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Diabetes is a disorder that is characterized by an inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin or effectively utilize the insulin produced by the body. Insulin is the hormone that is produced by the pancreas to metabolize sugar in the body, the sugar that is present in the food that you consume.
Diabetes is commonly classified into two types: Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
In Type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas do not produce insulin in the required amounts; this disorder usually tends to occur in children. Type 2 diabetes generally occurs in people who are above 40 years of age; this type is characterized by an inability of the body to efficiently utilize the insulin produced by the pancreas.
How can diabetes affect your kidneys?
Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes damages your kidneys’ filters. If the filters are damaged, a protein called albumin, which you need to stay healthy, leaks out of your blood and into your urine. Damaged kidneys do not do a good job of filtering wastes and extra fluid from your blood. The wastes and extra fluid build up in your blood and make you sick.
Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney disease. Diabetic kidney disease is the medical term for kidney disease caused by diabetes. Diabetic kidney disease affects both kidneys at the same time.
Signs of Kidney Disease in Patients with Diabetes
- Albumin/protein in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Ankle and leg swelling, leg cramps
- Going to the bathroom more often at night
- High levels of BUN and creatinine in blood
- Less need for insulin or antidiabetic medications
- Morning sickness, nausea and vomiting
- Weakness, paleness and anemia
What are the possible complications?
- End-stage kidney failure: If this occurs then you would need kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Cardiovascular diseases: Diabetics have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease. If you have diabetes and diabetic kidney disease, your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is increased further.
- High blood pressure: Kidney disease has a tendency to increase blood pressure. In addition, increased blood pressure has a tendency to make kidney disease worse. Treatment of high blood pressure is one of the main treatments of diabetic kidney disease.
What to do?
- It is essential to get your urine checked at least once every year to detect signs of kidney damage.
- Some other symptoms that you may experience are swelling in the ankles, weight gain and a rise in your blood pressure.
- The first step to treat kidney damage caused by diabetes is to get your blood sugar levels under control.
- You should also avoid consuming medications that can cause damage to the kidneys.
- A kidney transplant or dialysis may be advised if the damage to kidneys is significant. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.
No Blood, No needle, No visit to hospital, you can do yourself at home with water. A thin layer of transparent screen like structure hangs in front of the abdominal muscles known as peritoneum. This peritoneum protects the abdominal structures and the muscle. This can also be used for performing dialysis which is carried out when the functioning of kidney gets affected. In peritoneal dialysis a thin and soft catheter is placed in the person’s belly one week before performing the procedure.
The catheter has numerous holes in order to facilitate the transformation of fluids. Dialysis solution is prepared in a bag and the tubing is connected to the catheter placed in the abdomen thereby, the fluids absorb the waste materials from the body. The fluid is allowed to stay in your body for a particular period of time which is commonly referred as dwell time and later the fluid is drained out.
There are two types of peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis. This is the simple form of dialysis which anybody can perform after a short training period and this can be done anywhere in clean private place like hotels, home and even in office.
Procedure followed during Peritoneal Dialysis
All you need to perform a peritoneal dialysis is catheter and transfer set, cycler, dialysis solution and safety precautions materials to stay away from getting infections.
Step 1 - Perform a sterile aseptic technique. Wear a glove and surgical mask before connecting the catheters and transfer set. Clamp the tubing and remove the catheter once the dialysis solution enters your abdomen
Step 2 - Allow the solution to remain in your abdomen for a particular period of dwell time
Step 3 - Drain the fluid from the abdominal cavity into the drain bag. You may feel a mild tugging sensation when adequate amount of fluid is drained.
Step 4 - After drain close or clamp the transfer set and later flush a fresh solution directly to drain bag so as to remove the air from the tubing.
Step 5 - Close your drain bag and open your transfer set and refill your belly with fresh solution.
Make sure you perform without giving way for infection and excess fluid and dextrose absorption. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
Nephrotic syndrome is a type of kidney disorder wherein, the body passes out excess amount of proteins through urine, owing to the damage caused to the tiny clusters of blood vessels in the kidneys. The symptoms include putting on excessive weight as a result of fluid retention, foamy urine and severe swelling around the region of the feet, ankles and eyes.
Common causes behind it
- Minimal change disease (also known as nil disease) leads to the abnormal functioning of the kidneys
- Excess deposit of amyloid proteins in the organs, thus taking a toll on the filter mechanism of the kidneys.
- Diabetes affecting the glomeruli (capillaries present in the nephrons of the kidneys).
- Systemic lupus erythematous causing chronic swelling of your kidney.
- Membranous nephropathy wherein the membranes in your glomeruli thicken.
- Infections such as malaria, hepatitis C, hepatitis B and HIV.
- Medications to combat infections and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Kidney Biopsy is an essential part of disease assessment.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors bring down blood pressure levels as well as the amount of protein discharged from the urine.
- Water pills help control sweating, thus, increasing the fluid flushed from the kidneys.
- Statins reduce cholesterol levels.
- Blood thinners such as anticoagulants lower the risk of blood clots.
- Corticosteroids regulate the immune system and ease the inflammation that results from kidney disorders.
- Incorporating certain lifestyle changes such as opting for lean proteins, cutting on the intake of fat in the diet and consuming lesser amounts of salt can treat inflammation and swelling. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
The presence of red blood cells in the urine is called hematuria. If there are sufficient red cells, the urine turns to a bright red, pink or cola shade. Frequently, the urine looks totally ordinary because there is insufficient blood to change the colour. In this situation, the condition is called 'microscopic' hematuria.
The most common causes of hematuria are given below:
- Urinary tract infection (UTI)
- Kidney stones
- Tumours in the kidney or bladder
- Exercise: In this case, the blood is produced in the urine after strenuous activity. It is more commonly experienced by male patients.
- Injury: Traumatic damage to any part of the urinary tract, from the kidneys to the urethral opening, can cause hematuria.
The symptoms of hematuria vary depending upon the condition. These are as follows:
- Glomerulonephritis: If the glomerulonephritis is not serious, it may not show any signs. If the symptoms do show up, they can cause swelling, particularly in the lower furthest points(the thighs, legs, feet, and toes), decreased urine, and hypertension.
- Kidney or bladder infection: Symptoms rely on the site of the diseaseand can even cause extreme pain on one side of the lower back, fever, chills, nausea with vomiting, and pain in the bladder.
- Prostate infection: There can be pain in the lower back or in the region between the scrotum and rearend. Pain with discharge, blood in the semen, andfever and chills can also occuronce in a while.
- Tumour in the kidney or bladder: Most kidney and bladder problems develop without bringing about any pain or uneasiness. At the point when side effects build up, abdomen pain may be persistent.
- Kidney stones: When a kidney stone gets attached to the ureters, it can bring about extreme pain in the back, side or crotch, with nausea and difficulties in urination.
Based upon the suspected cause of hematuria, some of the treatments may include the following:
- Urine culture: In this test, a urine sample is extracted and examined to check whether bacteria has developed. This test is used to find a case of a kidney or bladder disease.
- Computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys, ureters and bladder: For most cases,a CT scan is conducted. This helps in viewing the internal organs and finding the areas that may have been affected by the condition. It also shows the extent of the damage and the spread of the disease so that a proper treatment plan may be laid out.
- Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images that can show whether or not a kidney mass is a non cancerous. This method can also be used to find out whether or not there are any kidney stones, which may be causing hematuria.
- Cystoscopy: In this test, the specialist embeds an adaptable telescope into the urethra and passes it into the bladder to investigate the bladder lining for tumours or different issues.
Kidney is a crucial detoxifying organ that performs a lot of functions including, absorption of minerals, filtration of blood and production of hormones and urine. It also helps your body to maintain a healthy pH level. Since kidney failure can prove to be fatal, it is essential to keep it healthy, to ensure smooth functioning of your system.
The following are the tips to ensure the health of your kidneys:
- Adequate intake of water: It is advised to drink a minimum of 8 glasses of water daily, to help your kidneys function properly. Adequate intake of water ensures that your body is able to flush out the harmful toxins at regular intervals. However, in case if you are already suffering from kidney disease, this point is not applicable.
- Control your blood pressure and blood sugar level: Diabetes is one of the major causes of kidney failure. It is recommended to control your blood sugar level on a regular basis to ensure healthy functioning of your kidney. People who have high level of blood sugar and blood pressure are more susceptible to suffer from kidney disorders.
- Quit tobacco: Accumulations of toxins in your body tend to have a harmful impact not only your kidneys, but also on your overall health. It is strictly recommended to quit smoking and use other forms of tobacco to protect your kidneys from damage.
- Reduce weight: Obesity and the problem of excessive body fat are harmful for your body in more ways than one. Being overweight makes you more susceptible to develop kidney cancer. Therefore, it is advisable to lose a few kilos to ensure the proper functioning of your kidneys.
- Avoid intake of analgesics without prescription: Most analgesics have the tendency to be harsh on your kidneys. Ingestion of analgesics increases your risk of developing kidney cancer. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and acetaminophen are some of the analgesics, which are known to affect your kidneys in the long term. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid taking them without consulting a doctor.
- Include healthy food in your diet: If you increase the intake of green vegetables in your diet, it will help your body to accelerate the process of detoxification. Fruits and vegetables including watermelon, cranberries, blueberries, strawberries, apples, cabbage, cauliflower, peppers, garlic and onions provide considerable aid in removing the toxins out of your system. However, in case if you are already suffering from kidney disease, this point is not applicable.