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The human body has 206 bones and bone cancer can affect any of these bones. This condition starts when healthy bone marrow cells mutate and grow out of control to form a tumor. There are many different types of bone cancer. Treatment of bone cancer varies from case to case and depends on factors such as, type of cancer, stage at which it is diagnosed and the patient’s overall health amongst other factors.
Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are the three most common types of treatments favored for bone cancer. Surgery is usually used for low-grade tumors. This involves the removal of tumor and the surrounding healthy cells and tissues to ensure that that cancer does not recur. For high-grade tumors, surgery may be accompanied by chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of the two.
Chemotherapy involves the delivery of medication to destroy cancer cells orally or intravenously. Radiation involves the use of high energy X rays to kill cancer cells. This is often used to treat patients with a tumor that cannot be surgically removed.
Apart from these standard forms of treatment, bone cancer patients are often advised to take part in clinical trials for their treatment. This can be described as a research study to test the efficiency of new approaches to the treatment of bone cancer. A clinical trial can be used to treat the safety and efficacy of a new drug, the new dosage of standard drugs or a new combination of treatment types. As a member of a clinical trial, you may be one of the first few people to benefit from treatment even before it is available to the general public.
Some of the new options available through clinical trials are:
- Immunotherapy: This is also known as biologic therapy. It is designed to boost the patient’s immune system to fight cancer cells. Mifamurtidesi one of the types of immunotherapy being tested. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as monoclonal antibodies are also being tested for their ability to block specific molecules.
- Targeted therapy: This type of therapy targets the genes and proteins that contribute towards the growth and survival of cancer cells. Targeted therapy limits the damage caused to healthy cells and tissues and only blocks the growth of cancer cells.
- Myeloablative therapy: This involves an intense regimen of chemotherapy. High doses of chemotherapy aim at destroying all the cancer cells. Unfortunately, in the process, healthy cells may also be killed. This may be followed by introducing stem cells through a bone marrow transplant to the patient’s body to renew blood cells.
- Intraoperative radiation therapy: These trials evaluate the use of radiation given inside the patient’s body during a surgery. In cases where tumor is in a distant location of the body, stereotactic body radiotherapy and radiofrequency ablation may be used.
I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess narrowing with mild thecal sac indentation and abutting transversing nerve fibres and existing neural foramen stenosis.(2) subtle L3 -L4 diffuse posture lateral iv disc bulge causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess effacement. What is the treatment of it .is surgery necessary for it.
I have disc bulge at c5-6 level and disc extrusion at c6-7 level. L3/4, L5 spondylodegenarativ change.
Prolapse disc surgery endoscopic can be done under local anaesthesia for aged patient with cardiac renal pulmonary functions normal?
Breast Cancer - What exactly is it?
‘Breast cancer’ is a term that is used to refer to a malignant tumour, which has developed from cells present in the breast. Generally, all tumours can be divided into two categories i.e. benign and malignant and it is the malignant tumour that is responsible for causing cancer. Breast cancer generally originates in the cells the milk producing glands of the breast's or the passage, which carries milk from the glands to the lobules. Additionally, breast cancer can also originate in the stromal tissues, including the fibrous and fatty connective breast tissues.
Breast Cancer: Treatment Options
Treatment for breast cancer depends upon two things: the exact type of the cancer and how advanced the cancer is. Treatment options for breast cancer can thus be broadly divided into two categories as Local treatments and Systemic treatments.
Treatments that target the tumour without having any effect on the rest of the body are called local treatments. The following types of local treatment options are available for treating breast cancer:
- Surgery: Surgical breast cancer treatment involves removal of the malignant cancerous tumour in an operation. Smaller tumours can be removed using a surgical process referred to as ‘lumpectomy’, wherein the tumour along with a small amount of healthy tissue surrounding the tumour is removed. For larger tumours, removal of the entire breast becomes mandatory, in a surgical process known as ‘mastectomy’. Women who undergo mastectomy can choose to undergo reconstructive plastic surgery for reconstruction of the removed breast(s).
- Radiation Therapy: This basically involves using radiation to kill cancer cells present in the body. Radiation therapy is a long-drawn process that usually involves a set number of treatments administered over a long period of time. Radiation therapy is also generally the follow-up procedure after a lumpectomy, or more rarely, a mastectomy.
Treatments involving drugs that are administered via either the mouth or direct injection into the bloodstream are called systemic treatments. These include:
- Chemotherapy: This includes using drugs to destroy the cancer cells present in the body by stopping the cancer cells from growing and dividing. Chemotherapy can be administered using either an IV (intravenous) tube or via pills that can be swallowed.
- Hormone Therapy: This treatment option is used for treating tumours which have tested positive for progesterone or oestrogen receptors. Blocking hormones that fuel the tumour’s growth is the basis of this therapy.
- Targeted Therapy: This targets specific proteins and genes which contribute to growth and survival of the cancer cells. Targeted therapy is an extremely focused treatment, and is very effective in blocking the growth and division of cancer cells, as well as minimizing damage to surrounding healthy cells.
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