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Diagnostic X- Ray
Bone Densitometry Procedure
Uterine Artery Embolization
Interventional Diagnostic Procedures
Angiography Radial Approach
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We have more than 200 bones in our body and each of them is susceptible to bone cancer. However, long bones in the arms and legs are most susceptible to this condition. Bone cancer can be primary or secondary. Primary bone cancer involves uncontrolled and abnormal cell division within the bones while secondary bone cancer refers to cancer that originated somewhere else in the body and later spread to the bones.
While children and adults are equally at risk for primary bone cancer, adults and elderly people are more susceptible to secondary bone cancer. If diagnosed early enough, bone cancer can be treated and even cured with surgery, chemotherapy or radiation.
Hence it is essential to recognize the signs and symptoms of bone cancer. Here’s what you should look out for.
- Pain in Bones: Pain is one the primary symptoms of bone cancer. As the tumour grows larger, this pain can become more intense. In its early stages, the pain may be experienced as a dull ache inside the bone or the affected part of the body. It may also increase or decrease according to your activity level or may be experienced only at night. However, not all bone pains signify ‘cancer’ as this is also a symptom associated with osteoporosis.
- Swelling: In some cases, the abnormal growth of bone cells can result in the formation of a lump of mass that may be felt through the skin. In other cases, the affected area may also show signs of swelling.
- Breaking of the Bone: Cancer can weaken the bones and make them more brittle. This may make the bones more susceptible to fractures. A bone breaking in an area that has been painful or sore for a long period of time may be a sign of cancer. This is known as a pathologic fracture.
- Reduced Flexibility: If the tumour is located near a joint, it may affect the range of movements possible and make simple actions uncomfortable. For example, a tumour around the knee may make walking and climbing stairs a painful exercise.
Other symptoms to look out for are sudden and drastic weight loss, tiredness, excessive sweating at night, fever and difficulty breathing in case cancer has spread to other organs. Since many of these symptoms are common to other medical disorders, you should consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of them. A physical examination and a couple of tests along with a biopsy will be required to confirm a diagnosis of bone cancer.
Diffuse disc bulge indenting thecal sac abutting bilateral traversing nerve roots at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels.
With the recent number of breast cancer cases on the rise, it is important that we should get the examination done on a regular basis as a preventive measure. Even if someone is suffering from it, it is important that we should make an effort and learn about.
If you have breast cancer then a surgery will be part of your treatment. Based on the condition, surgery will be carried out due to any of the following reasons:
1. To remove the cancerous tissues from the breast
2. To reconstruct the breast once the cancer is removed
3. To check whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm
4. To treat symptoms of cancer that has progressed to an advanced stage
Breast cancer surgery may be classified into two types
1. Mastectomy: Mastectomy involves removing the entire breast; tissues in the adjoining region may also be removed. A double mastectomy is a procedure where both the breasts are removed.
2. Breast-conserving surgery: In this surgery, only parts of the breast affected by cancer are removed. The area of the breast that is to be removed will depend on the severity of the cancer. Some healthy tissues may also be removed in this surgery.
Usually, if a woman is in the initial stages of cancer then she may opt for the latter as it entails removing parts of the breast. They may also undergo radiation therapy along with these surgeries.
For checking if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes below the arm, the lymph nodes are removed from the body. Once they are removed, they are studied under a microscope to check if it has spread, if yes then the extent of their damage. This procedure is carried out along with the surgery to remove the cancer.
Once the mastectomy procedure is completed, you can opt for a breast reconstruction surgery to rebuild the area. You may opt for this procedure at the time of breast cancer removal or at a later stage. If you are considering breast reconstruction surgery then you should discuss it with your surgeon.
Surgery is sometimes not used to treat cancer, but in slowing the progression of cancer or even reducing its symptoms.It is important you talk to your surgeon before the procedure to understand the goal of the surgery.
Breast cancer is a very common form of cancer that develops in the cells of your breast. The cancer typically forms in either the ducts of your breast (the pathway through which milk reaches the nipples from the glands) or the lobules (the glands which produce milk).
Breast cancer can affect both males and females. However, it is more commonly observed in women aged between 45-55 years.
Look out for these symptoms!
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer include the following-
- Discharge of blood from the nipples
- A lump near the breast or the armpit
- Scaling or peeling of skin around the breasts
- Sore nipple
- Breast pain
- Swelling of lymph nodes in the armpit or on the neck
- Change in the shape and size of the nipple or the breast
- An inverted nipple
What are the risk factors?
- Age- Breast cancer usually strikes at an older age. Women aged over 55 years are most often diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.
- Family history- If you have someone in your family who’ve had a history of breast cancer, then you too may develop this disease later in life.
- Inherited genes- Mutation of certain genes- BRCA1 and BRCA2- can put you at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Obesity- People with Body Mass Index (BMI) higher than or equal to 30 are at risk of developing breast cancer.
- Alcohol consumption- Aggressive or frequent alcohol consumption can make you prone to breast cancer.
- Early menstruation- Those who’ve had their first menstrual cycle before the age of 12, are more likely to get affected by breast cancer in the later stage.
- Postmenopausal therapy- Women undergoing hormonal therapy or medications combining progesterone and estrogen to treat menopause have greater risk of having breast cancer.
What is the treatment for breast cancer?
After a thorough evaluation of your overall health condition, your doctor will determine the options to treat your breast cancer depending on the type, size and stage of the cancer. The usual methods of curing breast cancer are-
- Lumpectomy- This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure whereby smaller tumors are removed from the lumps of your breast. Your doctor will only remove a portion of the cancerous lump, leaving the remaining portion of the breast intact. This allows for better symmetry of your breast. However, you may need to undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy following a lumpectomy to make sure that all the cancer cells are destroyed.
- Mastectomy- This surgical procedure is performed to remove all of the breast tissues including the ducts, lobules, nipples and areola.
- Sentinel Node Biopsy- In order to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized to other body parts including the lymph nodes, your doctor will first discuss with you the importance of removing the lymph nodes which are likely to be in the receipt of the lymph drainage from the tumor.
- Breast removal- In certain cases where people have a greater risk of developing breast cancer due to family history or a genetic susceptibility, removal of both the breasts are prescribed by doctors.
The rate of survival for breast cancer has increased in recent times owing to modern treatment techniques. Nearly 90% of breast cancer patients survive for at least 5 years after the treatment is done.
Spine surgeries are complicated and have serious repercussions if the procedure doesn’t go as planned. Probing your doctor is therefore very critical to ensure a safe operation and early post-op recovery. Questions can range from the type of treatment chosen for speedy recovery to side effects. Here is a list of questions that you need to ask your spine surgeon:
1. Why is the surgery recommended?
Typically, there could be more than one treatment option for a particular problem. Your doctor should be able to tell you very precisely as to why the surgery is recommended and how it is going to address the problem.
2. Is there any non-surgical option?
Many spine related issues can be treated with medicines and physiotherapy. Ask your doctor if such options exist.
3. Explain the surgical procedure in detail
Your doctor should explain the whole surgical procedure, explaining the minute details and help will help you to understand the implications.
4. What is the duration of the surgery?
Spine surgeries do not take more than 2 hours. It, however, depends on the procedure that is being performed.
5. How will the surgery address the pain?
It is important to know the source of the pain. Exploratory surgeries are not performed on the spine. Ask your doctor how he intends to address the pain through the surgery.
6. What are the risks involved?
Risks and side effects vary from patient to patient. For instance, a person with obesity, spondylitis and smoking has greater chances of complications associated with the operation.
7. Will the doctor perform the whole procedure or he will use practicing surgeons and intern for the job?
Many senior surgeons use interns and junior surgeons to perform a minor procedure. Get a clear understanding of the role of the doctor and his assistants. It is a good idea to know the background if the surgical team who is going to perform the procedure.
8. What is the success rate of the doctor for the procedure he is going to perform?
A successful spine surgeon should be able to give you valid data on his/her success rate and the overall success rate of surgeons all across the country.
9. How many days do you need to spend in hospital?
Your hospital stay is directly related to your insurance. It is essential to get a clear picture on the same.
10. Whether a back brace is necessary after surgery?
Limiting the spine movement speed the process of healing. Most Doctors suggest braces after a spine surgery.
11. What is the time required for recovery?
The recovery greatly varies from patient to patient. What you should ask your Doctor is the expected time required for you to join your job/school.
12. Will there be any physical limitation after the operations?
Many spine surgeries require you to refrain from strenuous jobs for a while. For instance, certain surgeries require you to stay away from driving for a while. Address all these apprehensions from your doctor.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have been suffering from slip disc in my spine for a year. I am not able to do the exercises regularly. The pain is increasing now and I am too frustrated with my life. Please suggest me a treatment with which I can start living a normal life.
What is Giant cell arteritis?
Giant cell arteritis causes inflammation of the lining of the body’s medium and large arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your body.
Symptoms of Giant cell arteritis-
- Scalp tenderness
- Jaw pain when you chew
- Severe headache
- Tenderness over one or both sides of the forehead
- Permanent loss of vision in one eye
- Weight loss
Causes of Giant cell arteritis-
What causes these arteries to become inflamed isn’t known. However, it is thought that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible for the condition.
Risk factors of Giant cell arteritis-
- Older adults
- Being women
- Polymyalgia rheumatica
- People born in Northern European countries
Complications of Giant cell arteritis-
Diagnosis of Giant cell arteritis-
Diagnosis of Giant cell arteritis includes the following tests and procedures:
- Physical exam
- Blood tests
- Duplex ultrasound
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
Precautions & Prevention of Giant cell arteritis
- Regular aerobic exercise, such as walking, can help prevent bone loss, high blood pressure and diabetes
- Eat fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains
- Limit your intake of salt and sugar
- Get adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D
- Avoid alcohol
Treatment of Giant cell arteritis-
- Homeopathic Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
- Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
- Psychotherapy Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
- Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
- Surgical Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
- Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
- Other Treatment of Giant cell arteritis
Treatment of Giant cell arteritis-
Homeopathic Treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis-
Homeopathy heals the tissue and brings it back to normal. It treats the person as a whole. Treatment is constitutional. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. It balances the energy system, improves immunity and body functions. It naturally cures the root cause of disorder. Some of the homeopathic medicines for treatment of giant cell arteritis are:
- Ars alb
- Carb V
- Kali iod
Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis-
Acupuncture relieves by improving the physiological function of the organs and organ system. In acupuncture therapist will first diagnose the case on the basis of energy system or chi blockage as well as on the basis of status of five elements. On this basis certain disease specific acupoints are selected and stimulated.
Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis-
Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can help in stress relief. They can help in better coping and early relief.
Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Giant cell arteritis-
In the allopathic treatment of giant cell arteritis, inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids are used. These drugs can effectively relieve pain.
Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Giant cell arteritis-
- Eat fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains
- Eat lean meats and fish
- Limit your intake of salt and sugar