Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 27 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Delhi and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Submit a review for Dr. B. B DashYour feedback matters!
I am 31 years now. Due to some financial problem we want to delay our family planing. Is it ok, if I conceive after one year?
I have PCOD since 8 years. I usually would face delayed n prolonged periods. The usual gap between the cycles would be 45 to 50days. But this time its been 65 days and i still didnt get my periods. I know i am.Not pregnant as i already got the pregnancy test done. What would be the possible reasons for the delay?
My wife nearly 50. She has irregular menstruation of two to three months gap. I intercourse after one month of menstruation without protection. Possibility of pregnancy? Is there any difference if intercourse took place after one month or after one month? If conceive what medication should follow?
Factors that determine the success of your IVF procedure
IVF or In Vitro Fertilization is a process wherein an egg is fertilized by a sperm in a laboratory dish to form the embryo (baby's first cell) which after growth in artificial medium in the lab is transferred into the uterus of women, In general, a blood sample is collected to determine whether you're pregnant or not about 10-14 days after the eggs are retrieved.
Coming to the success of the procedure, a number of factors are at play and these are:
- The age at which you get pregnant - A factor that plays a role in influencing your chances of experiencing success in your IVF procedure is the age at which you opt for this procedure. The lower your age, the chances that you may get pregnant and deliver a healthy child using your own eggs witness an increase. On the other hand, if you're aged 41 and above, or your egg reserve is very low donor eggs are the most preferred option as they help to increase your prospects of meeting a success.
- Lifestyle habits - Certain lifestyle factors can significantly affect your prospects of getting pregnant through this route. Smoking can reduce your prospect of success using this procedure by about 50%. It can cause you to have lesser number of eggs retrieved during the procedure while increasing instances of miscarriages. Likewise, obesity, alcohol use, consumption of excessive caffeine and drugs can adversely affect your chances of getting pregnant using IVF.
- Cause of Infertility - If your supply of eggs is normal, success rate using IVF is high. Women who suffer from the problem of endometriosis experience lesser chances of getting pregnant than women who have unexplained fertility.
- Reproductive history - IVF success rate chances are higher if you've delivered a baby previously using IVF.
- Embryo status - Embryos that are better developed with good grade stand a higher chance of experiencing success than less developed embryos. More importantly, not every embryo is able to survive the development process. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Doctor, How many days after D&C do period come again? I was one and half month pregnant & had my miscarriage on 19 June and D & C has done on 21 June. One months has completed but still my period hasn't come yet. How much time will it take to come again. What should I do to make my period normal again.
After how many days after having intercourse, one can use Prega News to be sure whether she is pregnant or not?
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina. In most cases, it is a symptom of an. Preventing recurrence compared with other means, or conclude that there is insufficient evidence for or .
Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.
Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.
- Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
- Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.
Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.
There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.
In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Leucorrhoea, vaginal discharge is a universal problem of all women. It is seen more in married women as compared to unmarried women. It’s also common to have more vaginal discharge during pregnancy period.
Female genitals are very much prone to infections since they are moist, sweaty and covered. The white vaginal discharge with foul smell makes it embarrassing to get into social gatherings and even engage in personal affairs. The affected women needs reassurance; prevention from infections and some counseling as most of the women health problems are psychosomatic. The amount of vaginal secretion varies throughout the menstrual cycle, peaking at ovulation and also increasing when under emotional stress.
What is leucorrhoea (white discharge)?
Mucous membranes and glands in our body produce a lot of secretions, which have their own separate functions. The secretions protect our body by forming a thin lining over the skin or mucous membrane. It also helps to keep the mucous membrane or skin moist and flexible. The best example to understand is saliva in the mouth. If this secretion becomes very low, everyone will feel the dryness. The skin may crack thus paving way for infections. Similarly, vaginal glands also secrete some secretions to keep the organ moist, flexible and to prevent it from infection by its acidic nature. At ovulation time, the acidic nature of the secretion gets altered to alkali nature by hormones to allow the male sperm to survive for fertilisation. If not, the sperms will find it difficult to thrive and reach the ovum. Also, secretions of the vagina help in lubrication during the sexual act.
Leucorrhoea is a medical term for white discharge which is an excessive secretion from the female reproductive tract especially from the vagina or cervix or both. It is very common in females nowadays. It could be embossing, painful and may cause lot of discomfort, stress and even affect the sexual preferences and libido. It may be mild to severe, and varies from person to person.
Types of leucorrhoea
Leucorrhoea is mainly classified into two types:
1. Physiological leucorrhoea
It is an excessive discharge or secretions of a normal vagina. It generally occurs among teenage girls due to hormonal imbalance during puberty, at the time of ovulation period of the menstrual cycle and before periods. In case of adults, it occurs during the course of sexual excitement and pregnancy.
2. Pathological leucorrhoea
It is a discharge occurring due to disease or malfunction of the female reproductive tract. It needs immediate attention, cleanliness and treatment. Ignoring pathological leucorrhoea may lead to serious problems like infertility and complications of uterus. The nature of discharge varies from thin to thick bloody discharge with foul smell. This condition is commonly present in both the cases of vaginitis and cervicitis.
Causes of leucorrhoea
- From fungus: candida albicans can easily flourish in moist circumstances and is commonly promoted by synthetic undergarments and poor hygienic condition.
- From parasites: protozoa - trichomonas vaginalis causes the trichomoniasis which spreads usually through sexual intercourse and moist clothes.
- From bacteria: gardnerella vaginalis and chlamydia are the prime causes in bacterial infections. Also, it is frequently seen in venereal diseases like gonorrhoea, syphilis, and aids.
Injury to the vagina or cervix or womb during childbirth, abortion, or excessive sexual indulgence can cause erosions and infections with discharges.
3. Poor hygienic conditions
Non hygienic measures, especially during periods, can create infection and cause leucorrhoea.
4. Diabetes and anaemia
May provoke infections due to weakened immunity among many females.
5. Irritation of iucd
If irritation persists at iucd, (intra uterine contraceptive device) it can cause pain and discharges.
6. Sprays and jellies
Used by males for provoking sexual act and jellies and drugs taken by females to kill sperms to avoid conception can also irritate and initiate the infective process.
Symptoms of leucorrhoea
Mostly there won’t be any symptom other than discharge. Discharge may be slim, viscid to dark coloured or even bloody with a foul smell. In some cases, the accompanying symptoms are:
- Lower abdominal pain
- Painful sexual act
- Backache and pain in the leg, especially thigh and calf muscles
- Intense itching with oedema of vagina
- Soreness and burning in the genital tract
- Burning urination and frequent urge to pass very little urine
- Irritability and lack of concentration in work due to consciousness of discharges
- Digestive disturbances like constipation or diarrhoea or vomiting
- General tiredness due to loss of vital fluids as discharges
- Soreness and dryness
- Strong smell or frothy discharge
- Dark coloured discharge
- Rashes or sore spots on the genitals.
Leucorrhoea is generally found to be hormonal. The occurrence, time and nature of the discharge also points out the diagnosis. Mostly, it can be easily differentiated as physiological or pathological leucorrhoea by physical examination. It is essential to identify the inflammation and help identify and confirm the type of infection.
Also, sometimes blood tests may be recommended by the doctors. Routine blood test gives some idea about the infection. And, finally, urine test is also a must to rule out the spread of infection.
Complications of leucorrhoea
• in case of chronic infection, and if left untreated, the infection spreads inward into the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, etc, causing congestion of the uterus or ovary or pelvis, leading to heavy menstrual flow in the forthcoming period.
• it acts as a precursor of pelvic inflammatory diseases, salphingo-oophoritis (infection of fallopian tube and ovaries) which mostly result in pelvic adhesions like peritoneal adhesions and fallopian tube adhesions which obstruct tubes and may cause infertility.
• white discharges in late fertile period or after menopause should always be analysed completely to rule out cervix cancer which is the second commonest site of cancer in females after breast cancer.
• urinary tract, reproductive tract and the adjacent organs are often caught in the spread of infection simultaneously since the urethra, vagina and anus lie very close.
- Wash genitals everyday
- Wear clean garments every day
- Always wear cotton underwear to avoid moisture.
- Do not stop treatment when symptoms disappear – taking full course of treatment is very important.
- Abstain from sexual intercourse during treatment to avoid irritation of tissues, which are in the process of healing.
- Sprays, deodorants, and strong perfumed soap and bath products
- Stress since it may affect the hormonal level and may increase secretions
- Sharing towels and garments
- Synthetic or nylon garments which cause dampness of genital organs
- Sexual intercourse during heavy discharges
- Nutritious diet, especially food rich in vitamins a, b, c, e, magnesium and zinc, to improve general health
- Plenty of water and juices to avoid urinary tract infection and its spread to the vagina or cervix.
- There are few medicine for like hydrastis, alumina, borax, pulsatilla, thuja, sulphur, kreosote etc.
- But before taking this medicine please consult your homoeopathic doctor.