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स्तन वसा, संयोजी ऊतक, और लोब में विभाजित ग्रंथि ऊतक से बना होता है। स्तन कैंसर तब शुरू होता है जब स्तन में कोशिकाएं नियंत्रण से बाहर निकलने लगती हैं। नलिकाएं का एक नेटवर्क लोब से निपल तक फैलता है। एक स्तन आमतौर पर दूसरे से छोटा होता है। महीने में अलग-अलग समय पर आपके स्तन अलग-अलग महसूस कर सकते हैं स्तनों के लिए आपकी अवधि के ठीक पहले लंपट महसूस करना आम बात है। आपके स्तन महीने में अलग-अलग समय पर अलग-अलग महसूस हो सकते हैं। स्तनों का आपकी अवधि के ठीक पहले लंपट महसूस होना आम बात है।
स्तन कैंसर सामान्यतः कोशिकाओं जो स्तन के नलिकाएं होती हैं, में शुरू होता है। स्तन कैंसर तब शुरू होता है जब स्तन में कोशिकाएं नियंत्रण से बाहर बढ़ने लगती हैं। कोशिकाओं का यह उत्परिवर्तन एक ट्यूमर को जन्म देता है, जिसे एक गांठ के रूप में महसूस किया जा सकता है। अगर अनुपचारित छोड़ दिया जाता है, तो घातक कोशिका अंततः शरीर के अन्य भागों में फैल सकती हैं, एक प्रक्रिया जिसे मेटास्टैसिस कहा जाता है।
स्तन कैंसर के लक्षण
स्तन में एक गांठ आमतौर पर स्तन कैंसर से जुड़ा है, लेकिन अधिकतर समय, स्तन में गांठ कैंसर नहीं होता। किशोरावस्था में हार्मोनल परिवर्तन से लेकर क्षतिग्रस्त वसा ऊतक तक, महिलाओं में शुरुआती 20 से लेकर शुरुआती 50 की उम्र तक सभी स्तन गांठों में से 90 प्रतिशत से ज्यादा गैर-कर्कश (सौम्य) हैं।
स्तम्भों में लंप्स स्तन संक्रमण, फाइब्रोकाइसटिक स्तन रोग (ढेलेदार स्तन), फाइब्रोएडीनोमा (गैर-कन्सेसर ट्यूमर), वसा-परिगलन (क्षतिग्रस्त ऊतक) जैसे कई अन्य कारणों के कारण हो सकते हैं।
यद्यपि अधिकांश स्तन गांठ कम गंभीर स्थितियों के कारण होते हैं, नए, पीड़ारहित गांठें फिर भी स्तन कैंसर का सबसे आम लक्षण हैं। एक महिला अपने स्तन में बदलाव देख सकती है, और मामूली असामान्य दर्द जो दूर जाता प्रतीत नहीं होता। इन परिवर्तनों के लिए देखें:
1. स्तन या निपल का अलग महसूस होना:
- निपल कोमलता, या स्तन या अंडरआर्म क्षेत्र में या उसके पास एक गांठ या मोटा होना।
- त्वचा की बनावट में परिवर्तन या स्तन की त्वचा में छिद्रों का इज़ाफ़ा
- स्तन में एक गांठ
2. दिखने में बदलाव:
- स्तन के माप या आकार में कोई भी अस्पष्टीकृत परिवर्तन
- स्तन पर कहीं भी गढ़ा
- स्तन की अस्पष्ट सूजन (खासकर अगर यह केवल एक तरफ है)
- स्तन का अस्पष्ट संकुचन (खासकर अगर यह केवल एक तरफ है)
- निप्पल जो थोड़ा सा आवक हो जाता है, या उलटा हो गया है
3. निपल निर्वहन:
किसी भी प्रकार के निप्पल निर्वहन, विशेष रूप से साफ़ निर्वहन या खूनी निर्वहन स्तन कैंसर का संकेत हो सकता है। एक दूधिया निर्वहन जब महिला स्तनपान नहीं कर रही है, हालांकि स्तन कैंसर से जुड़ा नहीं है, लेकिन एक डॉक्टर द्वारा जांच कराया जाना चाहिए।
इन लक्षणों में से एक या अधिक होने का मतलब यह नहीं है कि आपको स्तन कैंसर है। यदि आप इन संकेत और लक्षणों में से किसी का अनुभव करते हैं, तो एक पूर्ण मूल्यांकन के लिए अपने चिकित्सक को देखें।
The spine plays a very crucial role, both from a person’s movement and sensation point of view. It carries the nervous supply for a lot of internal organs and the lower body. By virtue of its structure, it also helps in movement through the disks. Due to various reasons, spinal injury is common, causing pain along the back, lower extremities, neck etc.
Medicines and exercise are the first line of treatment for most spinal injuries. The issue, however, is that these only provide relief from the pain and the medicines, but do not actually ‘rectify’ the underlying problem. Whether it is a herniated disk or a pinched nerve, the medicines and exercise can relieve the symptoms, but the disk continues to be herniated and the nerve continues to be pinched. Definite treatment is in the form of surgery, and with recent advancements in the field of spinal surgery, there are minimally invasive surgical options, which provide complete cure with minimal recovery time. Some of the benefits of this are listed below-
Smaller incision compared to traditional surgical procedures, where only the injured area is accessed
The surrounding tissues are untouched, unless they are injured and require repair
Lesser bleeding compared to earlier techniques
Lesser painful procedure
Reduced hospitalization period
Quicker recovery and return to normal activities
The question, however, is whether this is indicated in everybody. A detailed discussion with your surgeon keeping the below points in mind will help identify the answer for this. The main driver should be the answer to the question – will the surgery be able to effectively relieve you of the pain and symptoms? Additionally, the following factors help in getting better results out of a minimally invasive spinal surgery.
Presence of symptoms relating to nerve compression, including pain from the spine down the leg.
Recent onset of symptoms, with pain starting days to months before seeing the doctor. This indicates the condition is relatively new and so damage is minimal, indicating favorable outcome. Chronic pain conditions take slightly longer time compared to recent injuries.
People with active lifestyle who engage in regular physical exercise are likely to have better benefits from the minimally invasive procedure.
Smoking reduces blood flow to the spine, leading to disk degeneration and weakening of bones. Healing is highly slowed down and recovery is overall delayed.
Excessive weight puts strain on the back, and so healing can be delayed or badly affected with more complications. It is not a contraindication, but be prepared for a longer recovery period.
Most commonly known as a military neck a straight or forward curve of the neck is abnormal and may cause an unkind progression of symptoms leading ultimately to cervical disk degeneration.
Reversal of cervical lordosis explained
The anatomy of the neck features a lordotic curvature in its typical and healthy state. This means that the cervical region has a gentle curvature with the open end of that curve facing the rear of the body. The base and top of the curve will be further posterior than the mid point, which will be further anterior.
When the lordosis is straightened, the neck becomes more upright and linear. This is more common than the next progression of atypical curvature, which is the subject of this article.
Actual reversal of curvature means that part or all of the cervical spine develops a kyphotic profile, with the open end of the curve facing anteriorly. Usually, this reversal is extremely mild, but is still very abnormal. What we now see is the middle of the curve being positioned posterior to the top and bottom.
In essence, picture the letter c and now turn it backwards: This is the shape of a reversed cervical lordosis.
Reversal of cervical lordosis causes
The spinal curvature in the neck is constantly in flux to some degree.
Congenital conditions and developmental conditions can have lasting effects on the natural degree of curvature typically demonstrated from patient to patient. These circumstances may be explainable due to injury or degeneration, or may be idiopathic:
Scoliosis can affect the normal lordotic curvature in the neck.
Cervical spondylolisthesis is a major source of reversed lordotic curvature.
Severe disc pathologies can facilitate a gradual loss or reversal of cervical lordosis.
Vertebral irregularities, such as wedging, can definitely contribute to lordotic alteration.
Traumatic injury, including vertebral fracture, can create the ideal circumstances for a reversal of lordosis to take place.
Severe neck muscle spasms can actually reshape the spinal curves, although these are usually temporary expressions and not actual structural conditions.
Effects of reversal of cervical lordosis
The neck is designed to curve in order to balance the spine, absorb stress, distribute force and provide proper movement of the head. When this curvature is diminished or reversed, symptoms may result, although this is not an inherent part of any altered lordotic condition.
Patients may experience stiffness and tension in the neck. Pain may be present and may even be severe in rare cases. Neurological dysfunction is possible in extreme cases, since the neuroforamen might not align properly, thereby causing a cervical pinched nerve.
In the worst circumstances, central spinal stenosis in the neck might affect the viability of the spinal cord, possible enacting the most dire of symptoms throughout the body.
Patients will also be more prone to injury, since the normal shock absorption qualities of the typical curvature have been lost.
While all these effects are certainly possible, they are not usual. In fact, a great majority of patients have minor symptoms or even no symptoms at all from mild reversed lordotic curvatures.
The pathology leading to a neck curve reversal (cervical kyphosis shown below right) may be inspired by a multitude of conditions as follows:
Post head injury
Poor sitting/working postures
Congenital spinal curvatures
Degenerative cervical discs (a form of osteoarthritis that can either be the cause of or the result of a cervical kyphosis)
Compression fracture of vertebral body
Infection of the cervical spine
Anatomy: straight vs. Curved
I've always heard that it was good to stand up straight.
stand upright, stick your chest out and hold your shoulders back! otherwise you're going get widows hump.
Are these expressions as familiar to you as they are to me? one might think that having a curved neck goes against what we heard from parents and teachers as we were growing up, but the reality is that there is a little bit a truth in both. Maintaining good posture throughout our lives is crucial to both the health of our spine and vital organs. On the contrary, a special type of curve called a lordosis is a good thing, both in the neck and lower back.
When we look at a person from the back their spine should be truly straight, so that the left and right sides of one's body is symmetrical. However, when we view a person from the side, the front and back of their body is different and this is reflected in a coinciding curvature of the spine. Both the lower back and neck are hollowed out (concave) and the mid or thoracic spine is protrudes (convex). Thus there is an alternation of curves functioning to provide stability, shock absorption and aid in propulsion. A straight spine would be very stiff and not flexible. Imagine the plight of a pole vaulter with an inflexible pole.
Nature's design of our spine and rib cage facilitates breathing and offers protective and supportive framework for vital organs. Spinal disks are shock absorbers and because they are in the front of the spine, lordotic curvatures keep them from having to bear weight. Kyphosis or loss of such curvatures bears weight upon the disks, leading to their ultimate degeneration. This process of deterioration is a form of osteoarthritis and in the spine is known as degenerative spondylosis.
Although most physiotherapists or conservative orthopedists can recognize a cervical curve reversal upon viewing the patient's posture, a definitive diagnosis may be obtained via a standing lateral (side view) x-ray of the neck. Cause can often be determined by corroborating a comprehensive history, a thorough examination, x-rays and questions about sleep, work and lifestyle.
In my professional career I found that the majority of young adults presenting with cervical kyphosis either had a whiplash or were stomach sleepers from an early age. For desk jockeys 40-60 years of age, many hours of sitting with their head flexed forward almost dictates the fate of developing kyphosis. In prior years I considered cervical kyphosis a job hazard for the careers of accountants, attorneys and often teachers because of years spent with their head in a book or paperwork. However, the digital age offers some relief in that respect. A well-planned, ergonomically-friendly office can do wonders for protecting the spine in the sedentary worker.
Treatment for cervical curve reversal (kyphosis)
During my chiropractic practice I had the opportunity to note a good percentage of correction toward a more normal lordosis (noted on x-ray) for 70% of patients under my care. This was almost always consistent with those patients that followed all recommendations and were model participants in their own care. Here is the recommended treat plan:
Spinal manipulation of stiff and fixated spinal segments by a qualified physio
Flexibility exercises for flexion and extension of cervical spine
Resistance exercises for flexors and extensors of the neck
Learn the Alexander technique for maintaining good posture (hint: the basic philosophy is to sit and stand like you were hanging by a string from the vertex of your skull. Liken it to a puppet on a string).
Elimination of stomach sleeping
Avoid standing on your head, although some yoga postures may be beneficial
Use of orthopedic neck pillow while sleeping.
My rt. Breast surgery for breast cancer had done and presently from last 3-4 months rt. Hand and full arm are swelling.
Can Physiotherapy Cure cervical disc prolapse and L5 S1 Disc bulge.I am suffering from Neck pain for the Past 6 years
Breast Cancer is the most common cancer of females in urban cities. It is a curable disease if detected early. The usual age of presentation is usually after 40 to 50 years of age, though it is becoming common in earlier age as well. This could be due to many factors like late marriages, older age of pregnancy, diet and lifestyle, etc. The usual presentation is a swelling or lump in the breast, not associated with pain. That is the reason why females are advised regular self-breast examination, clinical breast examination and annual mammograms for screening purpose in order to detect early breast cancers. Many times, the breast lump is associated with blood stained discharge from the nipple. There can be skin changes on the breast like thickening, crusting or sometimes itching. If the skin lymphatics get blocked, there may be pitting and or dimpling of the skin too. There may be lumps felt in the armpit felt too. Many times the lump is not noticeable or felt and felt by chance during a bath. These are some of the commonest presentations. The lady should immediately consult a doctor and get evaluated in such scenario. Many women are at increased risk of developing breast cancer like those who have a positive family history especially first degree relatives like mother& sister. Breast cancer is usually a disease of women but 1% of cases are also seen in men.
If a lady feels any such lump she should immediately bring it to the attention of a doctor or oncologist who can do the necessary evaluation and investigations. Breast cancer is curable if detected early, hence the importance!
The primary modality of treatment is surgery followed by chemotherapy and or radiotherapy and or hormonal treatment depending on the report of the specimen after the surgery. Many times if the lump cannot be operated upfront, initially chemotherapy and or targeted therapy can be given to shrink the tumor for better resectability.
People should be aware that having cancer is not the end of life. It can be treated like many other diseases and the most important thing is awareness and early detection for a durable cure.
Hello Dr. Sir, I am Harvinder singh from yamunanagar, Haryana. I have lower back pain since last 2 years. Its slip disc and sciatica pain in left leg. I am very unhappy with this problem. Please advice me best of best treatment for the same and where I can get the same.
She has a desk job and feeling pain in right leg the mri shows reduced space in intervertebral disc.
Doctor my 13 year old daughter has developed slip disc in her L4 and L5 vertebrae. What should be her treatment?
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general-surgeon.
I am 20yr old male. I had an accident 2 years ago & I had suffered severe back pain. My spinal cord's disc had moved a bit so that I have pain in my back till now. What should I do for this?
Hello doctor. I am I 32 years female and I have slip disc problem from last two years .I have 2 years baby vd normal delivery. I am not able to sleep properly because when I sleep suddenly I awake 2-3 times at night nd I try to sleep again but I sleep after 30 to 40 min. Now I am gaining fat and weight also. I take proper meal and I don't take more junk food also. Please tell me what to do? My all checkup report are normal & thyroid also.
Herniated disk l3-14 mm L4-11 mm L5-10 mm S1-8 mm My age 23 /M Dr. suggest for surgery but I didn't want that any chances for normal.
Umbilical hernia diet
An umbilical or belly button hernia occurs when a part of the intestines or the abdominal lining protrudes through an opening in the abdominal muscles. The protruding intestines may get squeezed or strangulated resulting in the blood supply getting cut off. Surgery may be required in serious cases of umbilical hernia. Doctors often suggest a special diet for umbilical hernia patients as this helps to prevent further complications.
Foods to avoid
Certain foods are not recommended for people with an umbilical hernia and should be avoided.
White refined flour foods made from white refined flour have a low fiber content. Eating these foods may cause constipation and should therefore be avoided. This is because constipation causes straining of the abdominal muscles during bowel movements and may cause further protrusion of the intestines through the abdominal muscles in the region of the belly button.
Low fiber fruits and vegetables the low fiber content in these foods can also lead to constipation. Examples of fruits and vegetables with low fiber content include skinless raw fruits, cooked fruits, and canned or cooked vegetables without seeds, hulls or skin.
Fatty foods foods with a high fat content should be avoided. This is because obesity results in greater pressure on the abdominal muscles and can increase the risk of umbilical hernia. Examples of foods with a high fat content include fatty meat such as pork, whole milk, butter, cream, margarine and fried foods.
Sugar limit your calorie intake by cutting down on foods such as pastries, cakes, chocolates and soda pop. Limiting your sugar intake will also help you to lose some weight, taking pressure off your abdominal region.
Foods to include
A special diet is required after umbilical hernia surgery. This will help you to minimize your convalescence time. The special dietary requirements include:
Fruits fresh fruits that have high fiber content and are rich in antioxidants should form a part of every meal. The high fiber content will ensure that you do not get constipated and the antioxidants will help protect your body and boost your immune system. Try to eat different types of fruits so as to get adequate amounts of different vitamins. Citrus fruits, berries, and apples are some examples of fruits with a high fiber and vitamin content.
Vegetables these too have a high fiber content that will guard against the dangers of constipation after an umbilical hernia surgery. They also have high levels of vitamins and minerals and should also be included with every meal.
Lean meat meat is a source of protein, which is essential to the repair of damaged tissue. Lean meat like poultry and fish is an excellent source of low fat protein. Have one good source of low fat protein with every meal.
Low fat dairy products these are a good source of protein and can be alternated with lean meats to provide your body with sufficient protein.
High fiber breakfast foods will aid digestion and so your breakfast should consist of foods made from whole wheat flour, wheat germ, oatmeal, or bran.
At L4-L5diffuse disc bulge with right para central protrusion causing severe canal stenosis, compression over the allows sac, nerve root of audacity equine, bilateral traversing nerve roots in lateral recess marked on right side. AtL5-S1 a focal posterior central disc bulge with tear, mild to moderate canal stenosis, compression over the alloy sac, left traversing S1 nerve root in lateral recess. Neural foramina on either side however exiting nerve root look free in neural foramen. Hip n screening within normal limits. This is the report of MRI. please suggest.
My wife is suffering from slip disc in spine after mri doctor diagnosis that she also suffering bone tb with unbearable pain in lower portion. Now as per doctor advice completely she is in bed rest. Now she cannot able to stand. Kindly advice.
I am male aged 57 years. In 1998, I had l4-l5 disc prolapse. After getting treatment for 5 years I was alright. But now since last 3 years, my calf muscles have become very stiff, unable to walk freely, developed gait problem (body disbalance) and sleeplessness. Presently I am using ropark 1 mg. Tab. Every night, but of no much help. Please Advise.
The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.
Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.
Brain surgeries are performed to:
- Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
- Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
- Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
- Make a nerve free
- Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
- To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson’s disease
- Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
- Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
- Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.
- Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
- Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
- General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a neurosurgeon.