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My ESR is 29. Uric acid is 7.4. I am having slight head ache from time to time from past 3 days. I had fever day before yesterday, but did not experience it after that. I feel uneasy with the head ache. My typhoid report according to the doctor is on the border line. There are enough pluses in the report to suggest that this might be typhoid. However, doctor wants to observe me for a weeks time. He wants to see if the fever goes away in this time or shots up. My Billirubin levels naturally remain between 1-2. I have been cured for T.B. 9 years back. I am allergic to sparfloxacin. My urine from the past 8 days is dark yellowish early in the morning. I have to travel abroad in a months time ad have to work on australian visa. They require medical examination to be done from their own accredited hospitals. I am not sure if I should wait for one week for other symptoms to show up. Please help. This situation was a week back. My doctor started me with Ofloxacin for any threat of typhoid. I have taken doses for 5 days now. My headache still remains on and off during the day. Urine colour still unusually shows yellow. I have to travel soon. Should I just neglect this headache and hope for it to get fine by pain killers or is it an indication of something else? What tests should I get done with?
5 practical ways to manage constipation
Constipation is one of the most common health problems. Unhealthy eating practices, inadequate sleep, sedentary lifestyle and stressful life are some of the common triggers for constipation.
Symptoms of constipation include two or less than two bowel movements in a week, hard and dry stools, bloating and feeling of fullness. In severe cases of constipation, you may also have small amount of blood in your stool due to bleeding hemorrhoids.
Some of the common causes of constipation are lack of fiber rich diet, lack of exercises and physical activity, immobility due to age and illness and overuse and persistent use of laxatives. Constipation may also be another symptom of health disorders such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, hypercalcemia and irritable bowel syndrome.
Ways to manage constipation:
Here are five effective ways to prevent and treat constipation:
1. Exercise regularly
-follow an exercise regimen which may include a combination of several activities such as weight bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, running, walking, jogging and physical exercises.
- these exercises stimulate the bowel movements regularly and help to keep the body healthy.
- brisk walking and aerobic exercises has also been found to stimulate and aid the bowel movement.
- if you have an option of taking the elevator or the stairs, opt for stairs. This will keep you mobile during your work hours.
2. Increase dietary fiber
- correction of the dietary intake is the key to prevent constipation. It is recommended to take naturally available fibrous vegetables and fruits than to aid the diet with supplementary fiber.
- increase the intake of fiber rich vegetables such as beans, bran cereals, brown rice, raw fruits and vegetables in your daily diet. It is recommended to have close to 20-35 grams of fiber daily.
- make sure you add salads to your meals. Include sprouts, carrots, leafy vegetables and fruits in your salads.
- in case of consistent constipation, avoid intake of processed foods and beverages such as cheese, dairy products, meat and packaged foods
3. Increase fluid intake
- drink water (6-8 glasses) throughout the day. This will improve the bowel movement significantly.
warm water during the daytime also helps in increasing the excretion of stools during constipation.
4. Opt for lifestyle changes
- changes in the lifestyle such as having a balanced diet, regular exercises and optimum sleep can significantly help constipation.
- fix a regular time during the day for the bowel movement. It helps the body to follow a routine.
5. Try natural remedies
- in case of chronic constipation, take herbal laxatives such as isabgol and triphala with warm water before going to sleep. They will improve bowel movement and aid the excretion process
- studies suggest that castor oil, due to its laxative properties, was found to relieve constipation significantly. Due to its instant effects, it is recommended that it is not consumed orally before going to bed. Instead it is advised to take it in the daytime.
- there are broadly two types of herbal stimulants (bulk forming stimulants and stimulant laxatives) for relieving constipation.
- commonly used bulk forming laxatives include, fenugreek, flaxseeds and barley. Commonly used stimulant herbs include aloe and senna. However, these herbal laxatives are advised to be used in less potency. Therefore one must consult a doctor before opting for these remedies.
In case your symptoms persist, you can try some over the counter laxatives. However make sure your body does not become dependent on these options. Consistent use of laxatives can deplete the food off essential nutrients in severe cases, consult a doctor who can further evaluate the problem and suggest medications. Stay healthy, stay happy!
A hernia is a weakness or defect in the lining of the abdominal (belly) or pelvic (groin) wall. It can be present at birth or develop over the years.
Signs and Symptoms:
You may see or feel a lump under the skin or in males a bulge in the scrotum (this is usually intestine). This may present with straining while lifting heavy objects, during a bowel movement or urination. Coughing and sneezing may also produce a bulge. The lump may disappear when laying down or even with gentle pressure. A hernia can be present without an obvious lump. It can be painful or cause a burning sensation. Sometimes it may be present for years without any symptoms.
What should you do if you suspect that you have a hernia? There is no acceptable nonsurgical medical treatment for a hernia. The use of a truss (hernia belt) can help keep the hernia from bulging but eventually will fail. The truss also causes the formation of scar tissue around the hernia making the repair more difficult. Have your doctor perform an examination, because if the repair is delayed it can result in incarceration (intestine is stuck and cannot get back inside) or strangulation (intestine is stuck and develops gangrene). The latter is an emergency.
The hernia will not go away, it will only get bigger. The bigger the defect the bigger the operation required to fix it.
Under certain circumstances the hernia may be watched and followed closely by a physician. These situations are unique to those individuals who are high operative risks, ie, severe heart or lung disease, or bleeding problems. Of course, even in the high risk person, if the symptoms become severe or if strangulation occurs, then an operation must be performed.
What type of operation is best for you? There are two main options for hernia repair:
1) Open Repair: The traditional, open repair has been the gold standard for over 100 years. There are 5-10 different approaches and can be performed routinely with local and intravenous sedation. Open repair is generally painful with a relatively long recovery period.
2) Laparoscopic Repair: Laparoscopic repair has been developed over the last 10 years. It is usually performed under general anesthesia but spinal anesthesia is an option. Local anesthesia can be used under special circumstances. Benefits of Laparoscopic (laparoscopic) repair compared to the open repair are: shorter operative time, less pain, and shorter recovery period.
Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery:
For Laparoscopic hernia surgery a telescope attached to a camera is placed through a small opening under the belly button. Two other small cuts are made (each no larger than the diameter of an eraser on the end of a pencil) in the lower abdomen. The defect is covered with a mesh (synthetic material made from the same material that stitches are made from) and secured in position with other stitches/staples/titanium tacks or tissue glue.
Risks to Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery:
As with the open operation, bleeding and infection can occur. The risk of nerve injury appears to be less than in open repair, as does the potential for recurrences of a hernia.
After the Operation:
Usually you can be discharged home a few hours after the completion of the Laparoscopic hernia operation. Take it easy the first few days. Walking stairs is allowed, and walking outside (weather permitting) is encouraged. Taking a bath or shower 48 hours after the operation is permitted. Avoid driving for at least 3 days and any time while taking pain medication.
Remember to make a follow-up appointment with your surgeon 1-2 weeks following the operation. Seek medical attention sooner if you develop fever, bleeding, severe belly pain, excessive swelling or nausea and vomiting.