Doctor in Gynae & ENT Clinic
Cysts Removal Procedure
Treatment of Tonsils (Tonsillitis)
Hearing Aid Fitting
Treatment of Throat and Voice Problems
Earlobe Repair Procedure
Treatment of Sleep Disturbance
Nose Reshaping Procedure
Hearing Testing Techniques
Nasal And Sinus Allergy Care
Cochlear Implant Procedure
Ear Micro Surgery
Treatment Of Hearing Deficiency
Facial Cosmetic Surgery
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While a sizeable population suffers from allergy issues every year, treating them is often possible without an extensive diagnosis. However, diagnosis of the allergen becomes crucial when the problem recurs several times in a year.
The skin prick testing is a reliable means of diagnosing the IgE-mediated (immunoglobulin E) allergic disease in people who have asthma, urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema, anaphylaxis, and drug allergy.
It offers evidence for confirming the diagnosis of the type I allergy. The best aspect of allergy testing by skin prick method is that it is minimally invasive, inexpensive and the results are immediately available when carried out by trained professionals.
Why is skin prick test conducted?
Skin prick test is usually used for diagnosing the food allergy symptoms which are typically caused by the interaction between a food allergen and the IgE antibody. To diagnose a food allergy, the allergy expert may recommend you undergo a skin prick test for measuring the number of antibodies present.
What can you expect?
During the skin prick test, the allergist places a drop of solution which contains the food allergen on the back or the forearm. When testing the fruits and vegetables, food is used in place of solution. In this allergy testing method, the doctor would use a needle or a plastic probe for gently pricking or scratching the skin for allowing a small amount of solution to penetrate the skin surface. This method is not painful, and no bleeding is involved in it. Though many people think that the process would cause much discomfort, the reality is that it feels similar to a scratch caused by fingernails.
On the basis of the case history, a patient may need to be tested for just one or many foods. The results are almost immediate; You can get them within half an hour of the test. The positive results of the test are indicated by a wheal which causes a raised white bump encircled by a small circle of itchy red skin. Though the size of the wheal is not the accurate indicator, a large wheal generally indicates that the patient is affected by food allergy.
How accurate is skin prick testing?
The skin prick allergy testing hardly produces any false negatives which indicate that you are not allergic to a food. Having negative results is synonymous with not being allergic to the food for which you are tested. On the other hand, positive results are also not always accurate. About 50 percent of cases show false positives which mean the positive result is shown even though you are not allergic to that particular food.
This simple test can be the means of identifying the allergens which will help determine the allergy prevention plan. Consulting an allergist before undergoing the test is essential.
The symptoms of allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and conjunctivitis and stinging insect allergy can often cause severe discomfort, and one can consider Allergen immunotherapy or allergy shots, as a long-term treatment option to manage the conditions.
Allergy shots reduce the sensitivity to allergens and often help in relieving allergy symptoms even when the treatment is over. This makes the process of allergy vaccination a cost-effective and beneficial treatment approach for many people suffering from various forms of allergy.
Who should consider taking allergy vaccination?
Both adults, as well as children, can receive immunotherapy and allergy vaccination but the latter is generally not advised for the children under the age of five. This is because children below the age of five are not prepared to co-operate with the treatment plan and articulating the adverse reactions that they have been experiencing. It is essential to consider the medical condition of the concerned patient such as cardiac disease and others that may interfere with the vaccinations. Another point that is worthy of mention is that allergy vaccination cannot be used for treating food allergies and the best way to avoid food allergy is to avoid the food one is allergic to.
How does allergy vaccination work?
Allergy vaccination is like any other vaccination where the human body responds to the injected proportions of a specific allergen. This dose is increased gradually over a period of time. There are two phases of allergy vaccination which are as follows:
- Build-up phase: This is the initial phase where the injection is given in an increasing amount of a particular allergen for two or three times in a week. The duration of this phase is dependent on how often the injections are given and typically range from 3 to 6 months.
- Maintenance phase: This is the second phase in which effective dose is achieved. The dosage and duration depend on the level of the allergen sensitivity as well as the response of the build-up phase. During this particular phase, there is typically a longer gap between the treatments ranging from two to four weeks. An allergy specialist can decide the most suitable range for you.
The patient will be able to notice a reduction in the symptoms during the build-up phase, but it may take around a year on the maintenance dose to see an improvement. In case the allergy shots are successful, the maintenance treatment is generally continued for three to five years.
As allergy shots bring about a reduction in the symptoms of numerous allergies and can inhibit the progression of allergic diseases ranging from asthma to allergic rhinitis, they can be highly beneficial for those with severe allergies that tend to be unmanageable.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The human ear is divided into three parts, namely the outer, middle and inner ear. All these parts function in coherence with each other and help us in converting vibrations into sound and information. The middle ear consists of the air space between the inner ear and the outer ear and contains the bones that transmit the vibrations of the outer ear and translate them into information. This area is prone to infections, especially among children and thus may cause discomfort or pain.
Symptoms of middle ear infections: Middle ear infections primarily tend to manifest themselves as inflammation of the tissues and buildup of fluids. Some of the symptoms are mentioned below.
Infections in children: Middle ear infections primarily occur in children although it can occur in adults as well. Some of the common symptoms could be:
- Ear pain either sitting or standing up and especially while lying down
- Irritability and crying, which in infants could translate to more than usual crying
- Problems with sound and difficulties in hearing
- Fluid buildup causing balance related problems
- Discharge of fluid in certain cases
- Unable to sleep and also loss of appetite
- In some cases children may have high fever
Causes of middle ear infections: The primary cause of middle ear infection is due to the presence of bacteria or virus in the area. The Eustachian tube, which runs from the middle ear to the back of the throat, is connected to nasal passages as well. Any infection that affects the throat or the nose may also affect the middle ear through this tube. Primary causes for the infections could be
- Cold or flu like symptoms, which then infect the middle ear as well
- Otitis media, which is the buildup of fluid and inflammation either due to the presence of bacteria and viruses or even without it
- Seasonal infections, which are common during late autumn or winters
- Air pollution is also known to be a factor
- Infection from others, especially in the case of children when they are part of a group care
- Children from 6 months to 2 years are also susceptible to middle ear infections as their immune systems are much less developed.
Treatment of middle ear infections: Usually, middle ear infections resolve on their own within a day or so. You can try warm compress with a soft piece of cloth to ease the pain. However, if pain persists for too long then antibiotic medications may be required to fight the infection with pain relief medications to lessen the pain and discomfort. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that occurs in the primary nerve between the brain and the ear. The tumor progresses very slowly and can influence your balance and hearing. In certain cases, if the tumor becomes very large, then it may also impair vital functions of the body.
The symptoms of acoustic neuroma tend to develop when the tumor starts to press on the nerve and its adjoining branches. The symptoms of this disorder are
You may experience hearing loss on one side which might worsen gradually.
You may have problems in balancing yourself.
A continuous ringing sound in the ears.
If the tumor is large and presses on the nearby nerves, then you may experience numbness of the facial muscles.
In some cases, it may impair the vital functions of the body.
This disorder is caused by a malfunctioning gene. There is no documented reason as to why the gene malfunctions.
The treatment options for this disorder are
Constant Monitoring: These tumors tend to grow very slowly but might spurt in some cases. In order to prevent damage to your body, they need to be monitored on a regular basis. Imaging tests are recommended on a periodic basis to determine the growth of the tumor.
Radiosurgery: Stereotactic radiosurgery is done to treat acoustic neuroma that is small in size. In this surgery, radiation is directed at the tumor without creating an incision. It is done to limit the growth of the tumor and preserve your hearing.
Surgery: The tumor can be removed by using surgical procedures. It involves administering general anesthesia, followed by removing the tumor through an incision on the skull or the inner ear. Surgery is used to remove the tumor and preserve your hearing abilities. This technique is suitable for a patient under 65 yr of age, moderately large or large tumor growing stage, significant hearing loss and severe headache.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Adenoidectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the adenoid. The adenoid is a lymphoid tissue which is present on the roof of the mouth; its role is to produce antibodies to protect the body against infections. Usually the adenoid lymphoid tissue diminish during your adolescence and disappear by the time you are an adult. Respiratory and throat infections that are chronic in nature, are the main causes of infection in the adenoid lymphoid tissue.
Adenoidectomy can be performed, one of any mentioned techniques:
- Curette technique
- Debrider assisted adenoidectomy
- Coblation assisted Adenoidctomy
Reason for the removal of adenoids
Throat infections that occur frequently can lead to the enlargement of the adenoid lymphoid tissue. When these lymphoid tissue become enlarged, it results in breathing problems and blockage of the Eustachian tubes. Blocked Eustachian tubes can cause infections in the ear which, in turn, causes severe hearing problems.
The surgical procedure is performed under general anesthesia in an outpatient mode. The removal of the adenoid lymphoid tissue takes place through the mouth. Initially, a small instrument is put inside the mouth to keep it open. After this, the adenoids are located in the mouth, following which they are scrapped off with a curette or by applying heat to the area by the process of diathermy (a technique to stimulate circulation by heating up a part of the body with the application of localized heat currents). Once the procedure is completed, you will be discharged on the same day.
Post-surgery, you may experience a sore throat for a few weeks. You must drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Keeping yourself hydrated also helps relieve symptoms of post-surgical pain, if any. Oily and spicy foods should also be avoided as it may cause pain inside the mouth. Applying ice can also relieve pain symptoms. However, don’t apply ice directly wrap it in a cloth and then apply it on the neck. Do not undertake any stressful or strenuous activity for 7-10 days post-surgery to further facilitate the recovery process. Post-surgery, the risks of throat and ear infections are greatly reduced. Breathing through the nose also becomes relatively easier.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Loss or impairment of hearing can happen due to a variety of causes and may be temporary or permanent in nature, depending on the type and severity of the condition. One of the most common causes of hearing impairment is age. The degeneration of one's vital organs and senses becomes a reality for many people as the advancement of age happens, and the delicate insides of the ears are no different. Noise pollution, injury to the ear drum or any other part of the ear, as well as the movement of particles inside are only a few of the many reasons for loss of hearing. One of the many ways of dealing with long term hearing impairment is by using a hearing aid.
Read on to know how you can regain your hearing with hearing aids:
- Long Forgotten Sound: A hearing aid will help you reacquaint yourself with long forgotten and subtle sounds that you may not have been able to hear for a long time. Many times, this kind of impairment also makes us forget to notice the fact that we do not hear so many normal sounds in our everyday lives - sounds that we probably did not notice even earlier. This may include the whirring of a fan, the whoosh of the air, the pitter patter of pets' feet and so much more. A hearing aid will help in bringing about an adjustment to these sounds that you will actually end up discovering again.
- Technicalities: The hearing aid basically works by letting your hearing and ears readjust to the various volumes, intensity and vibrations that one feels when different sounds reach the ears. This helps in hearing better.
- Amplification: A hearing aid is basically an electroacoustic device that fits in neatly behind your ear where it is tucked away from plain sight. This device helps in amplifying sounds so that you can catch them and hear them more clearly.
- Modulation: The ENT specialist will usually prescribe a certain kind of hearing aid based on your individual condition in terms of volume, size, power and circulation. These factors help in modulating the sounds in a certain way so that they reach the nerve pathways from the inner ear and travel to the brain in a proper and effective way. This is usually done in a customised way to cater to the specific type and cause of your hearing loss.
Using a hearing aid is a matter of retraining your hearing rather than restoring it completely. These aids will be helpful in regaining a better sense of hearing within the condition you are going through, rather than reversing the condition completely. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ent Specialist.
Perichondritis is an infection that occurs in the tissues surrounding the cartilage of the outer ear which provide nourishment to the cartilage. It is also known as auricular Perichondritis. In some cases, the immune system of the body may turn dysfunctional and start to destroy these tissues. Such a medical condition is then known as relapsing Perichondritis.
It is usually caused when the tissues experience trauma. Certain causes are:
1. It may occur after a surgery due to surgical trauma
2. Certain sports injuries
3. Ear piercing increases the risk of this infection
4. Any burn, laceration and cuts around the outer ear
5. If you have untreated ear condition such as swimmer’s ear (infection in the outer canal of the ear)
The symptoms of Perichondritis are:
1. You may experience swelling and redness in the affected area
2. You may have a fever
3. Pus may develop in the affected area
4. In some cases, the ear structure may be deformed
In addition to the above symptoms, relapsing Perichondritis may cause hearing loss, sudden weight loss, pain in your muscles and complications in your respiratory system.
The treatment of Perichondritis usually involves antibiotics. Antibiotics are administered depending on the severity of the symptoms. If there is trapped pus involved, then surgery may be required to treat the condition. An incision is made in the affected area and then the pus is drained out. If the infection is extremely severe resulting in deformity of the ear, then parts of the ear might have to be amputated. Plastic surgery may also be used to correct the shape of the ear.
In case of relapsing Perichondritis, certain steroid medications are administered to suppress the immune system to prevent it from attacking the tissues. There are some preventive measures, which you can employ to avoid Perichondritis. Avoid piercing your ear to reduce chances of contracting this infection. Also, if you have conditions such as swimmer’s ear, then make sure it is treated at the earliest. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ent Specialist.
The tonsils are soft tissue masses which are located at the back of your throat, usually at the pharynx. The tonsils are masses which are part of the lymphatic system that helps fight infections. However, tonsils can themselves become inflamed and cause a lot of pain. Tonsillectomy is a procedure to remove the tonsils and relieve pain.
Why is tonsillectomy performed?
A few decades back, tonsillectomy was a routine surgery performed to relieve any pain within the tonsils. This method of treatment however has changed over the past few decades as pain medications for inflammation have improved vastly. However, tonsillitis is still performed in many cases wherein it tends to cause acute problems. Some of the cases it is applicable in are:
- Chronic bad breath problems caused by recurrent inflammation of the tonsils
- Recurrent sore throats caused by tonsillitis
- It is also done along with dental surgery for correcting teeth with imperfect positioning
- Abscess formation in the mouth
- Upper airway being obstructed due to inflammation, thus causing difficulty with sleeping, snoring, or causing sleep apnea (irregular breathing during sleep)
- Ear infections being regularly caused by inflammation of the tonsils
Other reasons why it may be recommended
Tonsillectomy may be also be recommended when there are no indications of problems but tonsillitis and other infections keep cropping up too regularly. This affects children and can make them sick or keep them in pain regularly. Some of these other indications are mentioned below:
- Tonsil infections and inflammations happening too frequently within a year
- Tonsillitis is caused by bacterial infection wherein the antibiotics aren’t effective
- Formation of pus in the form of an abscess within or around the tonsils which keep forming even after repeated drainage or administering antibiotics
Possible complications and risks
Like any other form of surgery, tonsillectomy has certain risks associated with it as well. However, these are very rare. Some of these risks and complications are mentioned as follows –
- Swelling of the mouth: The tongue and the soft palate or the roof of the mouth may swell, resulting in breathing difficulties an few hours after the surgery.
- Infection: As is the case with any surgery, infections may occur in rare cases, which may require further treatment.
- Adverse reactions to anesthetics: Many patients exhibit an adverse reaction to anesthetics and may develop symptoms such as a headache, nausea, muscle soreness and frequent vomiting.
- Bleeding during surgery or healing: Although it is rare, bleeding during and after surgery has been reported after all sorts of procedures and it may occur with tonsillectomy as well. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.
A broken nose is any crack or fracture in the bony portion of the nose. This is usually a result of external trauma.
Nasal fractures are often cited as the most common type of facial fracture, accounting for approximately half of all facial fractures in several studies.
Broken Nose Causes:
Common sources of trauma include the following:
Motor vehicle accidents
In children, nasal fractures are most commonly due to falls.
Broken Nose Symptoms:
Tenderness when touching the nose
Swelling of the nose or face
Bruising under the eyes (black eye)
Deformity of the nose (crooked nose)
Pain and difficulty breathing out of the nostrils
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
Cochlear implant is a medical device that provides direct electrical stimulation to the hearing nerve in the inner ear. Children and adults with a severe hearing loss may be helped with cochlear implants. A cochlear implant is a prosthetic substitute directly stimulating the cochlea and it does not cure deafness or hearing impairment.
A cochlear implant completely by-passes the normal hearing mechanism and stimulates the auditory nerve directly by means of an internally implanted electrode assembly. The implant consists of an external portion that located behind the ear and an interior portion which is surgically implanted under the skin. An implant has a microphone, a speech processor, a transmitter and an electrode array. The sound from the environment is picked by microphone and transmitter and receiver/stimulator sends them to speech processor to convert them into electric impulses. The speech processor placed with the microphone behind the ear, or it is a small box-like unit worn in a chest pocket. The speech processor digitizes the sound signals and sends them to a transmitter just behind the ear. The electrode array collects the impulses from the stimulator and sends those to different regions of the auditory nerve. The electrodes stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve, and sound sensations are perceived.
A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids amplify sounds so that they can be detected by damaged ears. Cochlear implants bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Hearing via a cochlear implant is different from normal hearing and takes time to adjust. However, it enables many people to understand other sounds in the environment, recognize warning signals, , and understand speech in person or over the telephone.
The benefits from a cochlear implant depend on many factors, such as the age of the patient when he or she receives the implant, the hearing loss present pre or post patient developed language skills and finally the motivation of the patient and family support
Once a person is referred for cochlear implant, more testing is done which includes audio logic testing, psychological testing, medical examination, and tests performed by the surgeon. It is done to ensure that the candidate will benefit from a cochlear implant and will have the motivation to participate in the process. Once the decision is made to go ahead, the surgery is done. Sometimes it involves an overnight stay in the clinic, and sometimes it is done on an outpatient basis. Six weeks post-surgery, patient is fitted with the external microphone and speech processor and implant is activated and programmed.
The best candidates are those having severe hearing loss in both ears, limited benefit from hearing aids, medical condition that makes surgery risky. Children can be considered for cochlear implants if they have the similar conditions as adults and in addition have support from their educational institutions to development of auditory skills.