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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Recurrent pregnancy loss refers to the situation when three consecutive pregnancy loss takes place. A pregnancy loss is a clinically defined pregnancy which ends before twenty weeks.
Causes of recurrent pregnancy loss
- Major cases of pregnancy loss occur due to genetic abnormalities and chromosomal abnormalities. The abnormality may occur from the sperm, egg or the early developed embryo.
- Recurrent pregnancy loss may occur in a woman due to ascending maternal age. This happens because of poor quality of the egg, which further leads to chromosomal abnormalities. In some cases, the pregnant mother or the father can have some gene irregularities. In such cases, the would-be-born infant is affected, and this causes pregnancy loss or miscarriage.
- Uterus abnormalities also lead to recurrent pregnancy loss. This may happen because of poor supply of blood to the uterus. Abnormalities in the uterus are in-born in some women and in others these may develop over time.
- Women having a poor immune system are likely to suffer pregnancy loss. Abnormalities in hormone secretion like thyroid or diabetes may also cause pregnancy loss in women.
- If a woman suffers from abnormalities in blood clotting, the chances of miscarriage are enhanced.
Testing for recurrent pregnancy loss
Several tests and examinations should be carried out for detection of pregnancy loss.
- Karyotype analysis of the woman and her male partner has to be conducted. Karyotype refers to the genetic or chromosomal constituents of an individual and this test is carried out to detect abnormalities in genes and chromosomes of the parents, which cause miscarriage when passed on to the developing infant.
- Another test includes the evaluation of the uterus and the uterine cavity. This is done by ultrasound, saline ultrasound, MRI, hysterosalpingogram X –ray or by hysteroscopy. These tests help to get information on the uterus shape, about fibroid presence, detect abnormalities within the uterus and observe the opening and closing of the tubes. Tests to detect the functioning of hormones are also carried out.
The treatment for women with recurrent pregnancy loss depends upon the underlying causes of the pregnancy loss.
- In case of patients with karyotypic abnormalities, genetic counselling is recommended, where a specialist is consulted to know about chromosomal abnormalities.
- Prenatal genetic studies are carried out by some couples to know about the offspring’s genetic make-up. This is done with chorionic villus sampling or with amniocentesis. A process known as in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be carried out.
- In case of uterine abnormalities, a surgery may be performed and medications for reducing blood clot are used if antiphospolipid syndrome is detected.
Recurrent pregnancy loss may happen due to various reasons and proper tests, and treatment procedures should be carried out for curing pregnancy loss. This phenomenon affects a woman and her partner deeply. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Hello I am 20 years old suffering from PCOD. Due to which a small lump has occurred beneath my left breast. Dr. says it is a fibroma and not a cancer lump still I face chest pain regularly. please suggest me some do's & do not's to get rid of these problem.
I can be able to do sex with my wife because she is not cooperate with me and feeling pain. Please suggest me.
My friend had unprotected sex 48 hrs before and take i-pill and she again had sex without protection 2 hours after taking ipill is ipill still work?
Super Fact of the Day: About one in three people experience sneezing when moving from darkness to light!
Have you ever wondered as to why some people sneeze and some do not after a period of darkness and on getting exposed to light? It occurs as a result of the eyes getting excited by light and causing this reflex action of the body. About 25% to 33% of the population are known to sneeze when they are first exposed to light after a dark spell.
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The vagina is a muscular, tubular structure of the female genital tract extending from the vulva to the cervix (the opening of the urethra). Sexual activity affects vaginal health in a number of different ways during intercourse and in the long term.
A few of the varying effects and the factors responsible for these effects are listed below:
- Changing size of the vagina: The vagina is designed to be elastic and adjustable. So, no permanent change in size is possible but it does undergo temporary changes in sizes as effects of sex. The inner walls of the vagina enlarge during sexual intercourse and during childbirth. Tissues in the clitoris puff out and harden, this also causes an expansion in size. It takes a while to get back to its normal size.
- Vaginal secretion: When you are aroused during sex, the blood vessels supplying the vagina expand immediately. The blood flow increases to lubricate the vaginal walls (rugae). The rugae unfold and the space increases. These secretions are important because, women who are sexually inactive for a long time at a stretch, experience dryness that leads to urinating difficulties and rashes.
- Unusual discharge: Apart from natural lubricants, vagina secretes some fluids, the process being termed as 'female ejaculation'. A tiny amount of white fluid made of prostate plasma cells, is produced just before you climax and discharged with some quantity of urine. Sometimes, prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (usually found in semen) are also found in the secretion.
- Infections in the urinary tract: The friction caused by sexual intercourse may cause small cuts which enable bacteria to pass from the vagina to the urinary bladder through the urethra. This causes infection in the bladder, the urinary tract and the vagina. These can be avoided by using a condom or by urinating before and after having sex.
- Vaginal pain: A lot of women report the experience of pain and discomfort inside or around the vagina during and immediately after sex. The pain can result from repeated sex within a short period of time or reduced secretion of natural lubricants. If the pain is too severe, you should see a doctor because yeast infections or chronic vulvodynia can also be responsible for the pain sensation.
Hi year before I got married. Before marriage my period is regular by next month of my marriage I am with my irregular periods. And I have pcod problem now and got 5 kg weight in 2 months. How to solve my pcod. And also suggest dietician food. My body is heat body. So please avoid heat foods.
I have irregular periods. I have been gone through a surgery for dermoid cyst three years ago for the right ovary. After that my menstrual cycle is not regular. Now it's almost three months .Please advice me on this.
I have second baby problem first baby 8 year old also and without any treatment but we have Trying second baby last 4-5year Doctor suggest ivf but I want natural baby.
Hi I am 24 year old and had a abortion last year september, after that I am trying to conceive but no response recentnly I have figured out huge tummy and my periods are less it last for one day? what all is this ?
My sister is pregnant 6 weeks now using ivf. Doctors doubt if child brain is undeveloped. Leading to forced abortion. Please tell me which doctor to consult. My sister lives in delhi.
I am 12 weeks and 5 days pregnant. And it is an unwanted pregnancy so for an abortion we went to a gynecologist she said you have to take misoprostol before d&c 24 hours before. So when I searched about that it causes abortion automatically and opens the cervix and expels out fetus and then after 24 hours d&c is done by doctor. But my question is that is it necessary to get d&c done after taking dosage of misoprostol or simply wait for next menses. And regular check by ultrasound that abortion is complete or not. Kindly help me in this situation what to do?
My last period came on 26th July and it off on 2nd august. Than how many days it becomes missing my period, if today is 16th September!
If you like your food sweet, but worry about calories at the same time, chances are you are leaning towards artificial sweeteners to solve your dilemma. The market is flooded with artificial sweeteners, so how do you choose one? And what are their pros and cons?
Besides weight control, artificial sweeteners are also used by people suffering from diabetes. But there is a debate as to how safe artificial sweeteners are, for normal people and diabetics alike.
You get multiple choices from aspartame to sucralose, present in stores. However, it is better to be educated about their benefits and disadvantages.
The pros and cons of most popular sweeteners are as follows:
1. Saccharin: This sugar substitute has been in the market for the longest.
a) It has zero calories
b) It does not elevate the levels of blood sugar
c) 200-700 times sweeter than normal sugar
a) It is a possible carcinogen (substances that cause cancer)
b) There is also the danger of saccharin acting as an allergen (substances that cause allergy)
2. Aspartame: It is the most commonly used sugar substitute. Almost all the food items that boast of being sugar-free have aspartame in them.
a) 160-220 times sweeter than common sugar
b) A small amount goes a long way, so calorie intake is lesser
a) Headaches, depression and cancer have been linked to aspartame use
b) Increased hunger
3. Sucralose: This sugar substitute is derived from sugar itself. It is gradually becoming the most popularly used sweetener as it is found in almost all cooked or baked foods.
a) It is heat resistant, so it is used liberally in cooking and baking
b) It has very few calories
a) Weight gain is still possible
b) It has chlorine in it, which is a carcinogen
4. Neotame: This is a new invention and is chemically related to aspartame.
a) 7000 -13000 times sweeter than common sugar with zero calories
b) Apparently, it is safe for consumption for teens, children and even for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
a) There isn't enough research done on Neotame, therefore very little is known about it
b) Since its chemical composition is closer to aspartame, there is much controversy about "neotame" affecting people the same way as aspartame
Alien Hand Syndrome or AHS is a neurological disorder that causes the patient's hand to move involuntarily. The individual has no control over the movement of the hand and sometimes, he or she may not even be aware of the action! The patients often report feeling like their hand does not belong to them anymore. The disease has no cure but the symptoms can be treated and reduced. Usually the hand is kept occupied constantly by holding a light object.
Causes of Alien Hand Syndrome:
Though the exact causing factor of AHS is unknown, there are a number of instances which have been shown to influence the development of the condition. The chief factors are:
- Brain injury: Injury caused to the brain by blunt force trauma or faulty surgery can lead to Alien Hand Syndrome. This is particularly seen if the frontal lobe (the brain center of voluntary movement) or the corpus callosum (the bundle of nerve fibers connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain) is affected. These are the areas that regulate motor functioning and the neural pathways to execute the actions.
- Brain tumor: A tumor (a mass of abnormal cells) pressing on the motor centers of the brain can cause involuntary movements of the left hand in a right handed person. This is because the right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa. Tumors blocking the neural pathways usually cause errant movements of the predominant hand.
- Neurodegenerative conditions: Diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeld & Jakob Disease are characterized by memory loss, rapid changes in personality and growing defects in the central nervous system. AHS could be a complication of such disorders. Effects of Alien Hand Syndrome This is an extremely rare condition. There have been less than 80 known cases around the world since 1908.
The disorder is often unreported because it is mistaken for a psychiatric problem due to its unusual symptoms and effects.
- The patient may not even be aware of what his 'alien hand' is doing. The hand may even begin functioning of its own accord when the patient is asleep.
- AHS can result in feelings of guilt and shame because of the embarrassing actions of the hand that the patient has absolutely no control over. The hand is often said to be governed by primal animalistic urges of hitting others, tearing clothes off etc.
- The condition often leads to social anxiety, depression and paranoia.