Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
What is congenital hypothyroidism?
Newborn babies who are unable to make enough thyroid hormone have congenital hypothyroidism, meaning they are born with an underactive or absent thyroid gland. If the condition is not found and treated, children can have mental retardation and growth failure. But the good news is that early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent these problems. In most cases, the condition is permanent and your child will need lifelong treatment.
What causes congenital hypothyroidism?
The most common causes are
- An underdeveloped thyroid gland
- A thyroid gland that’s not located where it should be (in the neck below the voice box or larynx)
- A missing thyroid gland
Other possible causes include
- Defective production of thyroid hormone (an inherited condition)
- Problems with the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain), which tells the thyroid to make thyroid hormone
- Less commonly, a mother’s thyroid disease or medicines taken during pregnancy can cause congenital hypothyroidism.
What are the signs and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism?
Many babies with congenital hypothyroidism appear normal at birth or for several months after birth. But others may have these signs and symptoms:
- Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
- Poor muscle tone
- A hoarse cry
- They might also have
- Feeding problems
- A thick, large tongue
- A puffy-looking face
- A swollen abdomen, sometimes with “outpouching” of the belly button
- Large soft spots of the skull
Thyroid hormone deficiency can also occur in older babies or young children, even if test results at birth were normal.
Early diagnosis is very important. Most of the effects of hypothyroidism are easy to reverse. For this reason, doctors always ask to get screening for hypothyroidism of your newborn.
Thyroxine is usually given to treat hypothyroidism. Once the child starts taking this medicine, blood tests are regularly done to make sure thyroid hormone levels are in a normal range.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:
- You feel your infant shows signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism
- You are pregnant and have been exposed to antithyroid drugs or procedures
If a pregnant woman takes radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer, the thyroid gland may be destroyed in the developing fetus. Infants whose mothers have taken such medicines should be observed carefully after birth for signs of hypothyroidism. Also, pregnant women should not avoid iodine-supplemented salt. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
What is Type-1 Diabetes?
Type-1 Diabetes, also known as Diabetes Mellitus type-1, is a condition which is characterised by the lack of sufficient amount of insulin in the body. This is a chronic condition and cannot be cured. The insufficient amount of insulin in the blood results in the spike in blood sugar levels, which in turn, can damage various organs in the body. However, with proper therapy and treatment, it can be controlled and the quality of life can be improved for the patient.
The tell-tale signs and symptoms of this type of diabetes are the frequent urges to urinate, increase in appetite, increased thirst and rapid weight loss. It is most commonly diagnosed in children or young adults and thus, it was previously known as juvenile diabetes.
Glucose and other types of sugars are essential for the body cells to absorb energy. The glucose that is present in the blood is taken up with the help of insulin and utilised for energy. The lack of this hormone renders the glucose useless as it is not being able to enter the body cells. This is precisely type-1 diabetes.
What Causes It?
The cause of type-1 diabetes is not known entirely. Although, there are certain theories that explain the cause –
Genetics: The chances of getting type-1 diabetes are increased in children if either of their parents suffers through from this disease. More than 50 genes are involved in diabetes type-1.
Environmental factors: Environmental factors are also thought to play a role in type-1 diabetes.
Viral infection: A theory suggests that viral infections are responsible for type-1 diabetes. According to this theory, the virus activates the auto-immune system of the body which in turn attacks the pancreatic beta cells along with the cells that are infected by the virus. Viruses like Epstein-Barr virus, Mumps virus, rubella virus etc. are considered to be responsible for the same.
How Is It Treated?
Many people with type-1 diabetes live long, healthy lives. The key to good health is to keep your blood sugar levels within the range your doctor gives you. You’ll need to check them often and adjust insulin, food, and activities to make that happen.
All people with type-1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar. Several types of insulin are available. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist and ask a free question.
Childhood obesity is a serious condition plaguing many adolescents and children these days. Obesity brings along with it a plethora of health scares such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes, all of which at a point of time were confined only to adults. Obesity in children also results in depression and self-esteem issues. Too much of calorie consumption accompanied by a sedentary lifestyle and other hormonal or genetic factors contribute to obesity in children.
Overcoming Childhood Obesity-
Healthy Eating: Consider opting for vegetables and fruits over high-calorie and fatty foods such as crackers, cookies or other processed foods. Cut out on the intake of sweetened beverages that makes your child too full to grab other healthy foods. Encourage sitting together for a family meal and initiating interaction rather than turning on the TV or other electronic gadgets. Allow your child to decide his/her proportion of food and never over feed. This habit should be inculcated in the child since the formative years.
Engaging in Physical Activity: Make sure and talk your child into not spending more than two hours sitting glued to the TV set or the computer on a daily basis. Rather, egg him/her on to go out in the open and enjoy the day underneath the sun. Try and start building in your child the habits of exercising and staying active right from the beginning. This will go a long way in deciding your child’s health and overall fitness in the future. Remember! Morning shows the day. And it’s up to you to structure out your child’s ‘morning’.
Quick Tips For Parents-
Play time or physical activities in ways that your child enjoys, such as going for a walk or hike, playing at the park, playing sports, dancing or going for a bike ride (and join them!)
Healthy home-packed lunches
Drinking more water and eating whole vegetables
Eating when you are truly hungry, not when you’re bored, mad, stressed, etc.
Eating together as a family
Decreased meal sizes
Focus on health rather than taste
Too much screen time
Eating while watching TV or other screens
Negative food cues and triggers by removing them
Skipping meals if you are hungry
Eating if you are not hungry
Eating by the clock (you should eat when you’re truly hungry)
- Too much sugary drinks (sodas and fruit drinks)
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
The term short stature describes the height of the person that is significantly below the average height for a person's age, sex, racial group, or family. Growth failure is often confused with short stature. Growth failure that occurs over time eventually results in short stature. By definition, growth failure is a medical condition. However, short stature is often a normal variant.
Short stature may or may not be a sign or symptom caused by a medical condition. Your child's growth must be assessed over a period of time and not just at a single point. Any departure from a prior growth pattern, appropriate for the child's genetic background may signal the appearance of a disease.
Short parents tend to have short children. Children with a family backgroud of short stature does not have any symptoms related to diseases that affect growth. Children with constitutional growth delay do not have any diseases. These children enter puberty later than their peers. However, because they continue to grow for a longer period of time, they catch up to their peers as they reach their adult height, which is normal and comparable to their parents.
Some symptoms may signal a medical condition causing short stature. The following symptoms should be further investigated by your doctor:
- Child has stopped growing or is growing slower than expected (less than 4 cm, or 2 in, each year in the pre-pubertal child of elementary school age)
- Weight loss or gain (more than 5 lbs in a month)
- Poor nutrition/loss of appetite
- Delayed puberty (absent breast development by age 14 or absent menstrual spotting by age 15 for a girl or absent enlargement of the testes by age 14 for a boy); note that the presence or absence of pubic hair is not a reliable sign of pubertal development
What Causes Short Stature?
The three major reasons for short stature are constitutional growth delay, genetics and disease.
Constitutional Growth Delay: Some children simply develop later than others. These children are often referred to as 'late bloomers'. These kids are small for their age and often enter puberty later. However, they'll continue to grow after their friends have stopped. They usually catch up by adulthood.
Genetics: If one or both parents are short, there's a strong possibility that their child will also be short. If there are no underlying medical reasons why either parent is short, their child's short stature may be perfectly healthy.
Disease: A number of diseases may cause unusually short stature. These diseases fall into several categories:
- Endocrine diseases affect hormone production and often height. These include growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypothyroidism, or low thyroid hormone levels, and Cushing's disease.
- Chronic diseases can also decrease height through their effects on overall health. Examples of chronic disease are heart disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, kidney problems, sickle cell anemia, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
- Genetic conditions that affect height include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Williams syndrome.
- Bone and skeletal diseases, such as rickets or achondroplasia, may change stature through their effects on bone growth.
Problems during pregnancy can affect the height of a child. Malnutrition can also lead to short stature.
Precocious puberty is a medical condition in which the process of a child turning into an adult i.e. puberty is initiated at an earlier stage than what is considered as normal. Certain characteristics like rapid growth of bones and muscles change the body structure, its ability to reproduce and manifest during puberty. If puberty is initiated before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in in case of boys, then it is a case of precocious puberty.
Studies to determine the actual cause as to why precocious puberty occurs have been inconclusive. In some cases, due medical conditions, such as hormonal disorders, brain abnormalities, brain tumor, and infections might cause precocious puberty. Generally medication is prescribed in such conditions to delay the process of puberty until later.
In case of girls, if you notice the below mentioned symptoms in a child who is about 8 years of age then it is a sign of precocious puberty:
- Breast Growth
- Menarche (First Period)
In case of boys if you notice the below mentioned symptoms in a child who is about 9 years of age then it is a sign of precocious puberty:
- Enlarged testicles and penis
- Facial hair
- Deepening voice
Also, there are few characteristics or traits which are common to both girls and boys and indicate precocious puberty if it occurs at an early age:
- Underarm hair or pubic hair
- Rapid growth
- Adult body odor
Precocious puberty might induce a few complications. A few have been stated below:
Short height: Children who are suffering from precocious puberty in many cases grow taller at a quicker rate at first. This generally causes such children to be of below average height when they enter adulthood. By early diagnosis and treatment of precocious puberty, such a situation could be avoided and the child in question would be taller than he/she would if they did not undergo treatment.
Social and emotional problems: Children who undergo puberty before their peers can end up being self-conscious about their body, which may result in low self-esteem or in extreme cases substance abuse.
Treatment of patients suffering from precocious puberty can be administered through medications like GnRH antagonist treatment. This is a monthly injection, which delays further development and has to be continued up to the point till normal puberty period sets in.