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Sleepwalking is also known as somnambulism is a type of parasomnia. A parasomnia includes undesired interruption in ones sleep. Sleepwalking happens when you get up from your sleep, and walk around your house. You are actually still in a state of sleep when you are sleepwalking around. It can, likewise, include a progression of other complex activities. You are likely to suddenly get up from sleep and sit on your bed, looking around like you are dazed or confused. Another type of sleepwalking involves abruptly rising in the midst of sleep and running away. Apparently, the patients feel that there is an acute threat, and they must escape from it by running away.
There are more features of sleepwalking. Here is a list of facts on sleepwalking which you should know.
- You may talk or yell as you are sleep walking. Your eyes are normally open and have a look of confusion. The eyes also seem to be glassy. You may perform some activities, which are not supposed to be done at night.
- Strange, peculiar and weird actions are carried out while sleepwalking, in inappropriate places. Urinating in a garbage can, rearranging your furniture or jumping out of the window are common weird activities, which can be observed in sleepwalkers. The patient turns very violent and arrogant.
- In uncommon cases, a patient will get into a car and set out for some unknown location. The patient may even choose to get separate for a long duration. Exposure of inappropriate body parts is also observed in sleepwalkers. Grown ups may dream or fantasize while they sleepwalk.
- Some people tend to eat during sleepwalking phase.
- Waking up a sleepwalker is a very difficult thing to do. When a patient finally wakes up, he is in a state of utter fix and confusion. No memory of the events that happened during sleepwalking remain, and a patient cannot recall anything. Adult patients may sometimes recall very few traces of what might have happened. A clear memory of the events is rarely found in sleepwalkers.
- At times, the patient becomes so violent that he may attack anyone who tries to wake him up. This is seen more in men. The sleepwalking may end abruptly, and the patient will find himself in an unknown place. The last memory that he might recall is going to sleep in bed. Some patients return to their beds after a stroll automatically, without waking up.
Sleepwalking is an unhealthy phenomenon and measures should be taken if you find someone to be sleepwalking.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Epilepsy is a form of chronic disorder and it is characterized by recurrent seizures. The episodes of epileptic seizures may differ from person to person. There are various causes of seizures inclusing genetic disorder, trauma or stroke, etc. During a seizure, a patient may also experience symptoms of neurological disorders and sometimes lose consciousness.
Medical help for epilepsy
Epilepsy itself cannot be cured using medication, but proper medicines help in eliminating recurrent seizures. These medicines stabilize the electrical activity within the brain preventing seizures.
How effective is the medication for epilepsy?
The success of controlling seizures using medicines depends on the type and severity of the epilepsy. Medicines for epilepsy are usually very effective and may fully keep seizures under control. However, controlling seizures caused due to brain problems may be more difficult. Usually, epilepsy medicines can control seizures for a long period of time when they are taken regularly.
When is medical help needed?
The decision about when to start medicines for epilepsy is a tricky one. This is because a first seizure cannot confirm whether a person has an on-going epilepsy problem. A second seizure may occur after many years or may not happen at all. Prediction of seizures is also quite difficult.
The severity of seizures also indicates when to start medicines for treatment. In case a first seizure is quite severe, medication should be started at once.
All the pros and cons must be thought over before starting medications for the treatment of epilepsy. In most cases, medication is started after a second seizure occurs, twelve months within the first seizure. You should always consult a doctor to know when you need to start taking medicines to treat the condition.
For making the most out of the medicines to control seizures, you should follow certain steps:
- You must take medications exactly as your doctor has prescribed.
- Before switching to generic versions of your medicines or before taking other prescribed medicines, you must consult your doctor.
- You should never stop taking the medicines.
- In case you experience enhanced depression, mood swings and suicidal thoughts, you should talk to your doctor immediately.
- In case you have migraine, you should let your doctor know so that he can prescribe you anti-epileptic medicines, which also prevent migraines.
Medicines cannot treat the underlying cause of epilepsy, but these help in controlling seizures and this is the most common symptom of epilepsy. Medication should be started at a proper time and must be continued without stopping, unless advised so by the doctor.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Depression can wreak havoc in anyone’s life. It not only brings relentless hopelessness, but can also alter the life of a person. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reveals that more than 7% of young adults suffer from depression without their knowledge.
Depression lasting at least for 2 weeks suggests an illness and is also characterised by a feeling of hopelessness and helplessness.
The cardinal symptoms of depression include feeling sad or disinterested in his or her surroundings for most of the time during the day. This may happen with or without nay stressor. Depression is also characterised by changes in day to day routines like having lack of sleep or more sleep, loss of appetite or eating more than needed, not getting happiness of previously pleasurable activities, getting annoyed and irritated easily, having abrupt mood swings, having feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, having death wishes and ideas for committing suicide etc.
If a person deals with the below mentioned symptoms for more than once a week, it is wise to visit a psychiatrist in order to treat it.
- Eating irregularities: Loss of appetite is very common in those suffering from depression. A person might find himself withdrawn most of the time. This results in loss of interest in cooking or eating. Too many negative thoughts can curb hunger, resulting in weakness. On the other hand, depression can also lead to overeating. Affinity towards caffeine, chocolates, and ice cream dramatically increases. Studies have shown that these food items can give a soothing feeling. This being said, they are also responsible for weight gain in a person in a very short span of time.
- Sleeping irregularities: A depressed person might find himself sleeping too much or too little. The disengagement from daily lives and sudden energy drop makes a person fatigued for the better half of the day, resulting in more sleep. This also serves as an escape mechanism for many. There is also the other lot who can hardly sleep due to depression. Irrational thinking and a sense of vengeance can cause this problem. This is a far worse problem. Lack of minimum amount of sleep can disturb the body’s internal clock, resulting in fatigue and tiredness.
- Frequent agitation: If your friends complain of frequent snapping and agitation from your end, you might be suffering from depression. A load of heavy emotion results into frequent mood swings and force a person to behave irrationally. The sense of understanding and empathy tends to take a back seat and gets replaced by irritation and pain during this phase. A person can find himself on the edge with small and little things.
- Challenge in concentrating: Forgetting a deadline or losing focus in work is a common tendency witnessed if faced with depression. Concentrating on a job becomes a major challenge. Since the mind is preoccupied with negative thoughts, a person portrays risky behaviour and poor decision-making. Reiteration of the same thoughts can make concentration extremely challenging for a person suffering from depression.
- Hard to enjoy a hobby: If a person finds it difficult to enjoy things he previously loved doing, he might be suffering from depression. Depression makes it difficult for a person to seek pleasure in fun activities. It creates a vicious cycle of despair and loneliness. Isolation from any company is what a patient of depression longs for.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Gender Identity Disorder or Gender Dysphoria causes the patient to think that he or she is does not belong to the gender that may be physically apparent. This condition may cause severe stress, anxiety and depression.
Let us find out more about the depressive conditions caused due to this disorder and how this depression may be treated:
- Trapped: One of the most common emotions that a patient experiences while suffering from this condition includes feeling trapped in the wrong body. For example, while all the visual and physical signs may point at the male status of the patient, he may actually feel that he is a female. In such cases, the patient often feels like the body does not reflect his or her true gender. This can cause the patient to feel trapped, which in turn can lead to feelings like restlessness.
- Anxiety: Once the restlessness sets in, general dissatisfaction grows, which is the earliest sign of anxiety. The intense discomfort experienced by the patient can lead to severe anxiety where he or she shuns normal functioning and socialising. The patient may choose to stay alone and isolated in the long run, which can fuel further anxiety when the patient is faced with social situations like school, work and others.
- Mismatch: The depression and anxiety also comes from a sense of mismatch that the patient may feel when it comes to the gender in the mind and the physical gender that may be parlayed with the genitals as well as other areas of the body and development. This mismatch will need to be addressed in order to get to the root of the depression and anxiety experienced by the patient.
- Talk Therapy: Talk therapy is one of the most common and popular forms of therapy that has been used for this kind of disorder. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or CBT is one of the most effective forms of therapy used for conditions like depressions due to GID or any other kind of depression and anxiety. With this kind of therapy, the patient can be brought face to face with the problem before reprogramming the attitude, thinking and resulting behaviour of the patient to be more accepting of the condition. Also, any physical therapy will have to backed by it.
- Trans Sexuality and Homosexuality: With the help of therapy, one of the most important and initial barriers that will have to brought down is the opinion of the patient. The patient will have to be made aware of the fact that his or her problem does not convert his or her into a transsexual or homosexual. This condition is not the same a sexual orientation issue.
There are a number of mental disorders and conditions that may affect the psyche of a person, due to various reasons including hormonal changes, environmental factors and even genetic conditions. Paranoid Personality Disorder is one such condition that gives rise to eccentric behavioral patterns. This may make the individual seem odd or even strange to others. Here are the signs, causes and various forms of treatment available for this condition.
Symptoms and Signs: Most of the individuals suffering from this disorder will be completely convinced that there is nothing wrong with their behavior and everyone around them are conniving against them with ulterior motives of bringing them down. This will make them highly suspicious individuals with intense trust issues. They also become angry and violent very soon and usually do not have a justified reason for such temper tantrums. These individuals will also be detached and isolated socially, with hardly any friends and relationships. They will also have trouble seeing their own problems and flaws, which can keep them from having meaningful relationships.
Causes: The causes of this disorder are not known as yet. There is much ongoing research in this field. It is widely believed that this disorder is born due to a combination of biological factors and other environmental factors that may have conditioned the brain in a negative manner. Chemical and hormonal imbalances are known to be at the core of many such disorders. Also, it may be seen in people who come from a family of Schizophrenic individuals. Trauma experienced during one's childhood can also lead to the onset of this disorder.
Treatment: One of the most effective forms of treatment for this disorder includes therapy. Talk therapy or CBT which is also known as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a form of discussion based therapy that can help the individual in talking about his or her feelings. These are then analysed in a clinical setting with the intervention of a trained psychiatrist or psychologist who will help the individual in pointing out abnormal behavior. This kind of therapy also helps in reaching the root cause of the issue that may have caused this condition in the first place. By doing so, there is a better chance of treating this cause and thus changing the attitude of the patient. This will help in steering the individual towards more normal behavior in the long run. This kind of therapy will have to take place over a long period of time before the results begin to show up in the day to day living and functioning of the individual. Anti-depressants and antipsychotics may also be prescribed. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is such a disorder of personality that causes mood swings, self-esteem issues, impulsive behavior and recurrent self-harm behaviour. It is very difficult to lead a normal life with these varied psychological issues.
People suffering from BPD fear abandonment and loneliness. Yet, they have a tendency of showing mood swings, sudden emotional outburst or anger and hostility. This prevents them from having a long lasting relationship in life. It usually starts affecting the patient's life from early adulthood. It however seems to improve with age. The patient also has distorted self-image. He or she is unclear about what they want from life or what they are in reality. Even minor incidents can trigger intense reactions in people with BPD.
Symptoms of BPD:
- Disturbed self-image: People have self-esteem issues, they sometimes love or hate themselves or see themselves as evil. They have unclear goals, views, beliefs and often end up changing their friends, lovers, jobs, sexual identity frequently.
- Emotional instability: Intense feelings of rage, sorrow, anger, guilt and emptiness or loneliness are experienced by some sufferers of BPD. Extreme mood swings, lasting for a short span of time, are common in BPD. They may also have issues with their self-image where they cannot place themselves and don't know what they feel about themselves or who they are.
- Dysfunctional relationships: It is very difficult to maintain a normal relationship for people with personality disorder. They tend to have quick short-lived relationships and get put off very easily which leads to a lot of heartbreak. Suicidal tendencies and frequent self-harm behaviour like cutting skin using blades/ sharp objects are common. Drugs and alcohol abuse, eating disorders and sexual promiscuity are other forms of self-destructive behaviour commonly encountered in this population.
Causes for BPD:
- Usually it has been found by researchers that it occurs to patients who have had a disturbed childhood. Complex and unpleasant happenings in the childhood may leave a deep impact on the patient's personality, which comes back as a disorder in his or her early adulthood. From mental, physical to sexual abuse in the childhood can lead to this condition in adults.
- Besides, researchers have discovered recently that this illness has hereditary links. Some genes may be responsible for BPD. Improper functioning of the brain is also another factor. Especially, the portion of brain that controls emotions might not be functioning properly in co-ordination with other parts of it.
Diagnosis for BPD:
There is no particular clinical test that can diagnose BPD. It can be diagnosed by a series of interactive session with the patient by a psychiatrist.
Love and support from family and friends are crucial for patients suffering from this disease. Prolonged counseling sessions, therapies and the effort to break away from the chronic gloomy thoughts will definitely lead one to a better life. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Child sexual abuse is a pressing issue in society today. Statistically, there has been a considerable increase in the number of cases related to juvenile sex abuse over the past decade. Most of the cases report the abuser to be a close family member or a family friend rather than a complete stranger.
A sexually abused child may develop severe mental health conditions and have major difficulties coping with as an adult. One of the most common disorders affecting survivors of child sexual abuse is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This involves the individual reliving the trauma all his/her life, thus leading to panic, stress and difficulties in living a healthy life in the longer run.
The individuals who were abused as a child normally suffer from a very low self -esteem. They continue to blame themselves for the events that occurred and hence have a rather demeaning view of themselves, leading to adjustment issues in the future.
They may also be diagnosed with clinical depression owing to the previous trauma. This hampers the everyday functioning of the individual. The individual may continue to relive the past traumatic events in the mind that further fuels their depression and contribute to the vicious cycle, eventually.
Most often, survivors of child sexual abuse have a rather impulsive nature owing to the hampered functioning of impulse-control. They have lesser control over their emotions, especially anger and are rather quick to act on it.
Because of all the complications, they might be less socially competent and thus fail to build firm peer relationships. They grow up to be adults with severe trust issues; they are hence, often side-lined because of their cynicism which leads to further depressive symptoms.
Genophobia or the fear of sex is another complication that they may experience as adults. They may avoid sex altogether or engage in sexual activities that are rather violent in nature. Some survivors may develop certain sexual fetishes that can be rather dangerous; the most common being ‘paedophilia’ or the sexual arousal involving prepubescent children.
The seriousness of the condition is often undermined. In treatment, various therapeutic techniques are used according to the need and age of the patient. Therapists work to promote positive thinking among the sufferers so that it becomes easy for them to accept their past and move on in life with a better outlook. With proper guidance and help, the individuals are able to overcome their mental health issues and live a wholesome life. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
People who have been victims of domestic violence not only suffer physical abuse, but from emotional abuse as well, which may stay with them for their whole life. The trauma associated with domestic violence can be deep and takes time to heal even after the relationship with the perpetrator is over and there is no communication or contact between them.
Emotional harm is greater than physical harm
Women make up the significant majority of domestic violence victims. When they face violence within the home sphere, they experience a wide range of emotions like anger, sadness, powerlessness, fear, resentment, vindictiveness and much more. Physical violence not only harms their body, but their mind and spirit are equally wrecked as the memory of being physically subjugated scars them emotionally in a very deep manner and can take years to heal.
Some of the long term impact of domestic violence on women is mentioned below.
- Any kind of physical injuries like bruises, cuts or dislocated joints and bones.
- Many women suffer from hearing impairment
- Loss of vision is also another effect
- Miscarriage or premature childbirth
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- A feeling of fatigue and weakness
In certain cases, unreported domestic violence may result in homicide or murder which is the ultimate and most unfortunate manifestation of physical abuse gone too far, That is why it is important to seek help early on before things escalate too far.
The mental effects of domestic violence take much longer time to recuperate from than the physical effects. If the shock is severe, it can render women mentally unstable for life in extreme cases. Even if a woman recovers from it, the emotional scar may remain and might manifest in the future.
- Depression: This is one of the worst mental effects of domestic violence is depression. The good news is depression is often temporary and can be cured. Signs of depression include a feeling of hopelessness, sadness, weight gain or loss, sleeplessness, loss of appetite and a consequent lack of interest in whatever you love to do. This can affect one’s decision making ability and in extreme cases can render one suicidal.
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: When you encounter any violent experience, then you are most likely to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The signs of this disorder include frequent flashbacks of the traumatic experience, nightmares and extreme anxiety. Women who face these kinds of traumatic experiences find it difficult to cope with their present situation for a while. Counselling and support from their loved ones can heal these problems fast.