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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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A problem in any one of a number of key processes can result in infertility. Male and female factors can exist in isolation or combination and fertility investigations, diagnoses and treatment should always be considered in the context of the couple.
Sperm problems will contribute to about 40% of infertility cases. The normal working of the male reproductive system involves first the production of sufficient numbers of functional sperm cells and then the delivery of these sperm to the ejaculate. Key to the diagnosis of male infertility is a semen analysis, which assesses primarily sperm numbers, sperm movement and sperm form.
Dysfunction of the female reproductive organs is also apparent in around 40% of infertile couples. The most common identifiable causes of female fertility problems are outlined below:
1. Ovulatory dysfunction, (or anovulation) where an egg is not released from the ovary every month, is the single most common cause of female infertility. Predominantly anovulation is caused by hormonal imbalances such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) but ovarian scarring and premature menopause can also result in failure to ovulate.
2. Tubal disease, comprising anything from mild adhesions to complete blockage of the fallopian tubes, prevents fertilised eggs from travelling from the site of fertilisation to the uterus. It may also prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. Normal uterine implantation can therefore not occur. The main causes of tubal infertility are pelvic infections caused by bacteria such as chlamydia, previous abdominal disease or surgery and ectopic pregnancy.
3. Endometriosis is characterised by excessive growth of the lining of the uterus. These endometrial cells can extend as far as the outside of the fallopian tubes, the ovaries and the bladder. As they respond to hormones the same way as they would do in the uterus, that is by growing and shedding cyclically, endometriosis can cause both fallopian tube and ovarian scarring.
4. Repeated pregnancy loss - Some people may not have difficulty conceiving, but have suffered from miscarriages. This is obviously extremely distressing for the couples involved. Our miscarriage clinic can help investigate these issues and attempt to help couples with any future pregnancy.
Less common factors
The following other factors may also be responsible for infertility in a smaller proportion of cases:
1. Genetic abnormalities within eggs, sperm or both
2. An abnormal uterine cavity, including the presence of fibroids or polyps
3. Immunological infertility, whereby either the male or female partner produces anti-bodies against sperm cells or implantation of an embryo
4. Abnormal cervical mucus which hinders the passage of sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes
5. Unexplained infertility - Even when investigations have been extensive, some couples will have no reason with which to explain their infertility. This can often be a frustrating diagnosis. In these cases the duration of the infertility is the best parameter by which to judge the chances of future natural conception; the longer the time of infertility then the sooner intervention should be considered.
Please do consult a competent sexologist for unexplained infertility problems.
I am 30 year old woman. I hv 10 month old son. I daily breastfeed him and also give him food but now my husband wants to drink my breast milk so can I allow him to drink my breast milk?
I hav not got my period its already 13 days. I took hgc test on 10th day of my missing period its negative. I feels like period (pain) but I am unable to get till now we are confused and scared help. We did sex once it was around 8 th day of my cycle.
My sister follows a gluten-free diet, and l planned desserts for her but totally forgot about the gravy. How do I thicken gluten-free gravy?
Hi i'm 18 years old girl Im suffering from pcos i'm doing my mbbs in philippines here in philippines der s a option of gluta drip this gluta drip is for whitening but o have to know that is this good for pcos will this cure my pcos and hence I can reduce my weight also please reply me doctors thank you.
Cervical cancer occurs in the cervical cells which are present in the lower part of the uterus. It is usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually. However, in some cases, the virus may survive for a few years, causing some cells of the cervix to become cancerous.
Cervical cancer is usually classified into two types:
- Adenocarcinoma: This type of cancer starts in the column shaped glandular cells along the lining of the cervix.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: Most cases of cervical cancer are of this type. Here, the cancer occurs in the flat and thin cells that are present in the outer region of the cervix.
Symptoms: Usually, very few symptoms show up in the initial stages. However, the latter stages tell a different story. The symptoms at an advanced stage are:
- You may experience pain during sexual intercourse
- Foul smelling discharge from the vagina
- Bleeding from the vagina during sexual intercourse
Causes: Cervical cancer develops due to the mutation of healthy cells which makes turns them into malignant (cancerous) cells. The cancerous cells tend to grow at a fast pace, thus accumulating and forming a tumor. The cancerous cells may also spread to the adjoining areas of the body.
There are certain factors which increase your chances of being affected by cervical cancer:
- Too many sexual partners: The chances of cervical cancer increase significantly if you have multiple sexual partners.
- A weak immune system: A weak immune system makes you highly susceptible to cervical cancer.
- Lifestyle factors: Various lifestyle factors such as smoking can increase your risk of cervical cancer.
The treatment for cervical cancer involves the following:
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves injecting chemicals into the vein to destroy the cancer cells.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy consists of using x-rays to destroy the cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used alongside chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells.
- Surgery: Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that is used in the treatment of cervical cancer. It involves removal of the uterus to treat this disorder. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.