Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 26 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Delhi and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Book Clinic Appointment with Dr. Anshu Saxena
Diagnostic X- Ray
Bone Densitometry Procedure
Uterine Artery Embolization
Interventional Diagnostic Procedures
Angiography Radial Approach
Submit a review for Dr. Anshu SaxenaYour feedback matters!
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.
Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:
- Abnormal blood vessels
- Blood clots in the brain
- When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
- Due to nerve damage
- Parkinson's disease
- Any kind of pressure after an injury
- Skull fractures
- In case of stroke and tumors
A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.
Types of brain surgeries:
- Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
- Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
- Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:
- Allergic reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clot formations
- Swelling of the brain
- A state of coma
- Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
- Problems in memory
- Strokes and seizures
- Infections in the brain
A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
I am 55 year, last 4 month back Dr. Report slip disk Dr. Suggest me complete rest. I am admitted in hospital 9 day. Some relief but now also problem I can not sit more than 1 hours. If I seat both leg heavy & just. I cannot put my leg in ground
I have multiple benign fribodomema, one is upto 2.8 cm others 1.9 cm, painful, cryoablation method will be safe to remove it? I don't want surgery again, please suggest me, non surgical methods will be safe to remove it? Age 24, unmarried.
Medical science constantly challenges the boundaries by finding not only the cures to the most dangerous diseases, but finds a way to prevent them even before they occur. With years of research, practice and data available for analysis, scientists are using advanced technology in combination with years of research to create a predicting mechanism for often fatal diseases like cancer.
Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammography. The fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.
Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.
A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time
This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at a high risk of developing this disease.
A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances, or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.
A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops
This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.
It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Breast cancer is a type of cancer which occurs due to the development of cancerous cells in a person's breasts. Women are usually affected by breast cancer and breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer after skin cancer. Usually fatal if not diagnosed in its early stage, breast cancer is a very serious medical ailment. Read on more to find all about the different symptoms, causes, preventive measures and treatment of breast cancer.
Breast cancer has a few distinct characteristics and if you have a few or all the following symptoms you could be more likely to suffer from breast cancer.
- The formation of a lump in your breast which is different from the surrounding tissue and usually more thickened.
- The discharge of bloody fluid material from the nipples.
- Sudden change of the size, shape and appearance of the breast.
- Certain distinct changes to the skin over the breast for example an indentation in the skin similar to that of a dimple.
- Appearance of an extra nipple which is inverted.
- If the darkened area around the nipples known as the areola is flaking or peeling off.
Studies and researches remain inconclusive on what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs due to abnormal division of the cells located in the breast which over time accumulate and form lumps. They
There are certain factors which increase the probability of contracting breast cancer. Increasing age, personal and family history of breast cancer, obesity, radiation exposure, pregnancy at an older age, post-menopausal hormone therapy are some of the factors that increase the chances of breast cancer.
Several forms of surgical methods exist to treat breast cancer. Depending on the condition and spread of the disease a suitable surgery is performed. These include mastectomy, lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection and removal of both breasts. Other forms of treatment include chemotherapy or the use of high doses of drugs to destroy cancerous cells. Radiation therapy where X-rays are used to destroy the cancer cells is also effective.
One of the things that Shannen Doherty and Rita Wilson, the wife of Tom Hanks, have in common, apart from their fame is that both were affected by breast cancer. No matter how normal a person may seem, breast cancer can strike anyone. In fact, it usually strikes one in eight women. So, it makes good sense to know what it can appear as!
Breast cancer makes up a rather big amount of the general cancer cases as 15% of the cancer cases which are reported on a yearly basis are usually breast cancer cases. That being said, there are quite a few things which can be done in order to reduce a person’s risk to breast cancer.
Effective ways to prevent breast cancer-
As with any other types of cancer, breast cancer is a condition characterized by uncontrolled and rapid cell proliferation and division in the breast, resulting in the formation of a malignant tumor. While breast cancer is known to be one of the most common types of cancer affecting women, men are also susceptible to the condition.
An early diagnosis of the condition gives a mercurial boost to the treatment for breast cancer, often ensuring a full recovery. Unfortunately, in most cases, breast cancer gets diagnosed at a later stage. Some of the symptoms commonly associated with breast cancer include:
- A change in the breast shape, size, or even the contour.
- The appearance of a lump in the breast, often pea sized.
- There may be a fluid discharge (can be clear or blood-stained) from the nipples. In addition to this, the skin around the nipples or the breast may undergo some change. It may appear red, inflamed, scaly or even puckered and dimpled.
In addition to the medications and treatment, a person with breast cancer can benefit by practicing the following tips diligently:
- Self-awareness: Nobody can know your body better than yourself. The associated complications of breast cancer can be averted if only people stop overlooking the early signs and symptoms. There are many government sponsored campaigns and programs to create awareness about breast cancer. Once a while, self-examine your breasts. Feel your breasts for any lumps or thickenings. If you notice any abnormalities, waste no time and consult a doctor at the earliest.
- BRCA1 and BRCA2 human genes: The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are important with regards to the breast cancer. These genes are responsible for the production of tumor suppressor proteins, which play a pivotal role in the repair of DNA damage (often resulting from mutations or diseases). A mutation (often genetically triggered or hereditary trait) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can wreak havoc, elevating the instances of breast cancer and many other types of cancer (ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and pancreatic cancer, to name a few). Thus, people who have a family history of breast cancer triggered by a mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes should get themselves tested as a precautionary measure.
- Obesity is a big No: Maintaining a healthy body weight is the need of the hour. Various research has found a link between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II, women who put on extra weight (60 pounds or more) after the age of 18, are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer post-menopause as compared to their healthy counterparts. Thus, it is important to keep the body weight within healthy limits. Take care of your diet. Indulge in physical activities and exercise.
- Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: People, particularly women who consume alcohol in excess (2-6 drinks daily) are at an increased risk of breast cancer. Limit your daily dose of alcohol (1 drink or less per day).
Prevention is Prudent-
Get Fit: The first thing which should be done is that a reasonable level of fitness should be maintained. Many studies have found that if a person is significantly heavier than her recommended weight, she is at a far great risk to develop all sorts of cancer and breast cancer, in particular, than a person who is able to keep her weight in check. The difference in cancer risk rates is about 40%. This is because a greater amount of fat leads to more estrogen being produced, which increases the risk of breast cancer.
Quit Smoking: While most people associate smoking as something which increases the risk of cancer to the lungs and are not aware that it increases the risk of breast cancer, too. So, the best solution is to kick the habit!
Get Off the Pill: Once a woman crosses past her mid-thirties, she should try to avoid relying on birth control pills to reduce the risk of pregnancy. This is because these pills have an effect which increases the risk of breast cancer, which heightens as a woman gets older. As long as the woman cuts out the use of the pill, the risk quickly gets cut, as well.
Get Regular Check Ups: While screening for breast cancer by making use of mammograms does not cut the risk of it, the screening helps detect breast cancer early if it does exist. As a result, a woman has a much better chance of fighting breast cancer. So, a woman who is past the age of forty should try to have a mammogram on an annual basis with the frequency of the same increasing as she gets older. However, it is to be kept in mind that going for a mammogram too often is also not a good idea as the tests themselves pose risks of DNA changes.
Women all around the world are susceptible to breast cancer. While there isn’t a 100% chance of avoiding it, taking care of yourself and leading a fit and active lifestyle can significantly cut down your risk of contracting this condition. Remember, your health is in your hands, so the earlier you start, the better!
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Renal cancer is also known as hypernephroma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma. The kidneys are organs in your body that dispose off waste, while additionally regulating fluid balance. There are small tubes in the kidneys called tubules. These filter the blood, help in discharging waste, and make urine. RCC happens when cancer cells start to grow out of control in the lining of the tubules of the kidney. Renal cancer is a progressive disease that spreads to the lungs and the organs around it.
Medical experts do not know the exact cause behind renal cancer. It is most commonly found in men between the ages of 50 and 70. There are some risk factors and signs that indicate one’s possibility of having renal cancer and these are as follows
- Family history of renal cancer
- Dialysis treatment
- Hypertension or high blood pressure
- Smoking cigarettes
- Polycystic kidney disease (a condition that causes cyst formation in the kidneys)
At a point when renal cancer is in its initial stages, patients might not see any symptoms. The symptoms are mainly seen in the later stages. Some of the most common symptoms are as follows:
- Blood in urine: Blood in urine is called hematuria. As indicated by the Renal Cancer Association, hematuria is the most widely recognized indication of kidney cancer. In case you have blood in your urine, you may see pink, rust or even a red staining.
- Lower back pain: The vast majority does not encounter pain until cancer is in later stages. Pain from renal cancer is felt on one side of the flank, the region over the pelvis, and beneath the ribs in the abdomen. This pain can go from a dull yearn to a sharp wound, frequently leaving the area blue. In case you have any sudden pain that continues for more than a couple of days, you need to see a specialist.
- A mass or lump: A mass or protuberance in the abdomen can be an indication of renal cancer. Kidney knots might be hard to feel since they are somewhere down in the abdomen. Once a bump is found, your specialist may arrange symptomatic tests such as an ultrasound or a CT scan. These tests may diagnose what your knot might be.
- Iron deficiency and fatigue: Weakness and a fall in your iron levels are the most common symptoms of any type of cancer. Cancer exhaustion is not quite the same as simply feeling tired.
- Weight reduction, loss of appetite and fever: Another normal side effect of cancer is sudden and startling weight reduction. This happens quickly without any excessive workouts or dieting. A person diagnosed with cancer can also face a loss of appetite. In fact, even their most loved food items can get to be unappealing. Frequent fever is yet another common symptoms among most cancer patients.
In case your specialist suspects that you may have renal cancer, they will take some information about your and family’s medical history. They will then do a physical exam. Discoveries that can show renal cancer include swelling or irregularities in the stomach area. In case of men, augmented veins in the scrotal sac (varicocele) may be found. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I am 63 year old male, having- (1) a sciatica on right side (2) herniation between in lumber, as a result suffering from leg and lower back pain. I want your valued answer of treatment.
This is My MRI Report Pl suggest next circumferential posterior disc bulge with posterocentral and bilateral forminal protrusion at l4 l5 level indenting the anterior thecal sac ,encroaching over the inferior aspect af the bilateral neural foramina and indenting over the traversing L5 exiting nerve root on either side circumferential posterior disc bulge with bilateral forminal protrusion at L3 L4 level indenting the anterior thecal sac encroaching over the inferior aspect af the bilateral neural foramina and indenting over bilateral L3 nerve root.
When cells divide abnormally and uncontrollably, they can form a mass or lump of tissue. This lump is called a tumor. Bone tumors form in your bones. As the tumor grows, abnormal tissue can displace healthy tissue.
Some tumors are benign, meaning they aren’t cancerous. While benign bone tumors won’t spread to other parts of the body and are unlikely to be fatal, they can still be dangerous and may require treatment. Benign tumors can grow and could compress your healthy bone tissue. Other tumors are malignant, meaning they’re cancerous. Malignant bone tumors can cause cancer to spread throughout the body.
Causes of bone tumor:
The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include:
- Genetic defects passed down through families
- In most cases, no specific cause is found.
Symptoms of bone tumor:
Symptoms of bone tumor may include any of the following:
- Bone fracture, especially fracture from slight injury (trauma)
- Bone pain, may be worse at night
- Occasionally a mass and swelling can be felt at the tumor site
- Some benign tumors have no symptoms.
Diagnosing a bone tumor:
There are some common conditions like fractures, infections and other conditions that may resemble tumors. But, to be sure some physical examination to be performed which will check the tenderness in the bone and also the range of motion. Blood or Urine test may be performed to detect different proteins that may indicate the presence of tumor. Doctor may go with X-rays and depending on the X-ray results other imaging tests might be necessary i.e. CT scan, MRI PET scan. In some cases biopsy is also performed. In this test. a sample of the tissue that makes up the tumor is removed.
Treating bone tumor:
Bone cancer is generally treated with Surgery in which the entire tumor is removed. The surgeon carefully examines the margins of your tumor to make sure no cancer cells are left. Surgical techniques have improved greatly. Other ways to treat is radiation therapy which is used in conjunction with surgery. Still if the doctor feels that cancer cells are likely to spread or already spread then Chemotherapy is recommended.