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Treatment of Heart Diseases
Treatment of Heart Specialist
Mitral Valve Replacement Surgery
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Cardiac Ablation Procedure
Coronary Bypass Surgery
Carotid Angioplasty And Stenting Procedure
Cardiac Catheterization Procedure
Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (Icds) Tre
Intra - Arterial Thrombolysis Procedures
Treatment Of Restenosis
TMT (Treadmill Test)
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Blockage in heart is a common term used for narrowing of coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are vessels, which supply blood and thus oxygen and food to continuously working heart muscles. Heart muscles, which are not tired working from the birth till death, however, cannot sustain long without blood supply.
A reduction in blood supply gives rise to ischemia of heart muscles commonly manifested as chest discomfort or angina. A sudden complete shutdown of blood supply leads to heart attack leading to permanent damage to heart (if blood flow not reestablished promptly).
But what causes these arteries to block? Deposition of LDL cholesterol (low density cholesterol) in inner surface of coronary arteries is the primary reason of these blockages. LDL a normal component of blood (upto certain limit) starts depositing in arteries as early as 10 years of age!
Deposition of billions of LDL molecules over several years on inner surface of arteries gives rise to visible narrowings in these arteries. Flow ahead of these narrowings is reduced in proportion to the narrowing. At a level of 70 % narrowing the flow is reduced to give ischemia (and angina) during exercise. Gradually increasing degree of narrowing reduces the exercise needed for ischemia and angina; a narrowing of more than 90 % can give symptoms at rest. A sudden clot formation at any of these stages can block the flow suddenly giving a heart attack.
If LDL is a normal component of blood, why it is deposited in the arteries at first place?
LDL above a certain limit in blood starts depositing in the arteries. Diabetes, Hypertension, smoking, less exercise and genetics makes it more sticky thus making narrowing faster. This is why these risk elements need to be properly attended for prevention from heart disease. For treatment medicines are important for stopping the progression of narrowings; angioplasty is a method of fast resolution of blockage; and bypass surgery is the method of creating a whole new blood supply for the affected part of the heart.
Complications in the heart valve occur when the functioning of the heart valve is impaired. Valves of the heart allow the blood to flow in one direction and prevent the blood from flowing back into the ventricles of the heart.
Heart valve diseases can be classified as follows:
- Valvular stenosis: This condition occurs when the valves of the heart does not open completely due to stiffness. As the opening is narrow, the heart has to work hard to pump blood. This condition may lead to heart failure.
- Valvular insufficiency: This is a condition where the valve does not close tightly. This causes some of the blood to flow back to the valve. As this condition deteriorates, the heart has to work harder to pump blood.
Types and Causes of valve diseases:
- Acquired valve disease: The structure of the valve changes due to various infections or rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is caused by bacterial infectionthat had not been treated. It tends to occur in children and cause inflammation of the valve.
- Congenital valve disease: This condition usually affects the pulmonary valve where the size of the valve is abnormal.
- Bicuspid aortic valve disease: It is a type of valve disease that impairs the aortic valve. Instead of the regular three cusps, the bicuspid valve only has two. This may cause the valve to be stiff or cause it to leak.
- Mitral valve prolapse: This condition causes the valve to flop back when the heart contracts. This condition also causes the leaflets of the valve to turn irregularly and cause it to stretch. This condition causes the valve to leak.
Symptoms: The symptoms of valve diseases are as follows:
- Weakness: This condition may cause weakness and cause severe discomfort while performing daily activities.
- Palpitations: Symptoms such as irregular heartbeats, skipped beats and rapid heart rhythm occurs in this condition.
- Rapid weight gain: This condition can cause you to gain weight very rapidly.
- It may cause swelling in your ankles, abdomen and feet.
- This condition causes shortness of breath.
While you may be worried about being affected with coronary diseases just because your forefathers suffered from it, there are various factors that are absolutely in your sole control. With a little change in lifestyle and following a well-regulated routine, you can easily keep your hereditary cardiac diseases at bay.
- Take a Healthy Diet Regularly: Increase the amount of green leafy vegetables and colourful fruits in your regular diet as they are rich in phytonutrients and other anti-oxidants, vitamins, fibres, minerals as well as anti-inflammatory molecules that would increase your immunity.
- Regulate Your Blood-Sugar Level: Studies show that blood sugar is a great contributor to cardiac diseases. So try to replace your high-carb diet with loads of fibre, protein and healthy fats to keep your blood-sugar level in control.
- Increase the Intake of Fibre: Try to increase the amount of fibre in your food chart by having lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts and soya so that it amounts up to at least 50 grams a day. You may even include fibre supplements in your diet.
- Stay Away From Processed and Junk Food: We know you are crazy about fast food, but you must also include sodas, processed jams, fruit juices and soft drinks as well, which are the greatest contributors to diabetes and in turn lead to heart diseases.
- Increase the Intake of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Try to include cold-water fish like sardine, salmon and herring along with flax seeds and sea weeds. This 'good' fat would keep your cholesterol level in check and lower down the amount of malicious LDL levels and transform them into harmless LDL particles.
- Get Rid of all Hydrogenated Food: This implies that you should abstain from having cookies, margarine, baked stuff and crackers. Don't be fooled by the label saying, "no trans-fat" and instead look for healthy coconut, olive or sesame oil.
- Abstain from Consuming Alcohol: Alcohol can do no good to any organ of your body. Instead, it triggers the amount of triglycerides, causes fatty liverand creates sugar imbalance in your body. By reducing alcohol consumption you can reduce inflammation, which causes various chronic diseases.
- Have good quality supplements: Along with having a healthy diet and workout, you must try to take in multivitamin and mineral supplements regularly to keep fit and active all around the year.
- Exercise Regularly: Researches report that a minimum of half an hour's exercise is required by our body regularly. After all, the heart is a muscle, and you must work out regularly to keep it healthy for a longer span.
- Manage your Stress Levels: Stress alone can lead to a fatal heart attackwithout prior signal. Take the time out to indulge in yoga, meditation, tai chi or anything that would keep your stress levels under control and help you to lead a happier, healthier life.
Heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction, is a severe condition where death of the heart muscle occurs because of the loss of blood supply. The blood loss usually happens because of the blockage of a coronary artery. Due to electrical instability, ventricular fibrillation is caused. Heart attacks may result in permanent brain damage or even death.
- Symptoms of Heart Attack: There are many early symptoms and signs of heart attack, which should be recognized. Symptoms of heart attack vary from person to person. Here is a list of the primary heart attack symptoms:
- Chest Pain and Discomfort: Chest pain is the basic symptom of a heart attack and occurs in different forms. The chest pain has a pressure, fullness and squeezing sensation and starts from the center of the chest. The pain may go away and re-occur and may spread down to other limbs of the body.
- Headache, Toothache: The chest pain occurring due to a heart attack spreads all over the body and the jaw. Even the back and head are affected. Sometimes pain in these regions is present while chest pain is absent.
- Shortness of Breath: A gasping sensation or feeling shortness of breath is another common sign of a heart attack. Such breathing difficulty is called dyspnea. The shortness of breath occurs before or during the chest pain.
- Nausea and Vomiting: The feeling of nausea or sickness in the stomach is another possible symptom. It is accompanied by belching or burping and sometimes, the heart attack is associated with a feeling of indigestion. Nausea is more common in women. Vomiting also occurs alongside nausea.
- General Epigastric Discomfort: In several cases, patients describe the pain of a heart attack as stomach pain. The pain is heavy and uncomfortable and persists for several minutes.
- Sweating: Perspiration or sweating occurs during a heart attack and the patient experiences cold sweat in avid amounts.
Emergency Treatment for Heart Attack:
- A person who has a heart attack should be rushed to a hospital.
- Several tests are carried out to detect the cause of the attack. A 12 lead EKG is carried out to supervise electrical activity within the heart and detect the damaged areas.
- Blood tests are undertaken to check enzymes and in certain cases, cardiac catheterization is required where pictures of the blood vessels are examined.
- Emergency medicines are given to the patient to stop the formation of blood clots and include aspirin, heparin and other drugs. Other medicines are given for thrombolytic therapy, which dissolve already formed blood clots. They work to reduce the heart damage. Nitrates are also used.
A heart attack is a severe condition and must be attended to immediately. Emergency treatment procedures are essential to save the life of an affected person.