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Patient Review Highlights
Alopecia Areata is an autoimmune disease (wherein the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy tissues rather than the malicious pathogens). There is no permanent solution for alopecia areata. However, there are some treatments available which would aid in preventing hair loss as well as stimulating growth of hair. The focus of therapies would be on strengthening the hair roots, scalp and fibre so that breakage is averted and your hair is restored to a healthy condition.
The therapies should incorporate:
- Deep cleansing
- Nourishment of hair shaft and scalp
- Smoothing benefits of keratin (a protein that forms the primary component of the hair) and anti-oxidants.
- Control of scalp ageing
- Improvement of blood circulation by stimulating hair roots
- Deeper hydration and thermal penetration to ensure root, scalp as well as hair shaft nourishment.
The therapies should aim to achieve the aforementioned objectives by utilizing phytonutrient extracts, nourishing oils, minerals, vitamins as well as plant peptides so that hair roots are energized, scalp is made healthy as well as hair fibres, are strengthened.
Strengthening of the roots of the hair is of primary importance to prevent alopecia areata as well as other hair fall conditions. The main techniques used to address this issue are:
- Therapy for Hair Roots: The most effective therapy is the one in which the dermatologist uses vitamins and plant extracts which are naturally injected into the roots of the hair through micro injections. This rejuvenates the hair follicles and prevents hair loss and thinning.
- Natural Hair Rejuvenation with PRP: This procedure focuses on utilising the blood plasma that is taken from your body. The blood plasma is platelet rich and is used to make the hair follicles healthier, thus ensuring healthy hair growth.
- Hair Root Activation Laser Therapy and Low Level Laser Therapy: This treatment uses high-intensity light rays to increase blood flow and stimulate the cells in your scalp for better hair growth.
- Infusion of Hair with Nutrients: In this procedure, a cocktail of nutrients is prepared containing charged ions which penetrate deep inside your scalp and strengthen the cells and promote hair growth.
This condition, as mentioned above, is caused due to the immune system attacking the cells on your scalp. This condition occurs suddenly and causes balding patches but doesn’t usually lead to complete baldness or a permanent halt on hair growth. The volume of lost hair is different for different people. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cellulitis is a common contagious bacterial skin infection marked by redness and swelling of the skin that feels tender and hot. It usually occurs when bacteria penetrate through a crack or a cut on the skin’s surface. Although cellulitis can develop anywhere over the face or the body, it is your lower legs that are affected the most. It damages the tissues beneath the skin, spreading to the bloodstream and the lymph nodes. If left untreated, the infection might get aggravated and turn fatal.
In case of a recurrence, preventive antibiotics may be recommended by the doctor. Adopting the below mentioned precautionary measures can help:
- Gently rinse the wound with soap and water on a daily basis, whenever you go in for a shower.
- Apply an antibiotic ointment or a cream over the wound to get adequate protection.
- Use a bandage to dress your wound and change it daily.
- Watch out for signs of infections such as pain and redness and accordingly go for medical help.
People with diabetes often suffer from poor blood circulation. They require extra precautions in order to prevent any skin injury:
- Minutely check for signs of injury, failing which you might be even more susceptible to infections.
- Moisturize and lubricate your skin daily to prevent peeling and cracking.
- Trim your toenails and fingernails carefully so that they do not injure the ambient skin.
- Wear appropriate gloves and footwear to protect your feet and hands.
- Treat any infection developing on the skin surface at the right time because they might be contagious.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Injury, lingering infirmity deprives the body of the nutrients which are necessary for healthy skin, inflammatory diseases, several hours of heat and sun exposure or contact with sun can all cause discolored skin. If Melanin (whichever of the diverse black, dark brown, auburn, or yellow color of living things as skin color or hair color and eye color) is produced in abundance due to some physiological imbalances, it can result in that area of the body to get darker than the rest.
On the other hand, if there is a decrease in Melanin production then you could get lighter skin patches known as Vitiligo . While most pigmentation anomaly entails patches of skin, others affect the entire body. Depending on the two different conditions the terms hyper-pigmentation (excessive) and hypo-pigmentation (moderate) have been coined. Most women face problems of hyper-pigmentation during pregnancy and after child birth due to over secretion of hormones. 'Mask of pregnancy' is a new age term given to this condition in pregnant women. Most cases are reversible; some might last an entire lifetime, if medical attention is not available at the right time. Hypo-pigmentation should not be mistaken with Albinism, which is a genetic condition.
Albinism is characterized by almost no secretion of melanin. Staying out for very long hours in the sun may cause sunburns, when the skin turns brown or red according to one’s color, once this condition heals (after most of the burnt or dead skin peels off), the tanned portions may remain. Fungal contamination such as ringworm may set off stained skin patches. A compromised immune system can result in discolored skin as well. A frequent allergy that causes skin to get discolored is eczema. Birthmarks are also a kind of discolored skin.
It is wise for you to visit a dermatologist when you start noticing a sudden change in your skin color for no apparent reason, a patch that does not get relieved by OTC medicines or experience a burning or itching sensation on the skin etc. A dermatologist after evaluating your skin and putting you through a couple of basic questions would recommend ointments and oral medicines. He/she may also ask for blood tests to get done. Treatment would solely depend on the primary cause.
Treatment and prevention
- In general, most skin discoloration issues can be dealt with the help of creams containing glycolic acid, hydroquinone, lactic acid and retinoid. These are easily available in the market.
- But care must be taken to not expose yourself to the harmful UV rays of the sun. A sunscreen with the correct SPF count is a must before you venture outdoors. Remember that one should not skip the sunscreen even during the winters.
- Laser therapy and chemical peels will only be considered once topical treatment fails.
- Your diet should include plenty of vegetables and fruits; consume plenty of fluids to flush out toxins. Regular exercising promotes better blood circulation that helps prevent such issues concerning discoloration.
Supplements of Vitamins A,C and E are also prescribed in combination with Vitamin B to improve the overall skin condition. Simple home remedies including lime juice, milk, curd and honey applied on the affected spots with homemade scrubs can help remedy the issue. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
Skin repairs and rebuilds itself at night time while you rest, so it makes sense to follow good skin care routine before going to bed every night. 3 most effective bedtime skin care tips that rejuvenate your skin.
- Cleanse and moisturize your skin: Your skin is exposed to kinds of pollutants, allergens, makeup during daytime. So cleanse your skin properly. Then apply vitamin E based moisturizer to keep your skin hydrated.
- Use clean pillowcase: Many pathogens and oil may reintroduce to your skin if you use unwashed pillowcase. Thus, make it a habit to use a clean pillowcase, preferably made of silk fiber, which keeps you away from the risks of pimples and other skin infections.
- Don't sleep with your phone: Your phone collects many bacteria and other microbes during daytime. Thus it is better to keep your phone away while sleeping to avoid any counter infections. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
The complexion of a person is determined by a pigment known as melanin. More the amount of melanin in a person, darker the complexion. The benefit of melanin is effective sun protection, and it prevents damage from sun exposure.
We have noticed people with dark (brown/black) spots that are darker than the surroundings skin. Commonly affected areas are the face, neck, hands, back, etc. These are melanin concentrated areas and become more visible in fair complexioned people. They are caused due to overproduction of melanin by the melanocytes, which are responsible for the production of melanin.
Now, what causes freckles is not clearly established, though the following are proposed.
- Exposure to sunlight: The cells responsible for melanin production absorb the sun and therefore produce excessive melanin. This is a natural defence mechanism of the skin.
- Ethnicity: Races with white skin are more likely to have freckles than races with darker skin.
- Weather: Some people tend to have freckles only in the summer with fairly clear skin during the winter.
- Genetics: If your parents or siblings have freckles, the chances of you having it are quite high.
- Tanning: Whether by natural means of greater exposure to the sun or artificially done if the salon, increases the chances of developing freckles.
Treatment: There are rumours stating that freckles are “angel kisses,” and “good night charms” and should not be removed as it would bring bad fortune. This is, however, not true and for purely cosmetic reasons, they need to be removed. The commonly affected age group (<30) also is cosmetically sensitive, and therefore the need to treat these.
Prevention is the best and the first solution. Whether by race, heredity, or lifestyle, if you are prone to develop freckles, ensure you are taking the necessary steps to avoid getting freckles in the first place. Avoid sun exposure without sun protection, avoid tanning, and you will be surprised how you can actually prevent freckles. Watch out for weather changes and avoid sun exposure. Reducing the amount of sun exposure can also help in keeping the freckles light, thereby not making too much of a cosmetic concern.
If prevention is not possible, some of the effective treatment measures include:
- Topical creams: These contain bleaching agents like Retin-A. One disadvantage though is that it acts on the entire skin and not just the freckles.
- Laser: A beam of the laser is used to get rid of the unwanted melanocytes which produce melanin. It also improves skin tone and colour.
- Cryotherapy: Liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the melanin-producing cells, thereby removing freckles.
After treating freckles, preventing freckle formation with limiting sun exposure and sun protection is extremely essential. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
Fungal infection of the skin and mucous membranes is very common. The most common species of fungus causing these infections is Candida albicans. They are present in abundance in the skin and mucous membranes and have a protective function. However, when immunity is compromised, these grow to a significant number and infection results. Some of the most common candida infections and ways to manage them are outlined below.
Athlete’s foot, nail fungal infections, diaper rash, jock itch, oral thrush, and vaginal yeast infections are the most common candida skin infections. Though they can occur anywhere, they are most common in the intertriginous areas, where two skins come in close contact, like the groin area, the armpits, the corners of the mouth, area between the toes and between the fingers. Sweat and mucous facilitate their growth further, as they provide a moist environment for their growth.
In addition, poor hygiene, hot/humid weather, and constricting clothing can lead to increased chances of developing candida infections. Patient conditions like obesity, infants, diabetics, hypothyroidism, inflammatory disorders, pregnancy, damp weather, and immunosuppressed conditions like AIDs are definite risk factors. Identifying the infection is the biggest step towards treatment. There could be rashes, patches, flaking, cracks, soreness, and erythema, white or red lesions in the mouth or genital area.
A little precaution can help in preventing infections and there are definitely ways to treat the condition also.
If someone is immunosuppressed or has other predisposing factors, it is advisable to take precautions as listed below to avoid candida infections.
- Keep the intertriginous areas clean, could be by bathing more frequently or using sponge baths
- Wear loose clothing so the skin in the areas like groynes and armpits are not irritated
- Diaper skin management
- Keep the toenails and feet area clean
- During pregnancy, wear loose clothing and dry thoroughly after showers to avoid infection
- Frequently change inner garments and socks
- During warm weather, wear open-toed footwear so there is adequate aeration
- Take supplements like multivitamins to maintain good immunity levels
While treatment of one-off candida infections is not uncommon, people who are prone to recurrent infections need more stringent management. In one off infections, topical anti fungal agents like lotions, powder, ointments or creams are sufficient. These could contain anti fungal agents like ketoconazole or fluconazole. It is important that these stay in touch with the skin surface for about 10 to 15 minutes.
In moderately severe infections, a course of oral anti fungal agent is used, sometimes for up to 2 weeks depending on the severity of the symptoms. IV anti fungal agents may be used in more severe and widespread cases like seen in AIDS patients. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
People who have been using different kinds of skin care products have got a lot of misconceptions. Those misconceptions need to be removed otherwise you will never be able to choose the right skin care cosmetics for yourself.
6 top misconceptions about skin-care products
- Costly products are the best: There are many fellows who think that if the skin care products are costly, then they must be equipped with greater effectiveness. In fact, this is one of the leading reasons that most people are currently choosing only costly products without knowing that it can be one of the business strategies of the popular brands.
- Latest products are effective: Currently invented products are always good and this is quite an age-old conception, but this is not true at all. But nobody tries to understand the reality and rather goes by the trend in order to prove the myth to be true. As per the researchers, it has been found that there are many traditional products that are pretty good than the modern ones. But the young generation is not ready to accept this fact, and this is the reason they are suffering like anything.
- Younger look can be assured by creams: Only application of a fairness cream can give a fair complexion is a very wrong conception. Ageing effects can be definitely reduced to a great extent, but cannot be eliminated at all and this is a hardcore fact, whether you accept it or not. On the other hand, you have to choose only selective creams having vitamin-c serums, hydroxyl acids and others.
- Cosmetic companies make intricate researches: Though all reputed cosmetic companies say that they conduct researches intricately for making the creams more improved, but have you ever tried to know the reality? Nice packaging and great fragrance do not mean that the products are the outcome of deep researches.
- Organic creams are safe: Creams having natural ingredients are definitely safe, but how will you come to know that the mentioned ingredients have been added or not? If natural ingredients are good for skin, then you can try the homemade recipes. Hence, why purchase readymade creams having the same ingredients? The answers are still quite controversial and thus, people are pretty confused in taking their decisions.
- Cream is the easiest option: Even if creams are having all the necessary ingredients needed for skin health, still they neither compete nor can take the place of healthy foods in reality. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
Having beautiful nails is not necessary only for looking good, but they need to be clean for health purposes too. Just like your skin and hair, you need to take care of them so that they are healthy looking. They are exposed to environment and there are many ways by which your nails get damaged. Thus, here are a few tips that are easy to follow to keep your nails look great and keep them healthy!
- Care for your cuticles: During a manicure avoid trimming your cuticles. They are meant to be the barrier for bacteria and when you cut them, it may result in painful infections. With the help of a cuticle pusher, you may moisten them and push them back, but do not cut them totally. Even when you are having a conventional manicure make sure that you protect your cuticles by dabbing some olive or almond oil so that the reaction of chemicals that come in contact with your skin becomes minimum.
- Use moisturizer: Even your nails need to be moisturized and hence while you rub lotion on your hands put some of it on your nail and cuticles too. By using hand wash regularly you tend to dry your nail bed. Thus, after every wash, it is necessary that you use some moisturizer. If possible, use some coconut oil for rubbing on your nails. You can use cuticle cream too and rubbing that every day on your cuticles will help in keeping them moisturized.
- Provide nutrients to your nails: Yes, even your nails need nutrients to be healthy. Take biotin that is also referred as vitamin H. Studies reveals that it helps in preventing nails from becoming brittle. It may not grow your nails faster, but it provides the necessary support to your nails so that they do not split, crack or tear away.
- Wear gloves to protect your nails: Make it a practice to wear gloves while you are working with detergents, whether during dishwashing or anything else. Detergents have harsh chemicals that will leach away nutrients and moisture from your nails. Thus, it’s better to protect before than taking care later. “Prevention is better than cure” you know!
- Avoid using harsh polish: In nail polishes, you will find toxic chemicals like toluene, dimethyl, dibutyl phthalate, and camphor, diethyl phthalates, and formaldehyde. These nail polishes are dangerous for health. Instead try alternatives that do not contain such chemicals and are easy on your nails. Before you purchase them read the label carefully.
After following all these, if still you are not satisfied with the quality or health of your nails, it is better to get advice from an expert.
The skin is an organ and just like all the other organs in your body, it is made up of cells. Since the cells are made up of water, they need water to function properly. Lack of hydration can cause skin issues such as dry, tight skin which might lead to flaking. Because of constant perspiration, your body loses the vital minerals and salts and that is the reason why your body needs daily replenishing.
What happens to the skin, if you do not drink sufficient water in a day?
Dry skin also has lesser resilience as compared to hydrated or oily skin, which makes it more prone to wrinkling and fine lines. The skin is made up of three layers
The outermost layer, which is known as the ‘epidermis’
The layer beneath it is called the ‘dermis’
The subcutaneous tissue
Usually, water loss takes place from the epidermal layer of the skin due to sweating, however, if the cells in the underlying layers are not hydrated enough, the epidermis begins to start feeling rough and loses its elasticity which can lead to degradation of its texture.
Sufficient water intake and skin - the connect
Drinking water also flushes out the dangerous toxins from within your body and your skin, which allows your skin to breathe normally again. With the normal function restored in the skin, the cells do not feel trapped or inadequate, which means they can continue with their normal functions. This helps delay skin aging by adding shine to your skin.
You should be aiming to drink 8 -10 glasses of water each day because a lesser amount can cause dehydration. Dehydration may trick the oil glands in your body into believing that they need to produce more oil which leads to an excess production of oil, thus, increasing the chance of acne.
Also, when your skin is hydrated from inside, it looks plumper and more radiant and can hide signs of aging. However, when witnessed at a histopathological level [when examined under a microscope], the signs of aging are still present but because your skin is hydrated and looks younger, these signs are invisible to the naked eye. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.
Ageing is an irreversible process of human existence. With ageing, your skin will start to show problems and one of them would be the loosening or sagging of skin. While there are many treatments available to counter this problem, one of the most effective and popular methods is laser skin tightening.
In this method, a focused beam of infrared light is used to heat up the collagen under the skin. This triggers collagen growth resulting in the skin becoming tighter, thus, reduces sagging, wrinkles, lines and other blemishes in the process.
Who can go for laser skin tightening?
Laser skin tightening is targeted towards both men and women of any age. Most of the candidates who avail of laser skin tightening are within the age range of 30 to 60 years and have common complaints about skin caused due to age. Some of the problems that laser skin tightening can deal with very well are mentioned as follows:
Tightening and repairing loose facial skin
Reducing fine lines all over the body
Reducing wrinkles all over the body
However, you should know that laser skin tightening will not be able to correct loose facial skin if they form jowls or droopy sacs. In such cases you may need to avail of other surgeries, such as a face lift to correct the laxity of facial skin. You can then follow it up with laser skin tightening to eliminate the remaining wrinkles or lines.
Which of the areas of the body can be treated by laser skin tightening?
This form of treatment has been found to be very effective with skin from all over the body. Some of the areas which can be treated are
Neck among others
Laser skin tightening can treat even moderate amount of laxity in all of these areas, thus reducing the need to go for more invasive types of surgery such as tummy tuck surgery or even liposuction.
When would laser skin tightening not be applicable?
Laser skin tightening is a very commonly availed procedure all around the world and there are very few risks usually associated with it. However, it is not advisable in certain circumstances: