Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Your kid's weight should be a real matter of concern for you. In today's world, the number of obese and overweight children is increasing at an alarming rate. Gaining excess weight and being obese poses the risk of numerous health problems in children. The disorders are diabetes, heart diseases, asthma and many others. Obese children face a lot of problems in their social lives, are teased and neglected. This causes lack of self-confidence and self-esteem in obese children. They develop a negative body image and depression. However, by taking proper measures, your child can regain normalcy. Eating disorders may also occur in obese children, and they are also likely to develop substance abuse habits.
The major medical conditions that an obese child can face are:
- Type 2 diabetes
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Problems in bones and joints
- Sleep disorders
- Liver and gall bladder disorders
Is your kid having the right weight?
The growth rate in children varies with time and stages. Hence, it is difficult to tell whether your kid is overweight. You should measure your child's BMI to find your answer. BMI or body mass index uses the height and weight measurements of a person to calculate the amount of body fat and is used for screening obesity problems. BMI is effective in general and provides accurate data. In some cases, it may be imperfect. In case your kid has a high BMI for age measurement, other assessments are made to detect obesity. The assessments include skin thickness measurement, diet evaluation, physical activity and family history.
How to check obesity in your kid?
In order to rectify obesity, a lot of changes must be made in a child's regular habits and schedule.
- Food patterns: You should feed your child a wide range of fruits and green, red, orange and yellow vegetables. Having a proper breakfast reduces chance of obesity and should not be avoided. Focus on healthy cereals and fruits. Other than reducing the intake of chocolates, desserts and fried junk food, food items containing hidden sugar should be avoided. Go for low sugar food items. The meal times of your child should be fixed, and this pattern should be followed. Also limit having outside food. Avoid foods, which contain trans fats.
- Physical exercise: Your child should be involved in regular physical exercise or workout. Let them go out of home and exert themselves, as this would keep them fit and away from obesity. For obese children, exercise will burn calories and help in losing weight.
Your kid's weight should really concern you. You should avoid your kid getting obese and make him/her follow all necessary precautions. In case you suspect obesity in your kid, get the BMI measured. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Constipation causes a lot of discomfort to children. A lot of factors are responsible for constipation among children.
Some of them are:
- Deliberate Withholding: Often children may consciously avoid visiting the toilet, which may make them feel constipated. This may be due to embarrassment, especially in public spaces or they might be too engaged in playing to not go to the toilet, altogether. Some children do it out of fear when a previous toilet experience has been particularly painful.
- Illness and Medication: Infections and illnesses, especially ones pertaining to the stomach cause the child to become constipated. Many medicines and supplements also affect the digestive system and can lead to constipation.
- Diet: This is the primary cause of constipation in children. If the child's diet has low water and fibre content and heavily features sugar and processed foods, stool becomes hard and bowel movement gets restricted.
Treatment for constipation in children:
Constipation in children is treated differently than in adults as their diets and patterns of bowel movement are dissimilar. The primary treatments for constipation in children are:
- Dietary Adjustment - Making changes to the child's diet by including high fibre foods (such as fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads, cereals, etc.) can help cure constipation. Compelling the child to intake ample fluids in the form of water or milk is also necessary. Sugary drinks must be avoided.
- Stool softeners and laxatives - The administration of bowel movement enhancing medication is the simplest way of treating constipation in children. There are various kinds of stool softeners and laxatives that are safe for children and must always be used under the supervision of a paediatrician.
My 6 month baby is vomiting frequently and also have motion problem very loose. Is this normal at this age or should we take treatment. We feed only milk.
Breastfeeding is best for the baby and its benefits extend well beyond the paradigm of basic nutrition. Breast milk contains all the vital vitamins and nutrients, which a baby needs in the first six months of life. It is fully loaded with disease fighting substances, which protect baby from illness. Many international paediatric organisation recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and recent research reports have proven that breastfeeding is good for both mother and the baby.
Breastfeeding protects the baby from a long list of illnesses, such as ear infections, lower respiratory illnesses, stomach disorder and meningitis and are less severe when they do happen. Breast milk adapts as the baby grows to meet the changing needs. Breastfeeding builds a strong emotional bond between the mother and the baby and it has long term benefits lasting right into adulthood.
The first milk of the mother contains high concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which guards against invading germs by forming a protective layer on the mucous membranes in baby's intestines, nose, and throat. Mother's body responds to pathogens (virus and bacteria) that are in her body and makes secretory IgA, which is specific to those pathogens, creating protection for the baby based on to whatever mother is exposed.
The antibodies in breast milk gives a baby's immune system a boost and also helps children avoid type 1 and type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol and inflammatory bowel disease that strike later in life. Babies who were not breastfed run the risk of developing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Breastfeeding boosts child's intelligence. Surveys have shown that premature infants with extremely low birth weight who receive breast milk shortly after birth improved their scores of mental development at eighteen months when compared with premature infants who weren't given breast milk. The emotional bonding happening during breastfeeding contributes to some of the brainpower benefits. Breastfeeding lowers the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). It reduces a child's risk of becoming obese as a teen or adult as the breast milk contains less insulin, which stimulates creation of fat. The high content of leptin in the milk regulates appetite and fat.
Breastfeeding triggers the release of the hormone oxytocin that promotes relaxation and nurturing. Oxytocin released while nursing also helps your uterus contract after birth, resulting in less postpartum bleeding. It reduces stress level and the risk of postpartum depression. Research studies show that breastfeeding results in changes in breast tissue and lactation reduces the production of oestrogen, which reduces the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. It also reduces the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
What causes chickenpox in children and how to identify it?
Chickenpox is a contagious viral disease that mostly affects children. It appears on the skin as rash-like itchy red spots that can develop into blisters. The main parts of the body that get affected are the face, scalp, chest, belly, back, arms and legs. It generally starts in one location and cyclically spreads to other parts over the course of 1-2 weeks time.
Chickenpox is uncommon now since children are routinely immunised against it these days. Yet outbreaks keep occurring from time to time, for the cases who haven't been vaccinated.
What is the cause of chickenpox?
- chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and spreads through direct contamination.
- if the blister breaks open and the virus infects the surface of objects, it gets transferred when one touches the object and then touches any body part, thereby spreading through contact.
- it also spreads through aerial contamination when a person infected by it coughs or sneezes, which allows the virus to extend to various surfaces.
- when an unimmunised child with a weak immune system comes into contact with an adult suffering from a shingles (a type of a viral infection in adults caused by the same chicken pox virus) rash, the child is susceptible to contracting the chickenpox virus.
Now let's turn our attention to the symptoms of this disease in children.
The symptoms of chickenpox do not manifest themselves till 2-3 weeks after contamination. The exact time required for the signs to show varies from person to person and is known as the 'incubation period'.
Following are the symptoms of chickenpox in children:
- exhaustion and lethargy
- swollen glands.
- high fever accompanied by a headache and body ache
- loss of appetite
- signs of dehydration
- the eruption of red rashes and fluid-filled blisters on the skin, which may become painful
- chest pain and breathing difficulty, although it is less common
The symptoms of chickenpox tend to be milder in children than in adults and hence, identifying the signs is harder and may take longer.
At the point when your child is around six months old, you can acquaint him with a variety of foods. Giving your child a solid, balanced diet will guarantee he has the vitamins and supplements he/she needs to develop.
Do not get into the easy trap of feeding junk to make the kids happy. Never give your child foods that are high in sugar or salt. These foods are low in vital supplements and it's easy for your child to feel full after eating them, leaving less space for healthy meals.
So which foods and drinks should you limit as your baby grows?
Below is the list of the worst foods to feed your child.
1. Crisps and Crackers: Crisps and crackers are typically high in salt. Babies require just a little measure of salt: under 1g (0.4g sodium) a day until they are 12 months old. Your child's kidneys can't adapt to more salt than this, so it’s best to avoid crisps and crackers.
2. Fizzy Drinks: These beverages come with zero health benefits, and their acidic nature can harm your infant's developing teeth. Also some fizzy beverages contain caffeine, which can make your child jittery and disturb his/her sleeping patterns, giving him/her a headache as a result.
All your infant needs to drink is milk. Likewise, sugary beverages are high in calories, and can make your child overweight in toddlerhood, if given to him/her regularly.
3. Fruit Juice: Fruit juice may sound like something very healthy. However, it's advised not to give your infant fruit juice for the same reason as you should avoid soft drinks and sodas. Fruit juices are high in natural sugars and are acidic, which means they can harm your infant's teeth.
Water and breastmilk are the most suitable beverages for your infant until he's one year old.
Milk contains essential minerals and vitamins, for example, calcium, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12, which are essential for your baby’s proper growth and development.
4. Sweets and Chocolates: High sugar foods such as desserts and chocolates means are best avoided. Sugar creates acid in your child’s mouth and attacks his enamel, causing cavities and consequently tooth decay.
However, if you want to give your child sweets, feed them to him/her during meal time. The amount of saliva in the mouths increases while eating a meals. Saliva, being a natural antiseptic, neutralises the effects of the enamel attacking acid produced by these sugary delights.