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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation that is one or more missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row have amenorrhea, as do girls who haven't begun menstruation by age 16. The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy. Other causes of amenorrhea include problems with the reproductive organs or with the glands that help regulate hormone levels.
Treatment of the underlying condition often resolves amenorrhea.The main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:
- Milky nipple discharge (galactorrhoea)
- Hair loss
- Vision changes
- Excess facial hair (Hirsuitism)
- Pelvic pain
You should consult a doctor if you've missed at least three menstrual periods in a row, or if you've never had a menstrual period and you're age 16 or older.
Causes: Amenorrhea can occur for a variety of reasons. Some are normal during the course of a woman's life, while others may be a side effect of medication or a sign of a medical problem.
During the normal course of your life, you may experience amenorrhea for natural reasons, such as:
Some women who take birth control pills may not have periods. Even after stopping oral contraceptives, it may take some time before regular ovulation and menstruation return. Contraceptives that are injected or implanted also may cause amenorrhea, as can some types of intrauterine devices.
Certain medications can cause menstrual periods to stop, including some types of:
- Psychiatric medications
- Cancer chemotherapy
- Blood pressure drugs
- Allergy medications
- Lifestyle factors
Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhea, for instance:
- Low body weight: Excessively low body weight, about 10 percent under normal weight interrupts many hormonal functions in your body, potentially halting ovulation. Women who have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, often stop having periods because of these abnormal hormonal changes.
- Excessive exercise: Women who participate in activities that require rigorous training, such as gymnastics,athletics may find their menstrual cycles interrupted. Several factors combine to contribute to the loss of periods in athletes, including low body fat, stress and high energy expenditure.
- Stress: Mental stress can temporarily alter the functioning of your hypothalamus an area of your brain that controls the hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle. Ovulation and menstruation may stop as a result. Regular menstrual periods usually resume after your stress decreases.
Many types of medical problems can cause hormonal imbalance, including:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS causes relatively high and sustained levels of hormones, rather than the fluctuating levels seen in the normal menstrual cycle.
- Thyroid malfunction: An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) can cause menstrual irregularities, including amenorrhea.
- Pituitary tumor: A noncancerous (benign) tumor in your pituitary gland can interfere with the hormonal regulation of menstruation.
- Premature menopause: Menopause usually begins around age 50. But, for some women, the ovarian supply of eggs diminishes before age 40, and menstruation stops.
Problems with the sexual organs themselves also can cause amenorrhea. Examples include:
- Uterine scarring: Asherman's syndrome, a condition in which scar tissue builds up in the lining of the uterus, can sometimes occur after a dilation and curettage (D&C), cesarean section or treatment for uterine fibroids. Uterine scarring prevents the normal buildup and shedding of the uterine lining.
- Lack of reproductive organs: Sometimes problems arise during fetal development that lead to a girl being born without some major part of her reproductive system, such as her uterus, cervix or vagina. Because her reproductive system didn't develop normally, she can't have menstrual cycles.
- Structural abnormality of the vagina: An obstruction of the vagina may prevent visible menstrual bleeding. A membrane or wall may be present in the vagina that blocks the outflow of blood from the uterus and cervix.
Clinical examination by the doctor includes a pelvic exam to check for any problems with your reproductive organs. If you've never had a period, the doctor may examine your breasts and genitals to see if you're experiencing the normal changes of puberty.
Amenorrhea can be a sign of a complex set of hormonal problems. Finding the underlying cause can take time and may require more than one kind of test/investigation.
A variety of blood tests may be necessary, including:
- Pregnancy test: This will probably be the first test your doctor suggests, to rule out or confirm a possible pregnancy.
- Thyroid function test: Measuring the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood can determine if your thyroid is working properly.
- Ovary function test: Measuring the amount of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or AMH (anti-mullerian hormone) in your blood can determine if your ovaries are working properly.
- Prolactin test: Low levels of the hormone prolactin may be a sign of a pituitary gland tumor.
- Male hormone test: If you're experiencing increased facial hair and a lowered voice, the doctor may want to check the level of male hormones in your blood.
Hormone challenge test
For this test, you take a hormonal medication for seven to 10 days to trigger menstrual bleeding. Results from this test can tell the doctor whether your periods have stopped due to a lack of estrogen.
Depending on your signs and symptoms — and the result of any blood tests you've had, the doctor might recommend one or more imaging tests, including:
- Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to produce images of internal organs. If you have never had a period, your doctor may suggest an ultrasound test to check for any abnormalities in your reproductive organs.
- Computerized tomography (CT): CT scans combine many X-ray images taken from different directions to create cross-sectional views of internal structures. A CT scan can indicate whether your uterus, ovaries and kidneys look normal.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRI uses radio waves with a strong magnetic field to produce exceptionally detailed images of soft tissues within the body. Your doctor may order an MRI to check for a pituitary tumor.
If other testing reveals no specific cause, the doctor may recommend a hysteroscopy — a test in which a thin, lighted telescope is passed through your vagina and cervix to look at the inside of your uterus.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of your amenorrhea. In some cases, contraceptive pills or other hormone therapies can restart your menstrual cycles. Amenorrhea caused by thyroid or pituitary disorders may be treated with medications. If a tumor or structural blockage is causing the problem, surgery may be necessary. Some lifestyle factors — such as too much exercise or too little food — can cause amenorrhea, so strive for balance in work, recreation and rest. Assess areas of stress and conflict in your life. If you can't decrease stress on your own, ask for help from family, friends or your doctor.
Be aware of changes in your menstrual cycle and check with the doctor if you have concerns. Keep a record of when your periods occur. Note the date your period starts, how long it lasts and any troublesome symptoms you experience.
I had intercourse using protection on Aug 2 and 8th. Once his sperm spilled outside soo I took emergency pill. My periods date is 24 .my cycle is always normal .After dat next two months got normal periods on 22nd. And bleeding was as usual for 6-7 days. Now it's d 3rd month I din get my periods. I don have any symptoms of pregnancy except I feel my tummy s lil bulged. May it's my stress. But y my period s missing now. I'm tensed pls help.
Acidity - gastritis: understanding the symptoms and causes
Gastritis/acidity is a group of diseases or symptoms where there is excess secretion of acid by the gastric glands of the stomach.
If you have upper abdominal discomfort or pain, stomach fullness, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, belching, waterbrash or irregular bowel movement, then you must be suffering from acidity or gastritis. It is a problem which becomes worse when an individual has poor eating habits and improper lifestyle.
Gastritis: swelling of stomach lining
Various factors like spicy food, medicines, tobacco, alcohol etc. Can cause increase in gastric acid production and disturb, weaken or damage the normal stomach lining. Gastritis occurs when there is an imbalance between the acid production and damage to the stomach lining, resulting in swelling of the stomach lining.
Gastritis a very common disorder of all age groups
Gastritis is of two types - acute gastritis (which occur suddenly) and chronic gastritis (develops over a period of time). In India gastritis is a very common disorder which occurs at any age but is more widespread in the adolescent age group (12-17 years). Adolescence is a change from childhood to adulthood, the period in which a lot of physical and psychological changes occur increasing the risk of gastritis.
Multiple factors cause gastritis
Various factors like spicy food, medicines (pain killers), tobacco, alcohol, emotional disturbance, psychological stress, smoking, alcohol intake and bacterial infection lead to gastritis.
Besides these, the three most important factors include helicobacter pylori infection (bacterial infection), use of painkiller medicines and autoimmunity (body loses its own immunity and attacks itself). These factors in the long term may even cause an ulcer (permanent breakage of the stomach lining), acid reflux disorder (food coming back to mouth after swallowing) and stomach cancer.
What does Ayurveda suggest?
In Ayurveda, agni refers to fire like activity in alimentary canal responsible for digestion of food which is influenced by the status of doshas. When samana-vata associates with kapha in turn produces weak digestive power (agni-mandya). Consuming food against the code of dietetics i. E. Ahara-vidhi vidhana and ahara-vidhi-visheshayatana (method of taking food) lead to a number of diseases related with food. Eating food before the previous food is digested, untimely food, eating too much of spicy or oily food, eating when not hungry, drinking too much water during food and at a time unless required, very hot high fatty-fried food, stale food, heavy diet, excess consumption of horse gram, vitiate all the three body humours (tridosha) also contribute to the symptoms of gastritis.
Due to the sourness of consumed food the liquidity of pitta increases further decreasing the capacity for digestion (agnimandya). Hence, rasadi-dhatu is not formed in a proper manner. This, after a certain period, manifests as amlapitta (hyperacidity).
Symptoms of gastritis vary among individuals
Symptoms of gastritis vary among individuals, and in many people even there are no symptoms. It also depends on the duration of disease, whether it is of acute (coming on suddenly) or chronic (causing symptoms over a long period of time) type.
The most common symptoms of acute gastritis include:
- Abdominal bloating or stomach fullness,
- Belching (expelling air from the stomach through the mouth)
- Waterbrashes (sour fluid or tasteless saliva into the mouth)
- Upper abdominal pain or discomfort
- Nausea/vomiting feeling
- Irregular bowel movement
- Recurrent indigestion,
- Chest burn or gnawing feeling between meals (heartburn)
- Hiccups etc.
In addition to this, symptoms of chronic gastritis may include weight loss, continuous flatulence, black stool, loss of appetite and even anemia.
How to diagnose gastritis?
To diagnose gastritis, performs a thorough physical evaluation, and may recommend a blood test for h. Pylori screening, stool test for blood in the stool. Abdominal x-rays or barium studies (upper or lower) may demonstrate the presence of thickened stomach lining and folds that are signs of inflammation in the stomach.
Sometimes, an endoscope, a thin tube containing a tiny camera, is inserted through the mouth and down into the stomach to look at the stomach lining (endoscopy). The doctor will check for inflammation and may perform a biopsy, in which a tiny sample of tissue is removed and sent for analysis of gastric lining.
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Hello Doctor! My age is 31. Trying for pregnancy but no luck. I have recently started walking and doing some fertility yoga exercises as I am having Ovulation problem. What else can I do to improve ovulation without medication pills.
Dear Doctor, My question is regarding AIDS. If a man has 3 physical relation (SEX) with 3 different ladies and none of 3 has AIDS then is there any possibility to have a AIDS to a man which have 3 multiple physical relation? Kindly answer.
Sir My girl friend is virgin and her vagina is very tight. I can not insert my penis .when I try to it she feel extreme pain. What should I do? Please help.
Sir Nov ko me sex kithi uske 15 din bad me blood test ki to ngtv aya me kit me v ki ngtv aya phir me darker abortion pill leli to 3 din bleeding hua uske 10 din bad me ultrasound Karne gayi to report ngtv aya aur avitak mera period nai aya me kya karu.
I had a sex a day ago and I am not sure if the sperm had touched my vagina. Could you please tell me if the sperm had just touched the vagina and is not ejaculated in it. Are there any chances to get pregnant?
I am pregnant by 37 weeks . I feel too much harassment .so pls tell tell me which type of diet I should intake to be healthy?
How many days we avoid sexual intercourse during pregnancy. Because my wife is pregnant from two months. We didn't do sex from one month. It effect me my mindset. I am romantic person by nature and want to do sex daily at least once. Bt it's hard for me to live without Doing sex. So please tell me how many days more we need to avoid sexual intercourse during this pregnancy period.
Hi last month I had my periods on 15th June. But on 01 july my byf tried to insert his penis inside me however he could not insert but his penis rubbed my vagina and then he discharged outside. So is there any possibility that I can be pregnant?
How does this cyst occurs in ovaries & utreaus is it bcoz we take birth pills. As I was taking pills earlier for safe sex i& I had got cyst in the ovary as it is a simple cyst but when periods comes it starts paining.
Monsoons or rainy seasons is though a favourite amongst all, but it also causes a number of health problems. So, here are some specific guidelines regarding what to eat and what not to eat during rains.
Nutritional tips in monsoon:
- Eat fruits as they help you restore energy. Apples, mangoes, pomegranates, and pears are best suggestible.
- Avoid watermelon and muskmelons and also goosing on too many mangoes may cause pimples.
- Have medium to low salt food and avoid heavy salty food as they are responsible for high blood pressure and water retention.
- Eating watery foods like lassi, watermelon, rice, muskmelon creates swelling in the body. So, better opt for foods which are drying in nature like corn, gram flour, chick pea etc.
- Foods such as brown rice, oats, and barley are the best foods one could have in this monsoon.
- Body's immunity can be increased by adding a dash of garlic to the soups, stir fries and curries you intake. Opt for yogurt, curd and almonds in your diet instead of milk.
- Drink only boiled and purified water to protect yourself from harmful germs and drinking plenty of water keeps your body hydrated.
- Vegetables like cauliflower, potatoes, cluster beans, ladies finger, kidney beans, pigeon pea, and sprouted grains must be avoided.
- Eat steamed salads instead of raw vegetables as they contain active bacteria and virus that cause bacterial and viral infections.
- Have fresh radish juice to fight cold and cough. To reduce mucous formations add pipli and rock salt to warm water. This reduces the natural monsoon ailments. Better eat seasonal fruits as non- seasonal fruits get infested with worms during the monsoons. Pomegranates, lychees, apples, bananas are among the recommended.
- Avoid eating fried items, pre-cut fruits and juices from roadside vendors and stick to high quality and hygiene.
- Always wash vegetables well and keep them clean especially if they are taken raw. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dietitian/Nutritionist.