groups may also be diagnosed with the disease due to other factors such as obesity or hormone therapy for breast cancer.
What are the most common symptoms of uterine cancer?
Abnormal vaginal bleeding, which means bleeding after menopause or between periods, is the most common symptom of uterine cancer. Typically, the bleeding begins as a form of watery blood-streaked discharge that becomes bloodier with the passage of time.
Other signs and symptoms of uterine cancer include:
- Difficulty or painful sensation while passing urine
- Pain in the pelvic region
- Prolonged and heavy episodes of vaginal bleeding
- Thin and white vaginal discharge
- Unusual vaginal bleeding
- Feeling heaviness in the pelvic area
According to experts, a woman who undergoes any of these signs and symptoms should not ignore the condition and seek medical attention immediately. But it is important to note that these symptoms can indicate something more serious or less severe. You should always check with your doctor to know what’s bothering your body.
The good news is that endometrial or uterine cancer is treatable and there are several options for treatment when the diagnosis is made at an early stage. Treatment methods involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or surgical removal of the uterus depending on the particular scenario. To conclude, it can be said that being aware of the condition can help you in dealing with it. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cancer occurs when there is an uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. Blood cancer affects three major components of the blood, namely white blood cells and marrow, the lymphocytes, and plasma. These are respectively known as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. The most commonly affected are the white blood cells.
Symptoms for each of these types differ; the same have been listed below:
Leukemia: Leukemia can be acute or chronic. In acute cases, the symptoms are more pronounced than the chronic ones. If the white blood cells are affected, then it causes the following:
- Shortness of breath
- Extreme tiredness and lack of energy
- Profuse sweating
- Increased susceptibility to infections
- Profuse bleeding during menstruation in women
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Headache and blurring of vision
- Bones and joint pain
- Chills and night sweats
The acronym TEST helps remember the symptoms of leukemia – tiredness, excessive sweating, sore joints, and terrible cases of bleeding. As white blood cells are involved in fighting infections, these individuals are also prone to easily develop infections.
Lymphoma: A type of white blood cells, lymphocytes help in fighting infections. Excessive growth of these leads to enlarged lymph nodes, which is often painless. However, other typical symptoms include:
- Severe coughing
- Swollen lymph nodes which are often generalized
- Severe weight loss, which is often unexplained
- Sudden chills and night sweats
- Extreme/severe fatigue, even with minimal activity
- Abdominal fullness
- Itching of the skin (again unexplained)
Myeloma: This form of cancer affects the plasma, which are responsible for carrying the blood cells throughout the body. Multiple myeloma is the most common cancer in this group, and this is generally a chronic condition. Symptoms are atypical and include:
- Generalized weakness and fatigue
- Increased incidence of infections
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Pain in the back region
- Kidney issues, which can be indicative to look for myeloma
When a patient presents with a combination of the above symptoms, a detailed history is very helpful to come to a sort of conclusion. The clinical findings are then corroborated with blood screening and tests which will help pin down the diagnosis.
There are about 130+ varieties of blood cancer, but the above three are the most common ones. Once suspected, it is very easy to diagnose blood cancer with blood tests. If a person has a family history, then they should watch out for early symptoms of blood cancer, and should immediately seek medical attention when in doubt. The most common form of therapy is chemotherapy as it is a generalized condition, and radiotherapy is more suitable for localized cancers.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The treatment options for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer one is suffering from, the general health of the patient, the stage of cancer and the general preference of the patient. Different treatment options are designed for different types of cancer, based on the diagnosis. Each treatment responds in a different way. An oncologist decides the treatment options considering all the factors mentioned above. For instance, some cancer is best suited to surgery, while some cancer needs radiotherapy or chemotherapy to curb them. In many cases, all three modes of treatment might be required to tackle the growth of the cancer cells.
The goal of surgery is to eradicate the cancer cells in totality along with some surrounding healthy tissues. This involves special techniques to remove a tumor in one piece. Following are the types of surgeries that are available:
- Removing the cancer cells sparing the limb: At the very first sight, the surgeon tries to understand whether it is possible to separate cancer cells from the tissues and the nerves. If the same is possible, the surgeon tries to save the limb while getting rid of the cancer cells. For the sake of safety and to ensure that the surgery is effective, the surgeon removes some of the healthy bone from the body and may replace the same with tissue from other parts of the body. To achieve this, a doctor might seek the help from of a bone bank or use a special metal prosthesis.
- Surgery that does not involve the limbs: If the bone cancer does not involve the legs and the arm, surgeons can remove the affected bone along with some healthy bone from the surrounding areas. Cancer of the ribs and the spine are good examples of this type.
- Surgery that affects the limb: Bone cancer that has spread to a significant extent and is strategically located in such areas that it is very difficult to remove, requires amputation. While this form of treatment is being increasingly discouraged by the wider medical community, it still does exist. In such cases, patients are fitted with artificial limbs and trained to do their job without the use of natural limbs.
This is a form of drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill cancer cells throughout the body. This medication is mostly given through an IV and the medication kills whatever cancer cells it comes across.
Radiation therapy involves the use of special X-ray beams that have high power and can kill cancer cells. The patients are required to lie on a table, while a machine moves around the affected area and treats it with high energy X-rays, thereby killing the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is often used in conjunction with chemotherapy to reduce the size of a tumor before operating on it. Also, Brachytherapy is another kind of radiotherapy in which plastic tubes for introducing radioactive sources are placed over tutor bed during surgery, later it is connected with brachytherapy machine to give extra high dose to tutor bed to improve cure rates.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, details as under PSA 6.02, FREE PSA 0.877, POST VOID RESIDUAL URINE 5 ML, GLEASON SCORE 3+3=6, GRADE 1. Right lobe 60-70%, Right 5%. Please advise.
In the past, cancer was a disease that could not be cured. It was a threat to mankind. But as science has developed tremendously through all these years, today it is possible to fight cancer.
Cancer therapies have evolved with time. Until the late 90s, most of the drugs worked by killing the cancer cells. Some of the normal cells were also killed by them, but it was acceptable due to the huge effect on cancer cells.
In modern days, targeted therapies are being performed. Targeted therapy is a process of cancer treatment where instead of the cancer cells, the changes in the cells are targeted. Changes that help the cells grow, divide and thus spread cancer have been observed and so researchers can diagnose the right treatment that can block these affects and prevent cancer. This therapy uses drugs and it is different from traditional chemotherapy.
There are two types of Targeted therapy.
- Small-molecule drugs: These drugs are small so that they can enter cells easily and target the changes inside the cells. They are taken as pills. They work by keeping the tissue around the tumor and starve it by stopping blood vessels that bring it nutrients.
- Monoclonal antibodies: These are used to target the outer surface of cancer cells. They work like a plastic plug in an electric socket. They help chemotherapy and radiation therapy to cure cancer cells.
Targeted therapies are used in the fields below
How It Works:
Targeted therapy can be used as a treatment option for cancer in the following ways:
- Destroy cancer cells: Cancer cells hide well from the immune system. This therapy points them out so that the immune system can destroy them. It also boosts the immune system to work better.
- Stop cancer cells growth: This therapy interferes with the proteins that divides the cancer cells and thus controls their growth.
- Kill the tumor: Blood vessels feed the cancer tumor. This therapy surrounds the tumor and stops the blood supply so that the tumor does not grow and remains small. And if the tumor already has blood supply, then it kills the blood vessels and causes the tumor to shrink.
- Deliver cell-killing substances: It delivers the cell-killing substances to the cancer cells. They are the monoclonal antibodies that are combined with chemotherapy drugs, toxins and radiation.
- Cause cancer cell death: Cancer cells avoid the dying process. These therapies cause them to go through the process.
Targeted therapies are less toxic than standard chemotherapy. So it is a better option but it still has some side effects.
- Liver problems
- Skin problems
- Problems with wound healing
- Difficulty with blood clotting
- High blood pressure
- Gastrointestinal perforation
Even though it has some side effects, it is still way better and much more effective than traditional chemotherapy. So, cancer patients are advised to go through this modern-day therapy.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cancer in colon forms due to uncontrolled cell growth in the large intestine cells. Most colon cancers originate from the healthy cells in the lining of the colon that grow into tumors called adenomatous polyps. These polyps can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant and may spread to the other parts of the body by traveling through blood and lymph systems, this process is known as metastasis. Whereas a benign tumor can grow but don’t necessarily spread to other parts of the body. It takes years for these changes to develop depending upon both genetic and environmental causes.
Causes and risk factors:
In a healthy body, the cells normally grow, divide and then die. Cancer is the result of uncontrollable cell growth where the cells do not die. Aging is one of the important risk factors for colon cancer; other risk factors include a family history of colon cancer. As per Johns LE and Houlston RS individuals with a family history of colon cancer have a high risk of developing this form of cancer as compared to those with no such history. A study conducted by Giovannucci and others in 1995, successfully established the relation between physical activity, obesity and colon cancer. As per the research lack of physical activities elevates the chance of getting colon cancer. Individuals who regularly smoke, are obese and use aspirin have a higher risk of developing this form of cancer. Diet is also an important factor, diets that are high in fat and low in fiber may elevate the risk.
The symptoms of colon cancer vary, depending upon the condition of the tumor. At the early stage, patients may experience no symptoms. However, as cancer grows, symptoms arise.
Diarrhea or constipation are common and patients may see changes in stool consistency and narrower stool.
- Abdominal discomfort
- Fullness and cramps may also indicate colon cancer.
- Sudden weight loss
- Unexplained iron deficiency (anemia) are also associated with this form of cancer.
If these symptoms last for several weeks, don’t hesitate to consult your physician.
- Colon cancer is highly treatable and depends on the type and the stage of cancer along with health and other characteristics of the patient. However, there is no single treatment; the most common options are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
- The surgery for colon cancer is known as colectomy and involves removing the affected part of the colon and the adjoining areas including nearby lymph nodes.
- Chemotherapy involves killing the cancer cells by utilizing certain chemicals that interfere the cell division process and damage the proteins or DNA. In the radiation therapy, high-energy gamma rays are used to target and destroy the cancer cells. Radiotherapy can be used both as a standalone treatment and also along with other treatments.
Minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopic surgery is increasingly becoming popular in all fields of surgery including gynecological oncology. Given its many advantages, it is easy to see why people prefer this form of surgery. The use of laparoscopy in the field of gynecological oncology began in the late 1980s. The first laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy was performed in 1989.
Laparoscopy and Endometrial Cancer
The endometrium refers to the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is rare are usually affect women over the age of 55 years. A hysterectomy is one of the forms of treatment for this condition. If detected in its early stages, this hysterectomy may be performed laparoscopically. As compared to traditional surgery, this reduces the hospital stay required and is associated with fewer postoperative complications. Laparoscopy may also be used to restage patients who have already undergone a hysterectomy.
Laparoscopy and Cervical Cancer
The lowermost part of the uterus is known as the cervix. A pap smear can help in the early detection of cervical cancer. This can be treated surgically in the form of a lymphadenectomy or a radical hysterectomy. One of the factors crucial to the management of this type of cancer is an evaluation of the lymph nodes. This is where laparoscopy is very useful. As in the case of endometrial cancer, laparoscopy may also be used for a hysterectomy procedure. A laparoscopic lymphadenectomy may also be performed to investigate the extent to which the cancer has spread. Advanced stages of cervical cancer can be treated with chemotherapy and radiation. In such cases, the role of laparoscopy may be limited to staging the patient before treatment.
Laparoscopy and Adnexal Masses
Adnexal masses refer to ovarian abnormalities and development of masses in the fallopian tubes, uterus and other organs in the pelvic cavity. Laparoscopy is routinely used to treat benign Adnexal masses. It can also be used in the management of malignant adnexal masses. However, its role is less clearly defined in such cases. When using laparoscopic procedures to address adnexal masses, it is important to identify benign masses beforehand.
Laparoscopy and Uterine Cancer
Laparoscopy can be used in a number of ways when it comes to the management and treatment of uterine cancer. These include staging apparent early stage cancer, determining the extent of the disease and resectability potential and to reassess a patient in cases of recurrent cancer. A hand assisted laparoscopy may also be used to resect the disease in some cases.