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What is diarrhea?
Diarrhea is when stools (bowel movements) are loose and watery. Your child may also need to go to the bathroom more often.
Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.
Diarrhea may be either:
Short-term (acute). Diarrhea that lasts 1 or 2 days and goes away. This may be caused by food or water that was contaminated by bacteria (bacterial infection). Or it may happen if your child gets sick from a virus.
Long-term (chronic). Diarrhea that lasts for a few weeks. This may be caused by another health problem such as irritable bowel syndrome. It can also be caused by an intestinal disease. This includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, or celiac disease. Giardia may also cause chronic diarrhea.
What causes diarrhea?
Diarrhea may be caused by many things, including:
Trouble digesting certain things (food intolerance)
An immune system response to certain foods (food allergy)
Parasites that enter the body through food or water
Reaction to medicines
An intestinal disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease
A problem with how the stomach and bowels work (functional bowel disorder), such as irritable bowel syndrome
Surgery on the stomach or gallbladder
Children who visit some foreign countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. This is caused by having food or water that is not safe because of bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
Severe diarrhea may mean a child has a serious disease. Talk with your child's healthcare provider if symptoms don’t go away. Also talk with the provider if symptoms stop your child from doing daily activities. It may be hard to find out what is causing your child’s diarrhea.Imbalances of salt and water in the body can lead to problems ranging from cystic fibrosis to diarrhea to kidney failure. Dr. Guggino and his team study the channels that move salt and water– and what goes wrong with them in disease.
What are the symptoms of diarrhea?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:
Belly (abdominal) pain
Upset stomach (nausea)
Urgent need to use the bathroom
Loss of body fluids (dehydration)
The symptoms of diarrhea may look like other health problems. Severe diarrhea may be a sign of a serious disease. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is diarrhea diagnosed?
The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. Your child may have lab tests to check blood and urine.
Other tests may include:
A stool culture to check for abnormal bacteria or parasites in your child’s digestive tract. A small stool sample is taken and sent to a lab.
A stool evaluation to check the stool for blood or fat
Blood tests to rule out certain diseases
Imaging tests to rule out structural problems
Tests to check for food intolerance or allergies
A sigmoidoscopy. This test lets the healthcare provider check the inside of part of your child’s large intestine. It helps to tell what is causing diarrhea, stomach pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. It uses a short, flexible, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope). The tube is put into your child’s intestine through the rectum. This tube blows air into the intestine to make it swell. This makes it easier to see inside.
How is diarrhea treated?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Dehydration is the major concern with diarrhea. In most cases, treatment includes replacing lost fluids. Antibiotics may be prescribed when bacterial infections are the cause.
Children should drink lots of fluids. This helps replace the lost body fluids. If your child is dehydrated, be sure to:
Offer drinks called glucose-electrolyte solutions. These fluids have the right balance of water, sugar, and salts. Some are available as popsicles.
Avoid juice or soda. They may make diarrhea worse.
Not give plain water to your baby
Not give too much plain water to kids of any age. It can be dangerous.
Keep breastfeeding your baby. Breastfed babies often have less diarrhea.
Keep feeding your baby formula, if you were already doing so
What are the complications of diarrhea?
The greatest complication of diarrhea is dehydration. This is more likely with young children and those with a weakened immune system. Dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild dehydration is the loss of fluid. Moderate or severe dehydration puts stress on the heart and lungs. In the worst cases it can lead to shock, which is life-threatening.
What can I do to prevent diarrhea?
Proper handwashing can reduce the spread of bacteria that may cause diarrhea.
A rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. Ask your child's healthcare provider which vaccines are right for your child.
When you travel, make sure anything your child eats and drinks is safe. This is even more important if you travel to developing countries.
Travel safety tips for drinking and eating include:
Not drinking tap water or using it to brush teeth
Not using ice made from tap water
Not drinking unpasteurized milk (milk that has not gone through a process to kill certain bacteria)
Not eating raw fruits and vegetables unless you wash and peel them yourself
Not eating raw or undercooked meat or fish
Not eating food from street vendors or food trucks
Talk with your child's healthcare provider before traveling.
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call your child's provider if your child is less than 6 months old or has any of the following symptoms:
Blood in the stool
Doesn’t want to drink liquids
Dry, sticky mouth
Urinates less frequently (wets fewer than 6 diapers per day)
No tears when crying
Sunken soft spot (fontanelle) on baby’s head
Key points about diarrhea
Diarrhea is loose, watery stool. Your child may also have to go to the bathroom more often.
It may be caused by many things, including bacterial infection or viral infection.
Dehydration is the major concern with diarrhea.
In most cases, treatment involves replacing lost fluids.
The rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhea caused by that virus.
Proper handwashing can help prevent diarrhea.
When you travel, make sure anything your child eats and drinks is safe.
Meri chest m jalan rahti h continue khana Kane se phale or baad m b Hoti h kya kere Mere galblader m polyp h kya iski wajh se Hoti h please Consult me.
Hi Sir, My fatty liver with sgpt count 96 and sgot 53. I have consulted with a liver specialist. He advised me to go for Ultrasound scan in that I got grade 2 fatty liver. In the mean time I have started strict diet that I fully stopped intake of sugar, bakery items, deep fries and reduced all cereals to 1/4th quantities. Then After a week, my new blood report shows SGPT 71 and SGOT 42, then After a week, my new blood report shows SGPT 48 and SGOT 31 now what I will do?
Last few weeks I am victim of severe acidity, it made my life hectic as acidity normally become sever while at sleep around 4 am in morning. Please suggest me the best cure for the same.
I am suffering from acid reflux for past 1 year After consultation with doctor, he prescribed sompraz tablets for 3 months& Liofen 5 Mg tablets for 1 month. Will be there any side effects for these medicines. Can I continue with these medicines or shall I switch to Ayurveda?
Heavy gas formation, store wind in abdomen, loud sound produce from mouth when gas excreted, It create more problem after eating, abdomen pain and heavy feeling, indigestion. These are from 10 years, homeopathic medicine is running.
Statistics report an approximate 38.5% of men and women are diagnosed with some type of cancer during their lifetime. Getting widely prevalent, cancer is a deadly disease. However, due to the continuous efforts in the field of medical science, several treatment methods offering positive results are on the evolve.
Scientists have made great progress in discerning the characteristics of normal and cancer cells in the bladder and also an insight into how this helps the cancer cells to grow and spread to other parts of the body. They are now trying to utilize this knowledge for developing new ways that can treat bladder cancer and others.
- Screening and diagnostic tests: The newly developed tests are now able to look for different substances in the urine that can help in finding whether there is bladder cancer. They are primarily used for diagnosing bladder cancer or to look for risks and chances of recurrence in individuals who have already been treated. Researchers are now on the way to find out whether these screening tests can help in finding out bladder cancer in people who don't exhibit any signs or symptoms.
- Surgical intervention: These days, surgeons are making use of the newer approach to cystectomy where the surgeons use robotic arms for performing the surgery. It is commonly referred to as robotic cystectomy, and it allows the surgeon to operate through small incisions in place of a single large one. It helps the patients to recover much quicker. It can also be used in other forms of cancer such as prostate cancer.
- Immunotherapy: There are immunotherapy drugs now available for treating bladder cancer. It is a treatment that uses the immune system of the body for fighting against cancer which is accomplished using substances that restore the immune system to fight the invading cancer cells effectively.
- Photodynamic therapy: Photodynamic therapy or PDT is now under study to find out whether it is useful in the treatment of early-stage bladder cancers. In this treatment, the surgeon injects a light-sensitive drug into the bloodstream. After that, a special form of laser light is concentrated to the inner lining of the bladder with the help of the cystoscope. The light alters the composition of the cancer cells which destroys itself.
- Intravesical immunotherapy: This is yet another form of immune therapy that has already been used for the treatment of other cancers. BCG is a type of intravesical therapy where a germ is injected in liquid form into the bladder. This causes an attraction of immune cells to the lining of the bladder which invariably kills the cancer cells.
- Targeted therapies: As the researchers can gather more information regarding the alterations in bladder cells which cause them to become cancerous, they are also developing the drugs which can be helpful in targeting these changes. They may be effective in conditions where other chemo drugs fail, and they lead to fewer side effects.
Thus, if you are diagnosed with bladder cancer, do not lose hope but persevere and stay positive to get cured. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hello, I have problem of gas and acidity and sometimes I got pain in my stomach and due to pain, I have lose motion also now I got relief from acidity but sometimes I have pain and lose motion, so please suggest me some medicine to take relief from pain, gas and locomotion and tell me what things I eat and not to eat during medicine and tell me medicine name.
Crohn’s disease is a condition characterized by the inflammation of the digestive tract or gut. The inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease can lead to severe diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fatigue, malnutrition and weight loss. It is also known as enteritis or ileitis.
Crohn's disease is a form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) out of the two main forms. The other form is known as Ulcerative Colitis.
The accurate cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown even today. Formerly, stress and diet were made accountable, but now it is known that these factors aggravate it but are not responsible for causing Crohn's disease. Factors such as heredity and an abnormal reaction in the immune system play a role in the development of this disease.
A bacterium or virus may also play a role in its development. For instance, E. coli bacteria has been associated with Crohn's disease. Smoking can be another risk factor.
Crohn’s Disease is known to be a very individual condition. It can effect any part of the gut, starting from the mouth and down to the anus. In the most common cases, however, the ileum (the lower part of the small intestine) or colon (part of the large intestine) is majorly affected.
Its symptoms may vary from person to person, and depend on the location of the disease in the gut. Crohn’s disease develops gradually, but sometimes it comes suddenly, without any warning. Symptoms exhibited change over time, with intervals of good health when your body shows no symptoms (remission) and periods of bad health when your symptoms are more vigorous (‘flare-ups’ or relapses).
Some of the major symptoms of Crohn’s disease when it is active are:
- Abdominal pain
- Anal Fistulae
- Mouth ulcers
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Perirectal Abscesses
Patients suffering from severe Crohn's disease also may experience:
- Inflammation of the bile ducts or liver
- Inflammation of eyes, joints and skin
- Delayed sexual development or growth, in children
There is no specific diagnostic test known for Crohn’s disease. Patients with fever, abdominal pain and tenderness, diarrhoea with blood, and anal diseases such as ulcers are sometimes diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Elevated white blood cell counts and sedimentation rates are mostly demonstrated in laboratory blood tests. Both of which suggest infection or inflammation in the digestive tract. Other blood tests may reveal low blood proteins, low red blood cell counts (anaemia), and low body minerals, reflecting the loss of these minerals due to chronic diarrhoea.
Although many effective medications are available in the market to control the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, yet there is no cure developed for it. Surgery can extensively improve the quality of life in certain individuals, but the reappearance of this disease after surgery is familiar to many. A better insight into the role of environmental factors and genetics in causing this disease can help in improved treatments and prevention.