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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Hii my baby is 2 & half year old. He is suffering from phimosis issue & deficiency of iron too. He do not like chapati & sabji he inly likes potatoes. He is on milk only Pls suggest me he is suffering from two problems what I can do as a mother for him.
Hello sir My daughter is seven years old her height is not increasing. She eats paper so please tell what should i do?
My child is one month old and he is low birth weight baby. My problem is I have very low Brest milk supply. Can you please suggest me good formula milk for my child.
My daughter 9 years old suffering from bed-wetting till now. Doctor advised to take minirin nasal spray for 1 and half months. Does it improves her condition for bed wetting.
Hello doctor. My baby is 3 months old. At 6 weeks vaccination schedule Hexaxim, Rotateq,Prevenar injury given. At 10th weeks again same injections given. But there is no Hib injection at 10th week in vaccination schedule. Is that ok. Any side effects with hexaxim.
Nephrotic syndrome is a type of kidney disorder wherein, the body passes out the excess amount of proteins through urine, owing to the damage caused to the tiny clusters of blood vessels in the kidneys. The symptoms include putting on excessive weight as a result of fluid retention, foamy urine and severe swelling around the region of the feet, ankles and eyes.
The main feature of nephrotic syndrome is that the kidneys leak a lot of protein. Normally, urine contains virtually no protein. In nephrotic syndrome the urine contains large amounts of protein. What happens is that filters in the kidneys (the glomeruli) become 'leaky' and protein, instead of remaining in the blood, leaks out into the urine. Protein in the urine is called proteinuria.
The other key features of nephrotic syndrome are:
- A low level of protein in the blood as a result of protein loss in the urine. Although there is a drop in many of the proteins normally found in the bloodstream, the main protein that leaks from the blood into the urine is called albumin. A low blood level of albumin is main feature of nephrotic syndrome.
- Fluid retention (oedema). This is a consequence of the low level of albumin in the bloodstream, and other complex factors not fully understood.
- A high blood level of cholesterol and other fats (lipids). This is due to the change in the balance of various protein levels in the blood due to the protein leakage.
- Normal kidney function, at least initially. This means that the 'waste clearing' function of the kidneys is not affected - at least not at first. However, some of the conditions that cause nephrotic syndrome can progress to cause chronic kidney disease.
- Other typical symptoms and signs of nephrotic syndrome are discussed later.
Common causes behind it
Minimal change disease (also known as nil disease) leads to the abnormal functioning of the kidneys.. Most common cause almost 90% of children have this entity. No body knows why the Minimal change disease nephrotic syndrome occurs. Other reasons for nephrotic syndrome are infections, autoimmunity mediated and few medications.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the name given to a collection of kidney-related findings in your child’s body. These include:
- proteinuria—high levels of protein in the urine (based on your child’s age and size)
- hypoalbuminemia—low levels of protein in your child’s blood, since it’s being passed out of his body in his urine
- edema—swelling. This happens because the proteins in your child’s blood act as a sponge to keep fluid in the blood. With fewer proteins to do this, the fluid may leak out of the blood into your child’s tissues, causing them to swell, especially around the stomach area.
- high cholesterol (blood fat) levels—low levels of protein in the blood stimulate the body to overproduce certain kinds of blood fats
- While nephrotic syndrome is not a disease, it can be the first sign of disease that can damage the kidney's tiny blood-filtering unit (glomeruli) where urine is made.
Here’s what you need to know about nephrotic syndrome:
- In the vast majority of children, NS is idiopathic, meaning that doctors don’t yet know what causes it.
- Nephrotic syndrome always affects both kidneys.
- It usually appears between the toddler and elementary school years, although it may appear later.
- There are thought to be two forms of nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD) and focal sclerosis (FSGS).
- MCD is much more common in children, and likely to respond to therapy.
- FSGS is a more aggressive disease, and may lead to kidney damage.
- Most children with NS outgrow it by young adulthood.
Pediatric Nephrotic syndrome is mainly treated by high dose steroids. So we classify Nephrotic syndrome as Steroid sensitive Nephrotic syndrome and Steroid Resistant Nephrotic syndrome. As long as the Nephrotic syndrome is steroid sensitive, kidneys usually do not fail and eventually the child recovers. Other aspect of management of Nephrotic syndrome in kids is, that is a relapsing and remitting disease in more than 2/3 of patients, so parents must be making a Nephrotic diary as suggested by the doctor so that the relapse of disease is picked before the swelling appears. Target of Nephrotic syndrome treatment is to make the child grow normally and using steroid sparing agents in kids with frequent relapses and Steroid dependence else they can develop high blood pressure, short stature, cataract, glaucoma and diabetes which all are irreversible. Never start or stop the steroids on your own considering the side effect profile. All vaccines including oral polio drops are not to be given in children receiving daily dose steroids. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
Iron is an essential nutrient and mineral that is required by adults and children alike. Iron helps move oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and helps muscles store and use oxygen. It is especially important for children because it aids development and prevents anaemia. Untreated iron deficiency in children can cause physical and mental delays. It can lead to less healthy red blood cells in the child's blood stream which will cause a delay in the growth of physical and mental faculties.
Risk factors for iron deficiency in children
Infants and children at highest risk of iron deficiency include:
- Babies who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight
- Babies who drink cow's milk before age 1
- Breast-fed babies who aren't given complementary foods containing iron after age 6 months
- Babies who drink formula that isn't fortified with iron
- Children ages 1 to 5 who drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of cow's milk, goat's milk or soy milk a day
- Children who have certain health conditions, such as chronic infections or restricted diets
- Children ages 1 to 5 who have been exposed to lead
- Adolescent girls also are at higher risk of iron deficiency because their bodies lose iron during menstruation.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia
The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia in children may include:
- Pale skin
- Fatigue or weakness
- Slow cognitive and social development
- Inflammation of the tongue
- Difficulty maintaining body temperature
- Increased likelihood of infections
- Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or pure starch
Prevent iron deficiency in children
Take steps to prevent iron deficiency in your child by paying attention to his or her diet. For example:
- Breast-feed or use iron-fortified formula. Breast-feeding until your child is age 1 is recommended. If you don't breast-feed, use iron-fortified infant formula.
- Encourage a balanced diet. When you begin serving your baby solids, typically between ages 4 months and 6 months, feed him or her foods with added iron, such as iron-fortified baby cereal. For older children, good sources of iron include red meat, chicken, fish, beans and dark green leafy vegetables. Between ages 1 and 5, don't allow your child to drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of milk a day.
- Enhance absorption. Vitamin C helps promote the absorption of dietary iron. You can help your child absorb iron by offering foods rich in vitamin C, such as melon, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes and potatoes.
- Consider iron supplements. If your baby was born prematurely or with a low birth weight or you're breast-feeding a baby older than 4 months and he or she isn't eating two or more servings a day of iron-rich foods, talk to a child's doctor about oral iron supplements.
Make sure that you watch out for the tell tale signs of iron deficiency and take the necessary precautions to avoid the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific child related problem, you can consult a specilized pediatrician and ask a free question.
I have 2 year old son. He is having cough right now. Should I make him bath daily? Usually his bathtime is 2 pm. As it is winter should I skip his bath due to common cold? Please advice
My 1 years old baby is just hitting himself backhead by just falling back He is very angry baby He to stop his angry He is behaving normal But I am afraid that someone told that there should not be any injuries to head He is perfectly fine but I am concerned abt him Is any brain scan necessary?
Newborns primarily need your love, care, and attention. If you aren't sure whether you're on the right track with your little one, read on to find out the 3 most important things that your newborn needs:
1. Skin-to-skin contact: One of the best ways to speed up the bonding process with your newborn is by having as much as possible skin-to-skin contact with your child. This is important as the newborn connects through smell and touch during this time. The senses of your baby are naturally tuned to react to the feel of your bare skin and your distinctive smell.
Many studies also suggest that close physical contact can help in reducing stress in your newborn so as to allow its biological drive to come through and easily latch onto your breast to feed itself. In other words, it ensures a higher chance of getting the newborn started on breast milk in case your child is not taking to your breasts easily.
2. To be breastfed: The best food for your baby is milk that is produced by you. Breast milk offers a host of benefits that go beyond basic nourishment. According to research conducted by the national institute of environmental health sciences, a child faces 20% lower chances of dying between the ages of 28 days and 1 year if he or she is breastfed.
Protecting your child from illnesses such as childhood cancers or type 1 and type 2 diabetes, allergies, and obesity are some of the very important benefits that mother's milk can provide.
3. Swaddling your baby right: Wrapping a blanket snugly around the body of your newborn can help calm your little one and promote sleep. Several studies reveal that this technique of swaddling (which is done to resemble the mother's womb) if done correctly can bring about longer and better sleep for your child as well as reduce instances of crying. It also ensures your baby stays warm and comfortable.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!