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Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
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Treatment of Migraine Treatment
Treatment of Neurological Problems
Weight Management Treatment
Piles Treatment (Non Surgical)
Sexually Transmitted Disease (Std) Treatment
Cysts Removal Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Corn Removal Procedure
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Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.
Causes: There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmic (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation - a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.
Symptoms: The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:
- Symptom-free interval phase: The child is completely normal in this phase, which happens in between bouts.
- Prodromal phase: Prodrome is an indication that a disease or a condition is about to happen. In CVS, this is usually nausea and abdominal pain that can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Treatment in this phase can curb the disease. However, there could be some children in whom this may not manifest and the child may directly start with vomiting.
- Vomiting phase: Repeated bouts of paroxysmal vomiting happen associated with nausea, exertion, fatigue, and drowsiness.
- Recovery phase: As the nausea and vomiting begin to subside, which may take a couple of days, the child returns back to normal slowly. However, the lethargy and energy levels will take a couple of days to return to normal.
Treatment: Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.
- If the causative agent has been identified, for instance, infection or migraine, then managing that takes care of the CVS also.
- If identified during the prodromal phase, again it can be managed with suitable anti-emetic medications.
- If identified after full onset, rest and sleep and medications to control nausea and vomiting are required. Adequate hydration with electrolyte replenishment and sedatives can provide additional support.
However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist.
Redness, itchiness and watery eyes are common symptoms of eye allergies. Pollen, mold, dust and pet dander are common allergens that trigger such allergies. Other triggers include adverse reactions to cosmetics and eye medication such as eye drops. Being allergic to certain food items rarely causes eye conditions such as itchiness or excessive tearing. When the surface of the eye is exposed to allergens, it releases histamines. This causes itchiness and makes the eye red and watery.
However, sometimes these can also be symptoms of a larger problem. Itchiness in the eyes and excessive tearing can also be a symptom of conjunctivitis or caused by eye disorders like dry eyes and blepharitis. Ironically,dry eyes is the most notorious factor amongst the above. Watery eyes could also be caused by clogged tear ducts or eyelids that turn inwards or outwards.
If your eye feels itchy or is persistently watery, you must consult an eye doctor. To correctly diagnose the condition and recognize the symptoms triggering it, he will conduct a thorough eye exam and discuss your medical history and lifestyle. If the condition is triggered by an allergy you might also require blood tests for allergies. This will decide your course of treatment. A few tips that could help are:
The best way to keep your eyes healthy is to limit their exposure to factors that could irritate it. Avoid going outdoors during the pollen season especially if it is windy. Wearing wraparound sunglasses can also help create a barrier between your eyes and the allergens. Within the house, ensure that your air filters in the air conditioner are cleaned regularly.
Switch to spectacles or consider lasik surgery if you wear contacts regularly and often suffer from eye allergies. Alternatively you could switch to daily disposable lenses to avoid the buildup of airborne allergens on the surface of the lenses.
Non prescriptions eye drops that help lubricate the eyes are easily available over the counter and can help relieve itchiness. This can also keep your eyes from drying out and thus prevent watery eyes.
The histamines released by the body on contact with an allergen dilute blood vessels and make then abnormally permeable. Antihistamines reduce these reactions by not allowing the histamines to attach themselves to cells in the body. Antihistamines can take a while to react and can make you feel drowsy. Hence it is advisable not to take them when operating heavy machinery or driving.
Pregnancy is that wonderful and beautiful phase that most women rejoice about. However, many may find it hard to believe that pregnancy can bring with it a condition known as ‘antenatal depression’. This is a common condition in expecting mothers and should not be ignored.
Depression during pregnancy like regular depression is a clinical condition and requires further investigation and management. Pregnancy is related to the female hormones and therefore, mood swings are common (as during PMS and menopause). However, depressed pregnant women would typically have the following associated symptoms too.
- Altered eating habits
- Altered sleeping patterns (too much or too less)
- Loss of attention/ability to focus
- Losing interest in activities which usually interest the person
- Feeling very anxious
- Constant feeling of sadness
- Uncertainty about the future
- Feeling of worthlessness
- Suicidal tendencies
It has been noted about 25% of women can get depressed during pregnancy for varying periods of time. Some potential reasons for this are as below.
- Strained relationships: One of the most important factors for a healthy pregnancy is a happy relationship, not just with the partner, but with immediate and close family members with whom there is a high level of regular interaction.
- Work stress: For working women, a stressful office environment could take a toll on their moods.
- Previous miscarriages: This can cause anxiety and depression about possible repeat incident.
- Potential complications: If the periodic examinations showed up possibility for complications in pregnancy, the chance of depression in the mother increase.
How it affects pregnancy?
A depressed mother would not be able to care for herself and therefore, the baby may not get adequate nutrition for its development. Additionally, the potential for nicotine and alcohol abuse increases, which also negatively impacts the baby’s growth. There could be low birth weight, premature birth and developmental delays after birth.
How it can be managed?
While the hormonal changes during pregnancy causes mood swings, diagnosing if it is depression is important. A consultation with a psychiatrist may be required for some women.
Some of the options available for treatment include support groups, individual counseling, and medications.
- It is important to understand that this is a common condition and you are not the only one going through this. Talking to other women who feel depressed can help in mood uplifting of all involved.
- If you are too shy about it, individual counseling could be the next best thing.
- Stress management including light exercise, music, meditation, rest, diet, and support from close friends and family are highly recommended.
- Since most antidepressants would reach the baby, it is advisable to avoid these less you need them as a last resort.
The tube transporting urine from the bladder out of the body is known as the urethra. Under normal circumstances, this tube is wide enough for urine to flow freely but in some cases, one or more section can get narrowed and restrict the flow of urine. This may be diagnosed as a urethral stricture. This length of this stricture can range from 1 cm to affecting the entire length of the urethra.
This is caused by scar tissue or inflammation of tissue in the urethra. While this is a common condition that affects men, it is rarely seen to affect women. An enlarged prostate, exposure to STDs like gonorrhoea or chlamydia, suffering from an infection that causes urethral inflammation and irritation or having had a catheter recently inserted can increase the risk of suffering from a urethral stricture. An injury or tumour located near the urethra can also cause this condition. Hence, preventing this condition is not always a possibility.
Common symptoms to look out for include:
- Inability to urinate
- Reduction in the flow of urine
- Increased urge to urinate frequently
- Pain while urinating
- Urinary incontinence
- Abdominal pain
- Swelling of the penis
- Discharge from the urethra
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Dark urine
- The bladder feeling gull even after urinating
A physical examination and tests that measure the rate of urine flow and chemical composition of the urine can help a doctor determine a diagnosis of urethral strictures. You may also need to undergo STD tests and a cystoscopy. An X-ray may also help locate the stricture. The treatment for this condition depends on the severity of the symptoms.
Non-surgical treatment for this condition involves using a dilator to widen the urethra. However, there is no guarantee the blockage will not recur at a later date. Alternatively, a permanent catheter may also be inserted.
There are two forms of surgical treatment for a urethral stricture.
- Open urethroplasty: This involves removing the infected or scar tissue and restructuring the urethra. The results of this procedure depend on the size of the blockage. It is usually advised only in cases of long, severe strictures.
- Urine flow diversion: In the case of a severe blockage and damage to the bladder, the doctor may advise rerouting the flow of urine to an abdominal opening. This process involves connecting the ureters to an incision in the abdomen with the help of part of the intestines.
- Endoscopic cutting of stricture ( D.V.I.U.): A thin tube with a camera (endoscope) is inserted into the urethra to visualize the stricture. DVIU may be repeated if the stricture recurs, however, after the third treatment or recurrence of the stricture less than three months after the procedure, repeat DVIU offers no long-term success.
Diabetes is a scourge that has been spreading like wildfire across the globe. It is one of the major public health concerns of the modern era. Diabetes not only causes damage to your internal organs but will also take a toll on your eyes if left unchecked. Retinopathy, glaucoma, cataracts and blurry vision are common phenomena accompanying diabetes.
You may not notice it at first. Symptoms can include:
Blurry or double vision
Rings, flashing lights, or blank spots
Dark or floating spots
Pain or pressure in one or both of your eyes
Trouble seeing things out of the corners of your eyes
Thus Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam plays an important role to detect it.
Here are some common Diabetic Eye Problems:
Blurry Vision: Do things turn blurry for you at times? Well it is not your glasses which are at fault but your high blood sugar count swelling up the lens within your eye and changing your ability to see. In order to correct your vision, you need to try bringing your sugar level back to the optimal range, which is 70 to 130 milligrams per deciliter. Do call on a doctor if the situation persists or deteriorates further.
Cataracts: Your eye lens is just like a camera that enables you to see through it by focusing on a particular object. If you have cataract, your otherwise clear lens gets shrouded a layer making it opaque and cloudy. You tend to face difficulties in the form of glares, blurred or clouded vision, and blind spots among other problems. Diabetics are prone to acquiring cataract much earlier than others, with the condition worsening subsequently. They are removed via surgery where your doctor substitutes your hazy lens with a new artificial one.
Glaucoma: You eye transmits images to your brain through the optic nerve. Pressure may build up within the optic nerve resulting in damage and ultimately causing total or partial blindness. This is a fairly common disorder with diabetics and a large number of cases pertaining to blindness due to diabetes are caused by this. Usually, glaucoma can be treated with laser, surgery, eye drops or medicines. It is important to visit a doctor as it can help stop the progression of the disorder much earlier.
Diabetic Retinopathy: The retina is a cluster of cells behind your eyes that absorbs light and converts them into images that are sent to the brain via your optic nerve. High blood sugar count can actually wreak havoc on the tiny blood vessels within your retina giving rise to diabetic retinopathy. Symptoms may include blurry vision, seeing spots, blind spots and difficulty in low light or night time. Retinopathy can cause you to progressively go blind and thus it is imperative that you go for periodic check-ups and keep your diabetes under control.
Control and Prevention
If you have diabetes, you are not doomed to develop diabetic eye disease. Although you are at risk, you have the ability to control your diabetes so your vision is not compromised. Controlling diabetes requires you to monitor your blood sugar levels regularly. Follow some steps to help you control and preserve your vision:
Taking your Medicines regularly as prescribed by your doctor. Skipping of medication may leads to irregular control and is more hazardous.
Eating Right food is essential when trying to prevent or control diabetes. Eat a diet that is high in nutrients, low in fat and moderate in calories. A high-fiber diet with low glycaemic index foods (slow-release carbohydrates) will keep blood sugar steady and make you feel full. Although you do not need to eliminate sugar completely, you must limit sugar to a small serving. The good news is that as you cut sweets, your cravings will change and you will naturally desire more healthy foods.
Keep your A1C level under 7%: A1C is a test you have during a visit to your endocrinologist to determine how well-controlled your diabetes has been during the previous 2-3 months. Keeping your blood glucose in this target range means less damage to the delicate blood vessels around your eyes.
Control blood pressure and Cholesterol Levels: People with diabetes have a greater chance of having high blood pressure and Cholesterol, which can cause eye blood vessel damage.
Regular Physical Exercise can help you control your blood sugar, increase fitness and reduce your risk for heart disease and nerve damage. You must track your blood sugar before, during and after exercise to prevent hypoglycaemia.
Annual comprehensive eye exams: If you are pre-diabetic or diabetic, it is even more important to have Complete Dilated eye exam to initially get baseline recordings of the eye conditions and then regular yearly follow-up visits to monitor changes in your vision. If you notice blurred vision and you have had diabetes for a length of time, it might be a signal you need to keep tighter control of your glucose levels.
Acne is a very common problem that affects people, mostly teenagers worldwide. The problem of acne can be extremely annoying, making most of the people to opt for self medication. However, it is advisable to consult a dermatologist to avoid unwanted complications. The following common but serious mistakes should be avoided while self-treating acne:
- Fight acne the dermatologist way: During adolescence, hormonal imbalance is one of the major factors resulting in acne. However, factors like prolonged illness, pollution, dermatological problems cannot be sidelined either. It should be noted that acne is an inflammation which needs proper investigation. A dermatologist should be consulted at the very onset. Use of any medicated lotions or creams without proper recommendation can aggravate the problem.
- The lesser the better: Using too many products at a time will do you more harm than good. Use one product at a time. If you think a product can magically treat your acne in a day, then you are in for some disappointment. Optimism is good, but being realistic is better. Not all products show positive results in a day. One needs to have patience. Use the product diligently for a week before trying out a new product.
- Complete what you started: It is a crime to stop any medications mid way. Complete the full course of the medication, even if your acne is fully treated.
- Popping away to ugly spots and scars: Popping or picking only worsens the inflammation and acne. It will leave your face with some really ugly spots. When the acne head turns white, do not try to squeeze it out. Show some resilience. It is a very common mistake that should be strictly avoided.
- Exfoliants should be chosen carefully. Understand your skin type well. Micro-beads-enriched exfoliants are the best to use. Avoid scrubbing or over washing the face. Always use a sunscreen before stepping out in the sun. If you are into make-ups, remove them before retiring to bed. Use make-ups that suit your skin type. Minimal application of make-up is advisable in case of acne.
- Many well-wishers might suggest innumerable acne treatments. Listen to all, but choose what you feel and know is the best.
A flawless and acne-free face is very much achievable.
Thyroid is a small butterfly shaped gland, which is present at the lower frontal region of the neck, right beneath the voice box. It produces hormones which regulate metabolism (the breakdown of food by the body to convert it into energy). It even plays a pivotal role in boosting organ functions as well as in helping the body to sustain heat. However, too much of hormone production by the thyroid gland might yield structural problems, for instance, growth of nodules (abnormal tissue growth) or cysts (non-cancerous sac-like structures containing fluid) and swelling. Hence, a thyroid surgery is a must once these problems occur. The surgery, administered with general anesthesia, eliminates the thyroid gland either wholly or partially.
Why do you need surgery?
- The presence of tumors or nodules on one’s thyroid gland is one of the reasons why one should go for the surgery. Although most of the nodules are benign, few can be pre-cancerous or cancerous too. Also, those benign nodules can spell trouble, if they expand in size, thus obstructing the throat. They can be problematic as well if they cause the thyroid gland to overproduce hormones, giving rise to a condition known as hyperthyroidism.
- Hyperthyroidism can be corrected through surgery. It is often an outcome of Grave’s disease, an autoimmune disorder wherein the body misidentifies the thyroid gland as a foreign body, thereby creating antibodies to combat it. The thyroid gland gets inflamed in the process, resulting in the overproduction of hormones.
- Another reason is the enlargement or swelling up of the thyroid gland, termed as goiter. Similar to large nodules, goiter too can clog the throat, thus interfering with one’s breathing, speaking and eating.
Types of Surgery
- Lobectomy: This procedure calls for partial removal of the lobes when a nodule or an inflammation affects just half of the thyroid gland.
- Subtotal Thyroidectomy: Here, a small proportion of the thyroid tissue is left behind even after the elimination of the thyroid gland.
- Total Thyroidectomy: Through this procedure, the entire thyroid gland is taken out along with the thyroid tissue.