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Nephropathy is also known as renal disease. It is any type of damage or disease relating to the kidneys. Though not everyone with diabetes has nephropathy, however, diabetic nephropathy can cause kidney failure.
How does diabetes affect the kidney?
Kidneys are responsible for taking waste out from your blood. They have a lot of tiny blood vessels to do this. High blood sugar may kill such blood vessels. Once these blood vessels are destroyed, the kidneys may not function as well or it may even lead to kidney failure.
What increases your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy?
There are several factors which increase your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy including:
1.High blood pressure
4.Being Native American, African American or of Hispanic origin, for whom risk factors have proved to be magnified
5. If you have family history of diabetic nephropathy
Symptoms and diagnosis:
There are very few noticeable symptoms, which appear when you have diabetic nephropathy, except swelling in your arms and legs. The diagnosis is done by checking for a type of protein in your urine known as albumin, which is not supposed to be there. Getting the diagnosis done early is crucial.
You can prevent kidney damage by doing the following:
1. Keeping your blood sugar levels under control - keep HbA1C < 6-7%
2. Keeping your blood pressure under control in the range of 130/80
3. Eating healthy food
4. Exercising regularly
5. Not eating too much protein
6. Not eating too much salt
7. Reducing smoke or excessive tobacco usage
Medicines for treatment
If you do get diabetic nephropathy, here are some medicines, which can help cure it
1.ACE inhibitors which are also called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
2.Angiotensin II Receptor - blockers (ARBs)
1. Blood pressure may rise
2.Triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels may rise.
The presence of red blood cells in the urine is called hematuria. If there are sufficient red cells, the urine turns to a bright red, pink or cola shade. Frequently, the urine looks totally ordinary because there is insufficient blood to change the colour. In this situation, the condition is called 'microscopic' hematuria.
The most common causes of hematuria are given below:
- Urinary tract infection (UTI)
- Kidney stones
- Tumours in the kidney or bladder
- Exercise: In this case, the blood is produced in the urine after strenuous activity. It is more commonly experienced by male patients.
- Injury: Traumatic damage to any part of the urinary tract, from the kidneys to the urethral opening, can cause hematuria.
The symptoms of hematuria vary depending upon the condition. These are as follows:
- Glomerulonephritis: If the glomerulonephritis is not serious, it may not show any signs. If the symptoms do show up, they can cause swelling, particularly in the lower furthest points(the thighs, legs, feet, and toes), decreased urine, and hypertension.
- Kidney or bladder infection: Symptoms rely on the site of the disease and can even cause extreme pain on one side of the lower back, fever, chills, nausea with vomiting, and pain in the bladder.
- Prostate infection: There can be pain in the lower back or in the region between the scrotum and rear end. Pain with discharge, blood in the semen, and fever and chills can also occur once in a while.
- Tumour in the kidney or bladder: Most kidney and bladder problems develop without bringing about any pain or uneasiness. At the point when side effects build up, abdomen pain may be persistent.
- Kidney stones: When a kidney stone gets attached to the ureters, it can bring about extreme pain in the back, side or crotch, with nausea and difficulties in urination.
Based upon the suspected cause of hematuria, some of the treatments may include the following:
- Urine culture: In this test, a urine sample is extracted and examined to check whether bacteria has developed. This test is used to find a case of a kidney or bladder disease.
- Computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys, ureters and bladder: For most cases,a CT scan is conducted. This helps in viewing the internal organs and finding the areas that may have been affected by the condition. It also shows the extent of the damage and the spread of the disease so that a proper treatment plan may be laid out.
- Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images that can show whether or not a kidney mass is a non-cancerous. This method can also be used to find out whether or not there are any kidney stones, which may be causing hematuria.
- Cystoscopy: In this test, the specialist embeds an adaptable telescope into the urethra and passes it into the bladder to investigate the bladder lining for tumours or different issues.
You're said to suffer from the problem of acute kidney failure if your kidneys suddenly stop working and lose their ability to eliminate waste materials including excess fluids and salts from the blood. The condition usually develops quickly over a few days or even a few hours. When this happens, waste materials accumulate in your blood, disrupting the chemical balance of your bloodstream.
So, what causes this problem?
Acute kidney failure can occur because of any one of these reasons:
1. A drop or slowdown of blood flow to the kidneys - Adequate blood circulation to the kidneys is of great importance as without it the kidneys may end malfunctioning. If blood flow to the kidney is hampered, a part of or the entire kidney may die. You may suffer from acute kidney failure if blood flow to the kidneys gets impaired due to conditions like
- Heavy blood loss
- Sepsis (body's inflammatory reaction to an infection, which can bring about organ failure, tissue damage, and death)
- Use of certain drugs
- Heart disease
2. Urinary obstructions - A sudden blockage that hampers your kidney's ability to eliminate urine can also bring about acute kidney failure. When this happens, it leads to a build up of toxins in the body, causing an overload of the kidneys. Conditions that bring about this urinary obstruction include:
3. Disease within the kidneys - Even instances of clotting within the blood vessels of the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. This is because if the movement of blood cells within the blood vessels gets hampered, kidneys are not able to filter out toxins from the body. The conditions and diseases that may cause clotting, and subsequently damage to the kidneys include:
- Scleroderma (an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and skin)
- Build-up of cholesterol deposits
- Glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory condition of the kidney's ball-shaped structures called glomeruli)
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome (a condition that occurs due to untimely death of red blood cells)
- Lupus (a disorder of the body's immune system that brings about damage to the body's own organs and tissues)
The 4 types of kidney stones and their common symptoms
Defined as hard and small mineral deposits that develop inside your kidney, kidney stones are made up of acid salts and minerals. The causes of this disease are not well-defined, although risk factors include drinking very little amounts of water and having a diet rich in sodium, protein and oxalate (chocolate and green leafy foods for example). However, knowing the type of kidney stone you suffer from can help ascertain the cause.
Here are the common types of kidney stones.
1. Struvite stones
This type of kidney stone is usually a response to certain kind of infection, such as a urinary tract infection for example. Characterised by rapid growth and a large size, struvite stones can develop without any warning signs.
2. Calcium stones
These are the most common type and are caused by a diet rich in oxalate. Risk factors for calcium stones include a diet consisting of plenty of nuts, chocolates and certain fruits and vegetables; metabolic disorders, high doses of vitamin d and intestinal bypass surgery, all of which can increase the amounts of calcium or oxalate in your urine, indicating the development of kidney stones.
3. Cystine stones
Those individuals with a hereditary disorder that causes their kidneys to produce certain amino acids (cystinuria to be precise) in excess are most likely to get cystine stones.
4. Uric acid stones
These are common in those whose diets are lacking in water or those who suffer from the excess fluid loss. People with a high protein diet and those who suffer from gout are also at risk. Genetic factors play a major role as well in increasing your risk of getting uric acid stones.
Apart from these, there are other rarer types of kidney stones that can also arise depending on a combination of an individual's lifestyle and genetic make-up.
However, to determine whether you're suffering from any of the aforementioned types of kidney stones, you must first know its common symptoms, which are:
- Excruciating pain in your sides, and back, especially below your ribs
- Feelings of pain in the groin and the lower parts of your abdomen
- Intense and fluctuating pain that comes and goes in waves
- Pain while urinating
- Urine that is red, brown or pink in colour
- Urine that's cloudy or has a foul odour
- Vomiting and nausea
- Constant urge to urinate
- Increased frequency of urination
- Urinating in small amounts
- Chills and fever in case of an infection
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Changes in the colour of your urine can reveal important information about your health. If your urine takes on a hue beyond what's normal, it can be indicative of something wrong with your health. In general, the normal urine colour varies from pale yellow to deep yellowish-brown, which is a result of a chemical pigment in the urine called urochrome.
1. Red or Pink
- When your kidneys, urethra, bladder or any other urinary tract organ gets infected or inflamed, blood cells get leaked into the urine, giving it a red hue. The causes behind the presence of blood can be urinary tract infections, kidney cysts, kidney stones, enlarged prostate and even cancer. Taking blood thinners can also cause you to have blood in your urine.
- Certain foods like blackberries, rhubarb and beets can cause your urine to turn pink.
- The use of certain medications like a particular class of antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis can turn your urine red. Likewise, a drug used to numb discomfort in the urinary tract can cause a red/pink discoloration of your urine.
2. Blue or Green
- The consumption of coloured food dyes containing green or blue pigments can cause you to pass urine of such hues.
- Certain anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory medications can turn your urine green/blue.
- A very rare medical condition called familial benign hypercalcemia (fbh), characterised by high levels of calcium in the blood and low levels of the mineral in the urine can cause your urine to turn blue.
- Green urine can also occur if your urinary tract gets infected by the pseudomonas bacteria.
3. Dark Brown
- Having large amounts of these foods - aloe, rhubarb (a type of leafy green) and broad beans can cause you to pass dark brown urine.
- Certain anti-malarial drugs, laxatives and muscle relaxants can darken the colour of your urine as well.
- Dark brown urine can also be caused by disorders of the kidney or liver as well as infections of the urinary tract.
- Injury of the muscle as a result of excessive training can result in dark brown urine.
- Problems with the bile duct (the duct through which bile from the gall bladder and liver passes before entering the duodenum) or liver along with the passing of light coloured stools can result in orange urine.
- A cause of orange urine may also be dehydration as fluids bring about a decrease in the concentration of compounds present in the urine.
- The presence of calcium or phosphate sediments in the urine can give it a white hue.
- White urine can also be a result of funguria infection (a form of fungal urinary infection wherein the fungus produces white sediments) or a bacterial infection.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Kidneys are a pair of organs that are located on either side of the spine, each about a size of a fist. The kidneys help in purifying blood by removing toxins, waste materials and excess fluids from the human body. Disorders and dysfunctions of the kidney can lead to severe and often fatal consequences. When the kidneys stop functioning as they are supposed to, dialysis is performed to resume normal functioning in the body.
Dialysis is a type of treatment, which filters and purifies the blood with the aid of a machine. It is an artificial way of purifying blood. There are two types of dialysis, namely hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis, the most common form of dialysis, which involves using a manmade kidney called a hemodialyzer, which removes toxins and waste materials from blood.
Peritoneal Dialysis, on the other hand, is a type of treatment which involves implanting a catheter in the stomach. During the procedure, a fluid called dialysate flows into the abdomen that absorbs all the waste material, which is consequently drained out of the body.
You may need a dialysis if:
- Your kidneys are dysfunctional
- When waste materials and toxins start to accumulate in the body
- In an event of an injury or accident to the kidney such as internal lacerations (wound caused by the tearing of a tissue)
- If the creatinine (a type of a chemical waste product) level falls to 10-12 cc/minute
- In an event where the kidneys aren't able to work properly leading to accumulation of toxins, irregular amounts of chemicals in the body and other dysfunctions
Weakening of the abdominal muscles and weight gain are some of the risks involved in dialysis. Dialysis is a temporary treatment and serves to function till the time the actual kidneys get repaired. In chronic cases of kidney disease, kidney transplant may perhaps be the last resort.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Kidney failure is happening even to 20-year-old Indians now! 4 Reasons why.
Usually more common in the elderly as a consequence of the chronic kidney disease, kidney failure is now increasingly becoming common amongst 20-somethings in the country.
Mainly because of their unhealthy lifestyle habits, they are falling prey to a disease that normally strikes later on in life.
Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, occurs when the kidneys stop functioning properly, that is, they are unable to filter out waste and toxins efficiently from the body. It is the most severe stage of chronic kidney disease. To ensure that toxins don't build up in the body, treatment usually involves dialysis (process for removing excess fluid and waste from the blood) or kidney transplant, among others. It is said that about 1 million people all over the world are on dialysis or are surviving on transplanted kidneys. The condition is permanent and can occur either very suddenly or slowly over time.
These frightening habits of the young are leading to the rise of the incidence of renal failure:
1. A sedentary lifestyle - A research conducted by the University of Utah School of Medicine suggests that if you spend 80 minutes a day sitting, you see a 20% increase in the risk of developing chronic kidney disease and, in turn, renal failure.Sedentary behaviour can also increase your risk of diabetes, hypertension as well as obesity (causes of chronic kidney disease).India is said to have about 60% of patients who suffer from hypertension and diabetes also suffer from kidney problem.
2. Poor eating habits - Studies suggest that the right diet consisting of fruits legumes, nuts, and whole grains can help in preventing kidney disease.On the other hand, a diet that is high in processed meats; salt and sugar can worsen the vicious cycle of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and kidney disease. Furthermore, a BMI of over 30 can increase your risk of developing common kidney ailments by two-fold. With the proliferation of fast food outlets and junk food due to lack of time, Indians are increasingly now at a risk.
3. Smoking - Smoking brings about a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, rendering the organs inefficient. When you smoke, the arteries of your body harden and the blood vessels become narrow, leading to a worsening of conditions like high blood pressure. A study by the John Hopkins University says that smoking can increase your chances of developing kidney disease by about 60%. Many young Indians view smoking as fashionable and some even take it up to 'look cool', to beat stress or just to blend in with their peers.
4. Drinking alcohol - Excessive alcohol consumption can bring about significant changes to the way your kidneys may function. Your kidneys end up becoming less efficient at removing alcohol from the blood due to regular drinking. Additionally, more than 2 drinks a day has been found to significantly increase your risk of high blood pressure, a common cause of kidney disease.
Kidney problems, although take a longer time to develop, they end up being silent killers. There are no obvious signs for months and the symptoms crop up when it's rather late.
Many younger people these days are getting diagnosed with kidney problems. This is primarily due to drinking alcohol, smoking, bad eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. About 60% people who have diabetes or hypertension develop kidney problems eventually.
Therefore, it is advised to be aware of what harms your kidneys and take adequate care to keep them healthy.
Watch out for any of these symptoms early on.
1. Urine Color - This is probably the first symptom and unfortunately affects many people around us. With the way our lifestyles are, this is becoming an increasing concern. Urine becomes dark and there is a need to urinate yet, one is unable to do so.
2. Urine Infection - Second would be when you feel pain or difficulty while urinating. The infections in the urinary tract induce their symptoms of pain or burning during urination. If this infection spreads to the kidneys, one can feel pain in the back.
3. Blood In Urine - If there is blood in your urine, it is a sign of renal illness. While this could be happening because of various reasons, it is advisable to see your doctor soon.
4. Water Retention - The function of the kidney is to take out the extra liquid and the waste from our body. When this process is not smooth, water will stay back and cause your face, limbs and/or ankle joints to swell.
5. Weakness - Severe exhaustion would mean minimized oxygen being delivered to the cells, causing weakness in general. This is also one of the symptoms that your kidney needs medical attention.
6. Temperature Variance - If your kidney is unwell, one of the symptoms is that you will feel the chill even when the temperature is actually warm.
7. Skin Breakout - Since an unfit kidney means waste in the body is piling up, it causes the skin to break out and cause severe irritation and rashes.
8. Rise of Blood Urea Level - When the kidney is unwell, it increases the level of urea in the blood. This causes breakdown of the urea into ammonia in the spit, causes it to smell foul, like urine/metal.
9. Nausea - Waste accumulating in the blood adds up to causing nausea and vomiting.
10. Breathlessness - One can also feel the lack of breath if the condition of the kidney worsens.
11. Discomfort or Pain - Some people have been known to have bodily pains, an instant discomfort that spreads from the lower back to the groin. This usually means that there is a stone in the kidney. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The medical term used for kidney disease is Nephrosis, and it is seldom also known as the nephritic syndrome. There are a lot of likely causes for this condition, and it is detected by carrying out urine test. The treatment for Nephrosis is a long term treatment and done mainly to prevent kidney failure. The kidney disease is very painful and occurs in people of all age groups. It is very important for people who are new to kidney disease that they know about the nine things they should do to stay strong.
Important Information on Kidney Disease
The feeling of helplessness on occurrence of kidney disease can be overcome by educating yourself. Individuals should learn everything about kidney disease and can gain vital information even from the Internet.
- It is very obligatory that the advice of the doctor be followed by an individual suffering from Kidney disease. It is not indispensable that the kidney disease always leads to failure of kidney and to keep your kidney healthy and stay away from any damage, it is necessary to comply with the orders of the Doctor.
- It is very important that you stick to a diet which would keep you healthy and protect your kidneys from any further damage. You should be mindful on everything you eat, and you can gain assistance on your diet from a renal dietitian.
- When you suffer from Chronic Kidney Disease, the blood values become very important to gauge the condition of your disease and whether it is getting worse or stable. From time to time, the healthcare provider would check your urine and blood regularly, and he would also monitor your blood pressure and blood sugar.
- You can ask help from the support group and accept their assistance. Your family is your best support system in times of need and so involving them is very important.
- You must make sure that you are getting the proper care you need, and you need to educate yourself by communicating as well as asking questions.
- You can feel much better by being active, so do things that make you happy. You can exercise regularly but after taking advice from your doctor. Your main focus must be to keep your heart healthy.
- A positive attitude is anytime helpful in healing a disease. You can listen to music that entertains your mind and helps you stay positive.
- It is not difficult to stay healthy even with kidney disease, as a positive feeling would eventually help face the kidney disease. You must plan ahead and be ready for kidney transplant without getting worried.
- Most importantly, spread awareness and help people tackle the situation without any difficulty.
Kidney is a crucial detoxifying organ that performs a lot of functions including, absorption of minerals, filtration of blood and production of hormones and urine. It also helps your body to maintain a healthy PH level. Since kidney failure can prove to be fatal, it is essential to keep it healthy, to ensure smooth function of your system.
The following are the tips to ensure the health of your kidneys:
- Adequate intake of water: It is advised to drink a minimum of 8 glasses of water daily, to help your kidneys function properly. Adequate intake of water ensures that your body is able to flush out the harmful toxins at regular intervals. However, in case if you are already suffering from kidney disease, this point is not applicable.
- Control your blood pressure and blood sugar level: Diabetes is one of the major causes of kidney failure. It is recommended to control your blood sugar level on a regular basis to ensure healthy functioning of your kidney. People who have high level of blood sugar and blood pressure are more susceptible to suffer from kidney disorders.
- Quit tobacco: Accumulations of toxins in your body tend to have a harmful impact on not only your kidneys but also on your overall health. It is strictly recommended to quit smoking and using other forms of tobacco to protect your kidneys from damage.
- Reduce weight: Obesity and the problem of excessive body fat are harmful for your body in more than ways than one. Being overweight makes you more susceptible to develop kidney cancer. Therefore, it is advisable to lose a few kilos to ensure the proper functioning of your kidneys.
- Avoid intake of analgesics without prescription: Most analgesics have the tendency to be harsh on your kidneys. Ingestion of analgesics increases your risk of developing kidney cancer. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetaminophen are some of the analgesics, which are known to affect your kidneys in the long term. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid taking them without consulting a doctor.
- Include healthy food in your diet: If you increase the intake of green vegetables in your diet, it will help your body to accelerate the process of detoxification. Fruits and vegetables including watermelon, cranberries, blueberries, strawberries, apples, cabbage, cauliflower, peppers, garlic and onions provide considerable aid in removing the toxins out of your system. However, in case if you are already suffering from kidney disease, this point is not applicable.