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Balloon Angioplasty Procedure
Treatment of Hip Disorders
Prevention of Blockage, Atherosclerosis & Heart At
Holistic Heart Wellness & Health Care - Ayurveda
Mitral Valve Replacement Surgery
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Vascular Surgery Treatment
Treatment of Blockage, Atherosclerosis & Heart Att
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My chest is paining when Sometimes I breath faster. Is that a serious issue? I smoke 1cigarette daily. Is it happens due to smoking or some another reason? Please tell me the solution. It is also effects on my sexual relation, that I can't satisfies my partner. I m facing too much issue due to this problem. Is there any solution.
For the past one year I am having a heart palpitations more than normal for 24 hrs. It's more pronounced especially in the morning accompanied by weakness. The ECG test is normal. Is this anxiety related or something else?
Hello doctor (s. My mother aged 54 is a heart patient. She has undergone balloon valvoplasty in November 2012 as she had got her valves of the heart shrinkage. Since then she is having medicines regularly. And she is fine and healthy. The doctor she was being treated under had advised her to undergo comprehensive health check-ups once a year. She got it done last year. Now she has moved to different city and in next few days her next consultation and check-up is due. My question is if she undergoes treatment of any other cardiologist in Kolkata, please suggest me a good option of Cardiologist in Kolkata. Will the doctor conduct all the test once again (apart from comprehensive health check-up)? If yes, is it mandatory?
I am 38 yrs old and I have high cholesterol and have some swelling near my eyes what to do please help.
How to control diabetics, cholesterol and blood pressure? details:- weight 87, height 5' 9", age 52.
If you are facing difficulties in breathing, especially in the process of exhaling, you are suffering from emphysema. Emphysema is a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness. It occurs as a result of several triggers, smoking being the most common one. Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. People with this condition struggle to exhale, which implies that there is some obstruction in the air flow. This disease has no permanent cure but by quitting smoking, you can stop it from getting worse.
The progression and severity of emphysema occurs with the staging systems. The staging of the condition can help in developing a prognosis.
The Gold emphysema staging system
Gold is a major emphysema staging system created by a group known as the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The amount of air a patient can exhale forcefully in one second is determined during this stage. It is also referred to as the forced expiratory volume or FEV1.
The staging is as follows:
- Stage 1: Mild emphysema (FEV1 greater than 80% of normal)
- Stage 2: Moderate emphysema (FEV less than 80%, but more than 50% normal)
- Stage 3: Severe emphysema (FEV lesser than 50%, but more than 30% normal)
- Stage 4: Extremely severe emphysema. (FEV lesser than 30% of normal or lesser than 50% normal, with low levels of oxygen in the blood.
The BODE emphysema staging system
The condition affects several abilities. The BODE index, an acronym for BMI (body mass index), obstruction, dyspnea (breathlessness), exercise capacity (health index) is another staging system for emphysema in which the emphysema’s impact on several areas of life are measured. They include the following:
- Body mass index (B)
- Airflow limitation or obstruction (O), which is measured by pulmonary function tests
- Breathless or dyspnea (D), which is assessed thoroughly via a questionnaire
- Exercise capacity (E), which is measured to check how long a person with emphysema can walk in a span of six minutes
The prognosis of emphysema is impossible to be determined in any person individually. The staging system helps to identify the severity of the condition, but the future cannot be predicted. Not many studies have been undertaken for the determination of the effects of emphysema on life expectancy. The best research that has been carried out included around 100 people, which is very less. The condition varies largely among people, even if they are in the same stage.
The statistics available on emphysema are not reliable enough for individuals who wish to know their life expectancy. It is considered that if a patient falls in a higher stage, his/her long-term life expectancy is less. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.