Doctors in Dr. U. Mohan Rao Memorial Hospital
Treatment of Painful Teething
Treatment of Stained Teeth
Laser Hair Removal
Knee Pain Treatment
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment of Toothache
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment of Cavities
Root Canal Treatment
Treatment of Bleeding Gums
Spinal Surgery Disorders
Teeth Cleaning Procedure
Treatment of Bad Breath
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What is a slipped disc?
Injury or weakness can cause the inner jelly like portion of the disc to protrude through the outer ring. This is known as a slipped or herniated disc. This causes pain and discomfort. If the slipped disc compresses one of your spinal nerves, you may also experience tingling, numbness and pain along the affected nerve. As the lumbar spine (lower back) carries most of the body weight, it tends to âslipâ more than higher levels.
What is the anatomy of disc herniation / herniated disc/ slip disc /sciatica?
Human spine is made of up 33 bones (vertebrae) that are cushioned by discs. These vertebrae are divided by region: neck (cervical spine), mid-back (thoracic spine), and low back (lumbar spine). At the lower end of your spine, you also have the sacrum and the coccyx, which is commonly called your tailbone. Discs are present between these bones. The disks protect the bones by absorbing the shocks from daily activities like walking, lifting, and twisting. Each disc has two partsâa soft, gelatinous inner portion (nucleus pulpous) and a tough outer ring (annulus fibrosus). Together, the vertebrae and discs form a tunnel through which the spinal cords and nerve pass.
What are the causes of slip disc?
The etiology/cause of slip disc is multifactorial; there is no evidence to prove/disprove the quantitative effect of one or other. The risk factors for slip disc can be:â¨â¨â¢ life style: stress and emotional tension, poor posture -standing for long periods of time or sitting incorrectlyâcan cause slip disc, heavy physical work, lifting or forceful movement, bending, or awkward positions can really hurt your back.â¨â¢ obesity: being overweight puts pressure and stress on the back, especially the low back. Carrying excess weight aggravates other health conditions such as osteoporosis (weak bones), osteoarthritis (joint pain), rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease), degenerative disc disease (described above in the aging section), spinal stenosis, and spondylolisthesis.
What are the symptoms of herniated disc or slip disc?
Symptoms of a slipped disc include: sciatica â pain in buttock radiating to legâ¨â¢ pain and numbness, most commonly on one side of the bodyâ¨â¢ pain that extends to your arms and/or legsâ¨â¢ pain that worsens at nightâ¨â¢ pain that worsens after standing or sittingâ¨â¢ pain when walking short distancesâ¨â¢ unexplained muscle weaknessâ¨â¢ tingling, aching, or burning sensations in the affected areaâ¨â¢ sciaticaâ a sharp shooting pain that can extend from the buttock into the leg and sometimes into the foot.â¨â¢ muscle spasm, locked back, stiffness in back, morning stiffness.â¨â¢ although rare, herniated discs can cause you to lose bowel or bladder control known as cauda equine syndrome and one should seek medical advice as prognosis deteriorates with time. One can know whether this is happening to him or not if he has urgency /frequency of urination or loss of control of urination or sudden peri anal anesthesia.
When do I need to have a spine doctor opinion?
Patients with progressive symptoms in leg / back need a specialist opinion to diagnose and treat the problem.â¨â¨symptoms which need specialist attention (red flags) are:â¨â¨1. Persistent leg painâ¨2. Numbness in legâ¨3. Weakness in legâ¨4. Difficulty in walkingâ¨5. Unable to control urine / motionâ¨â¨symptoms like bowel and bladder urinary incontinence shall seek urgent / emergency opinion /management by the spine specialist.
Which tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis?
Imaging studies / investigations help to arrive a diagnosis of slip disc / herniated disc and include:â¨â¢ x-raysâ¨â¢ mri scansâ¨â¢ disco grams, which are rarely utilized.
What are the treatment options for slip disc?
There are different options to treat slip disc depending on the severity and duration of symptoms. They may comprise of one or many:â¨â¨1. Drugs & medicationsâ¨2. Spinal injectionsâ¨3. Spine surgeryâ¨â¨drugs, medications, to relieve slip disc: medication alone is not the ultimate solution to your back pain, however during emergency or during severe pain these medicines may help you curb the suffering. paracetamol:â¨your doctor may call this an analgesic, they donât help reduce inflammation, though. nsaids (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs):â¨these will help reduce swelling (or inflammation) while relieving your pain; thatâs how nsaids differ from paracetamol.â¨â¨muscle relaxants: which will help stop the muscular spasms.â¨â¨anti-depressants:â¨as surprising as it may seem, anti-depressants can be effective drugs for treating pain because they block pain messages on their way to the brain. They can also help increase your bodyâs production of endorphins, a natural pain killer.â¨â¨opioids:â¨in the most extreme cases, and only under careful supervision, you doctor may also prescribe an opioid.â¨â¨medication warning:â¨as with all medications, you must follow your doctorâs advice precisely.
(a) injection techniquesâ¨â¢ root block injectionâ¨â¢ epidural injectionâ¨â¢ caudal block injectionâ¨â¢ facet block injection
The options of surgery are
â¢ decompressionâ¨â¢ spinal fusionâ¨â¨the spine surgery advised for slip disc can be performed in many different ways. The success rates of surgery in slip disc/ herniated disc / sciatica is 98 % and with invention of modern technology and minimal invasive surgery techniques it nears 100 %. Spine surgery can be performed in different manners:-â¨â¨â¢ conventional open surgeryâ¨â¢ minimal invasive spine surgery â key hole spine surgeryâ¨â¢ endoscopic spine surgeryâ¨â¢ microscopic spine surgeryâ¨â¢ micro endoscopic spine surgery
â¢ facetectomy: a procedure that removes a part of the facet (a bony structure in the spinal canal) to increase the space.â¨â¨â¢ foraminotomy: a procedure that removes the bony compression over foramina (the area where the nerve roots exit the spine) to increase the size of the nerve pathway.â¨â¨â¢ laminoplasty: a procedure makes more room for the spinal canal.â¨â¨â¢ laminotomy: a procedure that removes only a small portion of the lamina (a part of the vertebra) to relieve pressure on the nerve roots.â¨â¨â¢ micro-discectomy: a procedure that removes a disc through a very small incision using a microscope.â¨â¨â¢ laminectomy: a procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord.â¨â¨spinal fusion: surgery intends to stabilize an unstable segment responsible for pain, this may involve putting some screws in your spine to increase stability.â¨â¨various options of doing spinal fusion are plf /plif/tlif/ alif/xlif.
Pep is required for all persons invo5 in providing medical and surgical services
No environmental transmission reported but pep is pep is required when they are exposed to -
potentially infectious body fluid e. G. Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, synovial, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid. Any bodu fluid contaminated with" visible blood" considered" at risk"
exposure to body fluid considered" not at risk" e. G. Tears, sweat, urine, faeces, saliva, sputum and vomitus
Management of exp6 site
- do not panic
- wash wound and surrounding with soap and water
- rinse well
- do not scrub
- for not use antiseptic or skin washes
- splash of blood
- irrigate eyes with water or saine
- if using contact lens leave them in place while irrigating. Remove the contact lens and clean them after eyes is cleaned
- mouth: spit fluid immediately and rinse mouth thoroughly water/saline repeatedly
Pep is required within 72 hours of exposure
conslt nearest art center for selection of pep regime e. G.
1. Basic regime of 2 drug zidovudine 300 mg bd
- Stavudine 30 mg bd
- Lamivudine 150 mg bd
- pep in pregnancy
- Efavirenz is contrindicated in first trimestelr
- Indinavir is contrindicated prenatally
2 drug regime is recommended if third drug is required then use nelfinavir
arv prophylaxix - short term arv drugs is used to reduce hiv transmission from mother to infant
- all hivexposed infants should receive cotrimoxazole at 4-6 weeks of age
- mother- nov 200 mg at onset of labour
- baby- nvp syrup 2 mg / lg of body weight within 72 hours of delivery
Though childhood brain tumor is a rare disease, still, many children of any age all over the world suffer from this condition. Unlike the brain tumors in adults, brain tumors in children is a bit different. Brain tumors are probably the most common form of solid tumors affecting children. However, having knowledge of the symptoms, probable treatment of the disease can help the parents in coping with the situation in a better way and taking the right decision at the right time.
What is a brain tumor?
A group of abnormal cell growth in the brain is referred to as a brain tumor. The types of brain tumor depend upon the structure of the tumor cells, their rate of growth, composition and several other characteristics. However, two most common types of brain tumor affecting children are primary and secondary. In primary brain tumor, the tumor cells develop in the brain, while in secondary, cancerous cells invade the brain from other parts of the body.
Symptoms that determine the presence of tumor may vary in every child. The variation is due to certain aspects including size of the tumor, the location of the tumor, how the tumor is affecting the brain, etc. Some of the most common symptoms of childhood brain tumor are severe headaches, occasional seizures, feeling of sickness and vomiting, eye problems such as blurred visions, feelings of drowsiness without any reason, etc. Some children suffering from brain tumour may also experience difficulty in maintaining balance when walking or behavioral changes in children.
While for some, surgical removal of the tumor may be the only treatment solution, for some sessions of radiotherapy and chemotherapy turn out to be really helpful. To control or reduce the effects of the brain tumor symptoms, taking regular medications may also be necessary for the affected children. Doctor may devise the best treatment plan despending on the condition of a child. As the treatment completely depends on the severity of the problem.
Depending on the grade, location, and type of tumor as well as the treatment, the overall health of children can be determined. While a significant number of children often successfully recover from the brain tumor, for some, the treatment needs to be continued for many years. As the nervous system of a child is in its developing stage, sometimes, children may develop some kind of learning or behavioral or physical disability as a result of the brain tumor treatment. If a child has any of these symptoms mentioned above, his or her parents should consult a medical professional right away. The sooner it is diagnosed, the better are the chances for the child to recover from a brain tumor.
When a man is in the mood to get it on, sometimes his body just doesn't agree. That's often the case when a man really wants to enjoy a little sexual pleasure but he's just too tired to bother. From ignoring the need to masturbate to telling a loving partner, "Not tonight, honey," a guy might find himself saying no to sex over and over again. If that's the case, there is something going on - and he needs to figure out what it is, not just for his own peace of mind (and his partner's!), but for the sake of his good penis care. After all, regular orgasms are necessary to "exercise" the organ and keep it in tip-top shape.
Too tired for sex?
Let's be honest: Sex is one of the most enjoyable things in life, and many a man thinks about it at least every day, if not multiple times each day. So it must be something serious to make him too tired for sex, right? Here are some of the issues that might lead to being too tired and other penis problems that are associated with it.
- Not enough sleep. When a man doesn't get enough sleep, it has a detrimental effect to every system of the body, including his penis health. But besides the simple fatigue that comes from not getting enough sleep, the lack of shut-eye can also lead to significantly less testosterone in the body, which in turn makes a man even more tired. It also affects his levels of desire in an adverse way.
- Insurmountable stress. When a guy faces burnout, lots of things happen. A man has more difficulty making decisions, insomnia and fatigue, anger and distress, a suppressed immune system and no desire for sexual activity - and that's all just for starters. Stress is the number one cause of many problems for men, but when it comes to sexual function, it's a true game-changer.
- Relationship issues. When a man has sudden penis problems, it might mean that he's dealing with something psychological. If a guy is also dealing with serious fatigue - the kind that means he would rather go to sleep than talk to his partner - the two might be related. Sometimes relationship issues can lead to a loss of libido that is so extreme it makes a man subconsciously avoid intimacy with that person.
- Problems with nutrition. A guy who isn't eating enough, or isn't eating the right foods, can suffer from serious fatigue that makes him too tired to engage in many things, including sex. This can also be the case if a man is getting plenty to eat but it's all the wrong things, such as the guy who lives on fast food and never touches a fresh veggie. Nutrition problems should be evaluated by a physician.
- Underlying medical conditions. Some men might have an underlying medical problem that translates into penis problems. For instance, a guy with diabetes might be tired all the time because his blood sugar is too high, which means his cells don't get the energy they need. Or a guy might suffer from serious depression, and as a result, he feels the bone-deep fatigue that makes him want to stay in bed all day - but not do anything in that bed but sleep. Only time spent at the doctor's office can lead to an investigation and diagnosis of these kind of problems.
Whether a man is really tired or full of energy, he should always strive to protect his penis health by engaging in excellent penis care. He can do this by reaching for a powerful penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin). A good crème will contain multiple vitamins and nutrients, including amino acids for overall health, vitamin E and Shea butter for softness, and a plethora of vitamins to maintain tip-top health for the penis.
Few HIV Myths busted.
Q. HIV is a death sentence.
A. Successful treatment of the virus can mean a long, normal life span. It’s key for people living with HIV to have access to quality care and start antiretroviral treatment immediately. Access to Proper health care means extended life span so no it’s certainly not a death sentence.
·Q. Stick to your treatment and take good care of your body. This can help you live a long life with HIV.
·Q.HIV cannot be transmitted during oral sex.
A. Hiv can be transmitted during oral sex. HIV can be passed on through sex when infected sexual fluids or blood enter the bloodstream of an HIV negative person. During oral sex this could potentially happen if the mouth, gums and/or throat of the person giving oral sex has cuts and sores or is inflamed or infected.
Q. Is it advisable to use condoms when engaging in oral sex when you have any cuts or sore?
A.Ideally one should not participate in sex when one has open cuts or sores as a condom doesn’t cover them all it covers is your private part. Having said that a Polyurethane condoms should be used for any sexual activity as they are better at protecting from sexually transmitted infections.
Q. Hugging, handshakes, sharing toilet seats and mosquito bites does not transmit HIV.
·Q. If you are having unprotected sex or you are sharing your needles or injection
Q. equipments (tattoos, injection drugs, diabetic), you are putting yourself at a risk of HIV.
·Q.Straight People Do Not Get HIV.
Q. HIV is transmitted by the sperm which means an infected man can produce an HIV positive baby.
A. The risk of a baby having HIV is only directly related to the HIV status of the mother, not the father. So if your partner is also HIV positive, this is how you can have an HIV negative baby.
Q. When a baby is conceived it is HIV-negative in the womb. The baby normally gets infected at the time of birth when the baby’s body fluids and the mother’s blood mix. The baby can only be infected if the mother has a sexually transmitted disease.
A. If a woman is infected with HIV, her risk of transmitting the virus to her baby is reduced if she stays as healthy as possible. According to the March of Dimes, new treatments can reduce the risk of a treated mother passing HIV to her baby to a 2 percent or less.
What is diarrhea?
Diarrhea is when stools (bowel movements) are loose and watery. Your child may also need to go to the bathroom more often.
Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.
Diarrhea may be either:
Short-term (acute). Diarrhea that lasts 1 or 2 days and goes away. This may be caused by food or water that was contaminated by bacteria (bacterial infection). Or it may happen if your child gets sick from a virus.
Long-term (chronic). Diarrhea that lasts for a few weeks. This may be caused by another health problem such as irritable bowel syndrome. It can also be caused by an intestinal disease. This includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, or celiac disease. Giardia may also cause chronic diarrhea.
What causes diarrhea?
Diarrhea may be caused by many things, including:
Trouble digesting certain things (food intolerance)
An immune system response to certain foods (food allergy)
Parasites that enter the body through food or water
Reaction to medicines
An intestinal disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease
A problem with how the stomach and bowels work (functional bowel disorder), such as irritable bowel syndrome
Surgery on the stomach or gallbladder
Children who visit some foreign countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. This is caused by having food or water that is not safe because of bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
Severe diarrhea may mean a child has a serious disease. Talk with your child's healthcare provider if symptoms don’t go away. Also talk with the provider if symptoms stop your child from doing daily activities. It may be hard to find out what is causing your child’s diarrhea.Imbalances of salt and water in the body can lead to problems ranging from cystic fibrosis to diarrhea to kidney failure. Dr. Guggino and his team study the channels that move salt and water– and what goes wrong with them in disease.
What are the symptoms of diarrhea?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:
Belly (abdominal) pain
Upset stomach (nausea)
Urgent need to use the bathroom
Loss of body fluids (dehydration)
The symptoms of diarrhea may look like other health problems. Severe diarrhea may be a sign of a serious disease. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is diarrhea diagnosed?
The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. Your child may have lab tests to check blood and urine.
Other tests may include:
A stool culture to check for abnormal bacteria or parasites in your child’s digestive tract. A small stool sample is taken and sent to a lab.
A stool evaluation to check the stool for blood or fat
Blood tests to rule out certain diseases
Imaging tests to rule out structural problems
Tests to check for food intolerance or allergies
A sigmoidoscopy. This test lets the healthcare provider check the inside of part of your child’s large intestine. It helps to tell what is causing diarrhea, stomach pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. It uses a short, flexible, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope). The tube is put into your child’s intestine through the rectum. This tube blows air into the intestine to make it swell. This makes it easier to see inside.
How is diarrhea treated?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Dehydration is the major concern with diarrhea. In most cases, treatment includes replacing lost fluids. Antibiotics may be prescribed when bacterial infections are the cause.
Children should drink lots of fluids. This helps replace the lost body fluids. If your child is dehydrated, be sure to:
Offer drinks called glucose-electrolyte solutions. These fluids have the right balance of water, sugar, and salts. Some are available as popsicles.
Avoid juice or soda. They may make diarrhea worse.
Not give plain water to your baby
Not give too much plain water to kids of any age. It can be dangerous.
Keep breastfeeding your baby. Breastfed babies often have less diarrhea.
Keep feeding your baby formula, if you were already doing so
What are the complications of diarrhea?
The greatest complication of diarrhea is dehydration. This is more likely with young children and those with a weakened immune system. Dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild dehydration is the loss of fluid. Moderate or severe dehydration puts stress on the heart and lungs. In the worst cases it can lead to shock, which is life-threatening.
What can I do to prevent diarrhea?
Proper handwashing can reduce the spread of bacteria that may cause diarrhea.
A rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. Ask your child's healthcare provider which vaccines are right for your child.
When you travel, make sure anything your child eats and drinks is safe. This is even more important if you travel to developing countries.
Travel safety tips for drinking and eating include:
Not drinking tap water or using it to brush teeth
Not using ice made from tap water
Not drinking unpasteurized milk (milk that has not gone through a process to kill certain bacteria)
Not eating raw fruits and vegetables unless you wash and peel them yourself
Not eating raw or undercooked meat or fish
Not eating food from street vendors or food trucks
Talk with your child's healthcare provider before traveling.
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call your child's provider if your child is less than 6 months old or has any of the following symptoms:
Blood in the stool
Doesn’t want to drink liquids
Dry, sticky mouth
Urinates less frequently (wets fewer than 6 diapers per day)
No tears when crying
Sunken soft spot (fontanelle) on baby’s head
Key points about diarrhea
Diarrhea is loose, watery stool. Your child may also have to go to the bathroom more often.
It may be caused by many things, including bacterial infection or viral infection.
Dehydration is the major concern with diarrhea.
In most cases, treatment involves replacing lost fluids.
The rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhea caused by that virus.
Proper handwashing can help prevent diarrhea.
When you travel, make sure anything your child eats and drinks is safe.
According to the tenets of Ayurveda, HIV is primarily a disease involving low immunity which is considered the most vital sap of the body. Immunity is in charge of providing both mental and physical strengths required to cope up with the foreign bodies that cause unwanted changes in the human body. When the immune system gets disrupted, the individual becomes susceptible to a host of infections and disorders. There are incessant numbers of bacteria and viruses in the environment, and some of them are highly contagious which can easily cause an infection.
Ayurveda has numerous highly effective therapies to combat HIV exposure. There is a sector of Ayurveda specifically dedicated to boosting immunity and vitality in the body with the help of herbs, minerals, and practice of Ayurvedic techniques. The treatment first aims to detoxify the body and strengthen the immune system which improves the immune system with the help of certain "rasayanic" techniques.
How is HIV exposure treated through Ayurveda?
The first step of HIV exposure treatment through Ayurveda is having nourishing food and leading a positive life supported by well-meaning friends and relatives. The patient can also take part in some physical exercises which don't cause any strain to the fragile health condition. Engaging in comfortable yet fruitful activities can help in strengthening good tendencies and stimulating appetite as well.
Then the patient will have to take some Ayurvedic tonics along with rejuvenators that can boost immunity levels and eliminate the toxins from the body. This is particularly done through emesis, purgation, and enemas. The medications which are given at this stage are neither drastic nor very harsh for the body so that they can be digested without any difficulty.
In the third stage of treatment, appropriate medications will help in purifying the blood, and this is where the role of liver corrective measures come to the fore. The patient has to take preparations with medicated ghee and soups that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of HIV exposure. There is no scope of consuming spicy and oily junk foods as they can take a toll on the patient’s liver. Medicated alcohol may have to be used to aid in the digestive procedure and removal of blockages in the flow of energy.
Participating in physical activities on a daily basis is important. In case the patient is too weak to exercise or even run, then steaming can be helpful. This is very crucial since it is believed in Ayurveda that heated blood can weaken and sometimes destroy the virus involved in HIV.
There are some herbal cum mineral compounds which are helpful for subsiding the conditions of HIV exposure. It is important to consult with an expert who can evaluate your condition and help in healing the signs and symptoms that you are suffering from.