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Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder that is inherited; it is characterized by development of cysts in the kidneys. These cysts are round sacs that contain a water like fluid. Initially, the size of the cysts are small, they tend to increase in size after the fluid accumulation. This disorder can also cause cysts to develop in the liver and other parts of the body.
Symptoms and Complications
The most common symptoms of this disorder are back pain, headache, high blood pressure and kidney failure. It can also lead to formation of stones in the kidney, presence of blood in the urine and an urge to urinate frequently. It also make your kidney prone to various bacterial infections.
The disease is caused because of the presence of defective genes in the body, implying that this disorder is primarily hereditary. In some cases, the disease is caused by a genetic mutation. Based on the causes, it is classified into two types:
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: This disorder causes the symptoms to appear immediately after birth, although the symptoms are delayed until adolescence. This disorder only occurs when both the parents carry the defective gene which is passed to the offspring.
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: This disorder usually tends to occur only after the age of 30. Unlike the previous type, here only one parent needs to carry the defective gene that is passed on to the offspring.
The treatment of polycystic kidney disease generally involves dealing with the following signs:
- Pain: Chronic pain, usually in the sides of the body or the back, is a common symptom of this disorder. You can opt for pain reliving medication such as ibuprofen. If the cysts are large, then surgery is required to ease the pain.
- High blood pressure: High blood pressure is best controlled by a following a healthy diet and lifestyle. High blood pressure can damage the kidneys severely. Medications may also be required to control blood pressure, if it rises abnormally.
As we all are aware that waste products in the blood are passed through urine. This filtering process is done by the kidneys as it separates the waste products including minerals and salts, which have to be passed out through urine. Many times, these minerals and salts get stuck in your urinary tract and over a long period, this forms kidney stones. They can vary in size from a ping pong ball to the size of a sugar crystal. They are not noticed till the time they cause a blockage. Sometimes, they cause immense pain if they start breaking or are pushed into the ureters (narrow ducts which lead to the bladder).
Symptoms of kidney stones:
1. Immense pain in the groin, belly and back.
2. Pain while urinating and urination occurring frequently.
3. Blood found in the urine (haematuria).
4. Vomiting and nausea.
5. Feeling extremely restless and not being able to lie still.
Kidney stones can also cause a kidney infection. Signs of kidney infection include:
Kidney stones can also cause infection in the kidneys as they block the passage of urine to the bladder by blocking the ureters. This leads to build up of the waste product which can result in an infection. Some of the symptoms of kidney infections could be:
1. Feeling chilly and shivering on your skin.
2. High temperature of 100.4 F (38C) or more.
3. A feeling of fatigue or weakness.
4. Immense diarrhea
5. Bad smelling and cloudy urine.
Types of Kidney stones:
1. Struvite stones: It contains ammonia and magnesium. It is usually quite large and horn- shaped.
2. Uric acid stones: Brown, smooth and softer than other kinds of kidney stones.
3. Cystine stones: They are yellow and don’t look like stones. They usually resemble crystal.
4. Calcium stones: It is composed of calcium.
What causes kidney stones?
Kidney stones can occur due to several factors. It usually forms when urine generally contains crystal substances like uric acid, calcium and oxalate. Your urine might not be able to dilute these substances resulting in the perfect environment for the formation of kidney stones. In case you are showing any of the symptoms mentioned above, you should visit you doctor immediately before the problem can worsen.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
The medical term used for kidney disease is Nephrosis and it is seldom also known as the nephritic syndrome. There are a lot of likely causes for this condition and it is detected by carrying out urine test. The treatment for Nephrosis is a long term treatment and done mainly to prevent kidney failure. The kidney disease is very painful and occurs in people of all age groups. It is very important for people who are new to kidney disease that they know about the nine things they should do to stay strong.
Important information on kidney disease:
- The feeling of helplessness on occurrence of kidney disease can be overcome by educating yourself. Individuals should learn everything about kidney disease and can gain vital information even from the Internet.
- It is very obligatory that the advice of the doctor be followed by an individual suffering from Kidney disease. It is not indispensable that the kidney disease always leads to failure of kidney and to keep your kidney healthy and stay away from any damage, it is necessary to comply with the orders of the Doctor.
- It is very important that you stick to a diet, which would keep you healthy and protect your kidneys from any further damage. You should be mindful on everything you eat and you can gain assistance on your diet from a renal dietitian.
- When you suffer from chronic kidney disease, the blood values become very important to gauge the condition of your disease and whether it is getting worse or stable. From time to time, the healthcare provider would check your urine and blood regularly and he would also monitor your blood pressure and blood sugar.
- You can ask help from the support group and accept their assistance. Your family is your best support system in times of need and so involving them is very important.
- You must make sure that you are getting the proper care you need and you need to educate yourself by communicating as well as asking questions.
- You can feel much better by being active, so do things that make you happy. You can exercise regularly, but after taking advice from your doctor. Your main focus must be to keep your heart healthy.
- A positive attitude is anytime helpful in healing a disease. You can listen to music that entertains your mind and helps you stay positive.
- It is not difficult to stay healthy even with kidney disease, as a positive feeling would eventually help face the kidney disease. You must plan ahead and be ready for kidney transplant without getting worried.
Most importantly, spread awareness and help people tackle the situation without any difficulty.
You're said to suffer from the problem of acute kidney failure if your kidneys suddenly stop working and lose their ability to eliminate waste materials including excess fluids and salts from the blood. The condition usually develops quickly over a few days or even a few hours. When this happens, waste materials accumulate in your blood, disrupting the chemical balance of your bloodstream.
So, what causes this problem?
Acute kidney failure can occur because of any one of these reasons:
1. A drop or slowdown of blood flow to the kidneys - Adequate blood circulation to the kidneys is of great importance as without it the kidneys may end malfunctioning. If blood flow to the kidney is hampered, a part of or the entire kidney may die. You may suffer from acute kidney failure if blood flow to the kidneys gets impaired due to conditions like
- Heavy blood loss
- Sepsis (body's inflammatory reaction to an infection, which can bring about organ failure, tissue damage, and death)
- Use of certain drugs
- Heart disease
2. Urinary obstructions - A sudden blockage that hampers your kidney's ability to eliminate urine can also bring about acute kidney failure. When this happens, it leads to a build up of toxins in the body, causing an overload of the kidneys. Conditions that bring about this urinary obstruction include:
- Cervical cancer
- Colon cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Kidney stones
- Enlarged prostate
- Prostate cancer
3. Disease within the kidneys - Even instances of clotting within the blood vessels of the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. This is because if the movement of blood cells within the blood vessels gets hampered, kidneys are not able to filter out toxins from the body. The conditions and diseases that may cause clotting, and subsequently damage to the kidneys include:
- Scleroderma (an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and skin)
- Build-up of cholesterol deposits
- Glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory condition of the kidney's ball-shaped structures called glomeruli)
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome (a condition that occurs due to untimely death of red blood cells)
- Lupus (a disorder of the body's immune system that brings about damage to the body's own organs and tissues)
Related Tip: The Ideal Diet after a Kidney Transplant
Kidneys are a pair of organs that are located on either side of the spine, each about a size of a fist. The kidneys help in purifying blood by removing toxins, waste materials and excess fluids from the human body. Disorders and dysfunctions of the kidney can lead to severe and often fatal consequences. When the kidneys stop functioning as they are supposed to, dialysis is performed to resume normal functioning in the body.
Dialysis is a type of treatment, which filters and purifies the blood with the aid of a machine. It is an artificial way of purifying blood. There are two types of dialysis, namely hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis, the most common form of dialysis, which involves using a manmade kidney called a hemodialyzer, which removes toxins and waste materials from blood.
Peritoneal Dialysis, on the other hand, is a type of treatment which involves implanting a catheter in the stomach. During the procedure, a fluid called dialysate flows into the abdomen that absorbs all the waste material, which is consequently drained out of the body.
You may need a dialysis if:
- Your kidneys are dysfunctional
- When waste materials and toxins start to accumulate in the body
- In an event of an injury or accident to the kidney such as internal lacerations (wound caused by the tearing of a tissue)
- If the creatinine (a type of a chemical waste product) level falls to 10-12 cc/minute
- In an event where the kidneys aren't able to work properly leading to accumulation of toxins, irregular amounts of chemicals in the body and other dysfunctions
Weakening of the abdominal muscles and weight gain are some of the risks involved in dialysis. Dialysis is a temporary treatment and serves to function till the time the actual kidneys get repaired. In chronic cases of kidney disease, kidney transplant may perhaps be the last resort.
Related Tip: 4 Types of Kidney Stones and Their Common Symptoms
Kidney failure is happening even to 20-year-old Indians now! 4 Reasons why.
Usually more common in the elderly as a consequence of the chronic kidney disease, kidney failure is now increasingly becoming common amongst 20-somethings in the country.
Mainly because of their unhealthy lifestyle habits, they are falling prey to a disease that normally strikes later on in life.
Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, occurs when the kidneys stop functioning properly, that is, they are unable to filter out waste and toxins efficiently from the body. It is the most severe stage of chronic kidney disease. To ensure that toxins don't build up in the body, treatment usually involves dialysis (process for removing excess fluid and waste from the blood) or kidney transplant, among others. It is said that about 1 million people all over the world are on dialysis or are surviving on transplanted kidneys. The condition is permanent and can occur either very suddenly or slowly over time.
These frightening habits of the young are leading to the rise of the incidence of renal failure:
1. A sedentary lifestyle - A research conducted by the University of Utah School of Medicine suggests that if you spend 80 minutes a day sitting, you see a 20% increase in the risk of developing chronic kidney disease and, in turn, renal failure.Sedentary behaviour can also increase your risk of diabetes, hypertension as well as obesity (causes of chronic kidney disease).India is said to have about 60% of patients who suffer from hypertension and diabetes also suffer from kidney problem.
2. Poor eating habits - Studies suggest that the right diet consisting of fruits legumes, nuts, and whole grains can help in preventing kidney disease.On the other hand, a diet that is high in processed meats; salt and sugar can worsen the vicious cycle of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and kidney disease. Furthermore, a BMI of over 30 can increase your risk of developing common kidney ailments by two-fold. With the proliferation of fast food outlets and junk food due to lack of time, Indians are increasingly now at a risk.
3. Smoking - Smoking brings about a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, rendering the organs inefficient. When you smoke, the arteries of your body harden and the blood vessels become narrow, leading to a worsening of conditions like high blood pressure. A study by the John Hopkins University says that smoking can increase your chances of developing kidney disease by about 60%. Many young Indians view smoking as fashionable and some even take it up to 'look cool', to beat stress or just to blend in with their peers.
4. Drinking alcohol - Excessive alcohol consumption can bring about significant changes to the way your kidneys may function. Your kidneys end up becoming less efficient at removing alcohol from the blood due to regular drinking. Additionally, more than 2 drinks a day has been found to significantly increase your risk of high blood pressure, a common cause of kidney disease.
Related Tip: 4 Types of Kidney Stones and Their Common Symptoms