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It is very common for women to have heavy and painful periods or have a feeling of fullness in the lower abdomen. Although, it may not sound very alarming these could be the symptoms of uterine fibroids. These are the most common types of benign tumours found in women. The fibroids are basically some tissues and muscle cells that grow within the uterus, outside the uterus, or along the wall of the uterus. The fibroids are usually benign and asymptomatic and do not require any treatment unless they cause problems.
Know the causes
Though the exact cause of fibroid formation is not known, it is believed that the female hormones estrogen and progesterone have a role to play in their formation. Fibroids are formed only when a woman is producing these hormones and they are not seen in women in non-reproductive age i.e. before starting of menses or after stoppage of menses (menopause). If fibroids are persisting even after menopause or especially if increasing in size then it is an alarming sign. Such a fibroid needs to be taken care of immediately.
What are the symptoms?
Fibroids often remain quiet for long periods of time. They cause nonspecific symptoms in the pelvis and abdomen including:
- Fullness in the abdomen
- Low back pain
- Irregular menstruation
- Cramping with menstruation
- Painful sex
- Increased urgency to urinate
- Anemia, leading to tiredness and weakness
- Infertility Diagnosing the fibroids
When these symptoms are recurrent, it is good to confirm the diagnosis. This can happen with a pelvic exam followed by ultrasound scanning to confirm the size and location of the fibroids. A blood test also may be done to confirm anemia, which is common due to heavy periods.
Management of fibroids can range from doing nothing to periodic monitoring to surgical removal.
- If pain and heavy bleeding are the only symptoms, then pain killers like ibuprofen should suffice for symptomatic relief. Anemia, if severe, may require iron supplementation.
- Embolization is an option which shrinks the fibroid, at the same time preserving the uterus. The blood flow to the fibroid is cut off, thereby preventing its further growth. It takes about 1 to 3 hours and requires some bed rest after the procedure. There could be some pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding, which will gradually subside. The fibroids may grow back, but the benefits of keeping the uterus are definitely there. This is suitable in case of single fibroid with specific blood supply.
- The next surgical option is myomectomy, where the portion of the uterus which contains the fibroid alone is removed. This is done in women who still wish to get pregnant and in women who would like to retain the uterus. This can also be achieved laparoscopically( key hole surgery). In such cases, fibroids are cut into small pieces and then removed from the body. This procedure should be done by a doctor specialised in advanced gynecological endoscopy as all this cutting should be done in a bag to avoid any spillage of cells inside the abdominal cavity. This procedure is known as Laparoscopic Myomectomy with In-bag Moecellation.
- In women who have crossed their pregnancy phase, hysterectomy or complete removal of the uterus is advised. In these women, the bleeding and pain may not have subsided even after years of treatment with hormones. The growing fibroids could be pressing on the adjacent organs, causing pressure. This is the only definitive treatment and should be done in women have completed their family and don’t desire to be pregnant.
- Myomectomy and hysterectomy may be done laparoscopically or with an open method depending on the overall health, the size and location of the fibroids in the uterus.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The presence of a lump or a tumor in the breast is not always indicative of breast cancer. In some instances, the breast tumor can be benign or noncancerous as well. Thus, to understand breast cancer better, one should know the difference between a benign and malignant breast tumor. In this article, we will discuss the factors that differentiate a benign breast tumor from a malignant one.
- Breast Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumors that often affect women in their early 20s and 30s (can also affect women of other age groups). Research suggests that in spite of being benign and noncancerous, breast fibroadenomas make a woman more susceptible to breast cancer in the future.
- It may be difficult to decipher the underlying factor that triggers fibroadenomas. However, increased use of birth control pills (that results in an elevated estrogen level) can be a contributing factor.
- Thus, in spite of no discomfort, it is safe to get fibroadenomas removed by lumpectomy or by radiation therapy. There are also instances when fibroadenomas dissolved on their own.
- Sometimes, the lobules of the breast can undergo enlargement resulting in the formation of lumps (can be a tumor or a cyst) that are non-cancerous in nature. Such tumors are known as Adenosis.
- The benign tumor growth can also develop in the milk ducts of the nipples, a condition known as Intraductal papillomas (characterized by discharge from the nipples).
- To stay safe and lower the risk of breast cancer, doctors often recommend the removal of the tumor.
Differences between Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors
- One of the major factors resulting in a tumor is the abnormal growth of cells that could be triggered by an injury, an infection or prolonged inflammation.
- A factor that plays a pivotal role in differentiating malignant from benign breast lumps or tumors is its ability to metastasize or invade other organs, cells and tissues of the body.
- A malignant tumor starts off as a primary tumor that remains confined within its point of origin. Gradually, the cancerous growth metastasize, invading other neighboring as well as distant cells and body organs (Secondary cancer or tumor).
- Benign tumors, on the other hand, contains chemical adhesions that prevent their metastasis and invasion to the other vital organs in the body.
- As compared to malignant tumors, benign breast tumors, once removed, do not recur.
- On the cellular level, microscopic examination reveals that malignant breast tumors often contain unusual, mutated, and modified genes and chromosomes.
- More than often, malignant breast tumors give rise to Paraneoplastic Syndrome. The Paraneoplastic Syndrome is characterized by an elevated production of substances (can be antibodies or hormones) by the cancerous growths or tumors. The hormones or the antibodies circulate in the bloodstream and can alter the functioning of a host of vital body tissues and organs with deleterious health consequences.
Such things seldom take place in the case of benign breast tumors. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Studies have shown that those who beging their sex lives before the age of 17 years have many partners, are very much susceptible to cervical cancer. Cervix is the neck of the womb or uterus. Women between the age of 50 to 75 years who are or show signs of hypertension, or are sterile can suffer from endometrial cancer. Endometrium is the lining of the uterus. It rarely occurs before menopause.
Pap test is performed to detect cervical cancer. A thin wooden spatula spatula which is smaller than the tongue depresor is inserted into the cells. These are cancerous or otherwise. Pap test should be done every year for the first three years after a women becomes sexually active. A visual examination can be made by the aid of calposope by which little portions of the tissue are taken to perform.
The usual symptoms are heavy menstruation lasting longer with excruciating pains.
Surgery cryosurgery or laser therapy is used to destroy abnormal areas of the cervix. In more serious cases, the cervix, uterus, tubes & lymph nodes of the areas are removed.
I have L5-S1 disc extrusion condition from a year resulting in severe pain in the right leg. Is surgery the only solution?
What should I be doing to releave the pain for two herniated disc's one above and one below a fusion surgery of the cervical spine.
It has been happening since Dec 2016 Symptoms are changing time to time. I have gone through H-C HIV H-B, CBC STD (Urine Complete USG Abdomen) DRE examination PSA Cystoscopy Full health Check up Lumber Spine MRI. And so on. All came negative except Lumber Spine shown L4-L5 Mild Bulge and Usg Shown grade one liver fatty. I have been to 3 different urologists but they just put me antibiotics and anti depressants. In between I did’t take any medicine for few months. It remained same like getting better and worse itself but not complete relief. Now I share my problem, I feel more water it feels heavy down there. Most of the time I get burning all over my penis don’t know inside or out. Sometimes tingling stabbing sharp pain or after ejaculation and sometimes get hard to start peeing and my Testicles are also hanging too low which also irritates me sometimes. Don’t know what is happening to me. When I lay down and place a kind of pillow under my lower back I feel better. And I also get lower back pain especially after sex. Please help me I just want to get rid of this. Is it associated with any kind of neurological disorder as per changing positions it changes.
One of my friend he is suffering due to dislocation of l5/s1 disc. The residual ap canal diameter at this level measures 6.7 mm only. Few of the doctors suggested him to do surgery but few of them not recommending surgery because he is just 27 years old. Now he is taking Ayurveda medicine. Kindly recommend the best solution or medication for this problem.
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.
Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:
- Abnormal blood vessels
- Blood clots in the brain
- When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
- Due to nerve damage
- Parkinson's disease
- Any kind of pressure after an injury
- Skull fractures
- In case of stroke and tumors
A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.
Types of brain surgeries:
- Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
- Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
- Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:
- Allergic reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clot formations
- Swelling of the brain
- A state of coma
- Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
- Problems in memory
- Strokes and seizures
- Infections in the brain
A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
Hello, I am Dr Gaurav. I am senior Physiotherapist and HOD in Anaath Clinic. I have worked in different multi speciality Hospitals and and clinic before. I have around 10 years of experience. I this time, I have seen many kinds of cases. Today, I will discuss Spinal cord injury.
In Spinal cord Injury, patients generally do not go to Physiotherapist for a longer duration or they just go for few days in the starting injury phase. At that time they are not able to walk or depending upon their level of injury and everything. They might not able to take care of themselves also. But here we try to make them independent as much as they can to help them move their body accordingly. We try to make them stand. We try to focus on their sitting and their walking also. So, it will be more of the confidence increasing for those kinds of patients.
We generally prescribe patients to do movements and increase their strength and motivations. In this condition, if they do not move, there might be different kinds of serious problems like bed su, the stiffness of the joints which will again lead to major issues which will hinder their improvement and progress. So, we prescribe our patients to move as much as they can to help them and gain their mobility soon.
In our clinic, we are just not focusing to maintain the range of motion in their body. We focus to make them motivated, to help gain them the confidence so that they will be able to do their own work.
For any query or treatment, you can contact me through Lybrate.