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Glaucoma is a blinding disease, estimated to be present in about 8% of population, in which the Optic Nerve is damaged, usually due to high pressure inside the eye( but can also happen with normal Eye Pressure). This damage can lead to loss of vision which cannot be reversed after it has occurred. However, early treatment can control this disease and prevent or delay blindness.
In most people it is without any symptoms, esp. in Chronic type. So most patients are not diagnosed before extensive damage is done. Hence regular eye examination are important.
Symptoms can be: (a) Frequent change in reading glasses (b) Difficulty in dark adaptation. (c) Bumping into things at unfamiliar places.(d) Blurred or foggy vision. (e) Coloured halos (rainbow coloured rings) around lights. (f) Acute type may present with severe eye pain, vomiting, & vision loss.
Hence, Early diagnosis, proper treatment & proper monitoring are very essential to preserve vision till life span. All people over 45 yrs age & all first relatives of known glaucoma patients must get themselves checked for Eye Pressure and Glaucoma periodically.
Early & appropriate diagnosis is done by judicious use of
- Applanation Tonometry: Gold standard to measure Eye Pressure
- Pachymetry: For corneal thickness influencing eye pressure check
- Early morning: Eye Pressure check to know pressure variations in a day
- Stereoscopic: Optic nerve examination & photography
- Automated Perimetry: To detect visual field defects
- Gonioscopy: To diagnose type of glaucoma- open angle or angle closure- which have different lines of treatment
In present days, OCT(Ocular Coherence Tomography) is used to image the optic nerve but its use is supportive and still not considered a standard of care.
Medical treatment with eye drops & regular follow-ups to ensure pressure control, compliance, address adverse effects , detect progression if any , can help to maintain the vision for a long time
Those patients who are not regular in using drops or who do not follow up as advised or are not controlled by maximum tolerated medical treatment or have narrow angle type of glaucoma may be treated by Surgical/ LASER treatment as under,
- Trabeculectomy: Fluid bypass for open angle type
- Laser Peripheral Iridotomy: Fluid bypass for narrow angle type
- Laser Trabeculoplasty: A stop gap treatment in place of medicines
- Laser Cyclophotocoagulation: For blinded painful glaucoma eyes
- Glaucoma Valve: In glaucoma not responding to usual surgical treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.
My 7 year old son is suffering from Red blood visible on his left eye Above The Pupil. Today morning he woke up and we saw that. Even after 12 hours since I saw it it still visible. I thought it will Heal by this time. It just looks red there is no flow of blood. He was suffering from viral fever from the past two weeks.
Hello doctor. I had been suffering from blepharitis for few years. Doctor gave me some medicines. Now blepharitis is gone but lower eyelids of both eyes are still red. Redness is not going .what should I do? Thanks.
I have just been diagnosed as having glaucoma. My mother had it too. What causes this disease? What should I do for better result. Also I want to know abt eyes problems. My eyes sight is 6/9.
Seeing halos around street light since fenurary after contracting conjunctivitis, feeling lump in eyes .its been 7 months but still halos are there has it something to do with glaucoma and all?
Hello Doctor, 1. I have fungal infection since 6-8 months, it's not getting cured. I am staying in Europe and went to many doctors but there is no use. They are giving some creams (eg. Selergo, Vobaderm), it's getting better if I use them and then as usual. The infected areas are ears, neck, abdomen, groin, knee, buttocks, and sometimes on Penis shaft. Please give me some advice to get rid of this fungal infection. 2. One more thing, I doubt there is problem with my urinary tract near the Penis head. I get some kind of pain feeling when I pee and same feeling after having sex (ejaculation). Every time I feel like I have to pee. I visited doctors they've made urine test and said everything is fine, but I don't know why am I getting this feeling. I drink enough water and I am more hygienic. Getting more sweat when having sex. Sometimes loosing erections because of this sweat. Cannot hold the semen for long time because of urinary tract I think. Please suggest me some remedies. Thanks.
Is there any treatment for insomnia, physical weakness in ayurveda. Also tell me the diet to build muscles and gain body weight & improve vision. Thanks and sorry that I can't pay your fees online.
Please tell me the required diet to increase body weight, build bones and muscles, increase and maintain eye sight.
I am 25 year old female I am suffering from sinus problem from past 10 years. everyday I wake up and I start sneezing with watery eyes and itching in my eyes. I suffer from headache and sore throat, irritation in my ears. I tried homeopathy medicine but tired of eating them. I start taking Hyrax 25 because I feel some relief after having it. I can't do my house works, nor I am able to study properly. I can't even sleep with this running nose. And whenever I wake up I feel heavy head. Please tell me what to do?
What is the validity of the Preliminary test done before a LASIK eye surgery? What is the best technique in LASIK - using a blade, bladeless or Smyle?
On night when I watch tv then after some time from my eyes water droplets will came out or when I getting bored also from my eyes droplets will came out please give me solution what could I have to do.
Sir mere left eye me irritation rehta h jab me mobile dekhta hu to zyada ho jaati h ye just nose k side me hota h right eye is safe so please consult me any medicine for my treatment please.
I am 49 years old female .I am thyroid eltroxin 125 mg daily and sotalol betacardone 40 mg twice daily for many years now. I have recently developed under eye bags which look very bad .Please help.
I am been working since last 10 years in IT professional and almost 10 hrs or more my job demands me to be on laptop. Since last one year I developed dry eyes and I see blur while seeing long distance objects. I visited doctor couple of times and I was assured that I do not have power and have only dry eyes and I was suggested to take Alerchek & Irvisc liquigel drops for a month. And I also started using Anti glare blue cut glasses while working. Can you please help to overcome this?
The cornea is the transparent layer of the eye that acts as a protective shield. The cornea, in combination with the sclera, protects the eyes from various harmful microorganisms and particulate matter, including the harmful UV radiations (to some extent). The cornea is made up of three important layers, the Endothelium, Stroma, and the Epithelium.
- Endothelium: The inner layer of the cornea, the endothelium helps to maintain a clear vision by removing the excess fluid absorbed by the stroma. The mitochondria-rich single celled layer functions more like a pump.
- Stroma: The middle corneal layer is extremely thick (~90% of the total corneal thickness) and composed mainly of proteins and fluids. Like the endothelium, the stroma, too, plays a pivotal role in the normal eye vision.
- Epithelium: Being the outermost layer, the epithelium functions as a defensive shield, protecting the eyes from harmful germs, bacteria and any matter that can harm the eye. Most importantly, the epithelium absorbs the essential nutrients and oxygen (present in the tears). The cornea, thus, plays a pivotal role in the normal vision of the eye. However, an injury or an infection can interfere with the corneal functioning, affecting a person's vision as well as giving rise to other complications (the eyes may appear itchy, watery and red. There may also be light sensitivity).
Some of the common cornea problems include
- Keratitis: Injury or microbial (bacteria, virus or fungi) infiltration of the cornea can trigger this condition resulting in corneal infection and inflammation. Some of the symptoms characteristic of keratitis include extreme light sensitivity, blurred vision. The inflammation can also result in redness, pain (moderate to severe) and watery eyes. Antifungal, antiviral or steroidal eye drops may provide relief from the associated symptoms.
- Shingles (Herpes Zoster): This condition mainly affects people who have suffered from chickenpox. In some cases, the virus though inactive may still be present in the body (in the nerves). However, at a later period, certain factors may trigger its activation. Once active, the virus can affect different parts of the body, including the cornea. Shingles can cause corneal soreness and inflammation. Old people and those with a weak immunity are more likely to suffer from shingles. People with shingles may benefit from the administration of steroidal (tropical) and antiviral eye drops.
- Ocular Herpes: This is a viral infection triggered by Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV I) or Herpes Simplex Virus II (HSV II) resulting in herpes of the cornea. The condition gives rise to corneal inflammation and sores. Here too, the patient can get some relief by using antiviral or steroidal eye drops.
- Keratoconus: This is a degenerative disorder of the cornea that results in thinning of the cornea. The condition can also alter the corneal shape, resulting in swelling, pain, and loss of vision (partial to complete, particularly the night vision).
- Fuchs' Dystrophy: This is a corneal dystrophy whereby the corneal endothelial cells break down at a slower rate than usual. As a result, the stroma may be waterlogged resulting in swelling and blurred vision. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.