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Previously known as multiple personality disorder or simply split personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder is a very serious and unpleasant form of dissociation. It is based on the lack of connection, or rather a discontinuity in thought, action, feeling, memory or even a misplaced sense of identity. It is usually considered to be a result of severe traumatic experiences in early childhood, varying from extremely physical to repeated emotional or sexual abuse. It is thought to be a self-defense mechanism where the person dissociates himself from any such experience or situation that would deem to be harmful to his or her conscious self. It is, however, not to be confused with schizophrenia.
There are innumerable indicators that point towards dissociative identity disorder. Some of them include:
- Severe depression
- Sleeping problems such as insomnia or sleep apnea
- Alcohol or drug abuse
- Anxiety attacks and phobias
- Suicidal tendencies
- Abnormal rituals and compulsions
- Visual or auditory hallucinations
- Self-persecution and self-sabotage tendencies
- Time-loss and amnesia
- Mood swings
- Headaches and migraines
- Inability to remember important personal information
- 'Switching' of identities
The main causes of split personality disorder are unfortunately still unclear and vague, although 99% of persons who suffer from this disorder have a severe traumatic history or background. The causes need not be physical or sexual abuse. It could also stem from emotional abuse like insistent neglect. Studies have also showed that children may become dissociative, if their parents are either too strict or unpredictable. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Psychiatrist.
Hi I am an average smoker. I smoke 3 to 5 cigarettes daily on average and I am dying to quit and my previous attempts failed. Can you help me with this?
I am 25 years male am having body ache and most of the time i am having stomach upset with dysentery. And I had sex without protection i am having fear about that.
I am 41 years old female suffering bouts of anger very often recently, please guide me how to control my negative thoughts, most of the time I am very much upset and feeling sad always. How to overcome from this. I want to do suicide but I have responsibilities, also know that subside is not the solution of my problem, but I am unable to avoid these thoughts everyday. please give me solution for this.
It is essential to know how our brain responds to the stimuli which trigger an anxiety response so that you are equipped to deal appropriately with anxiety.
Let me highlight the key areas of your brain that are involved, and then I will explain what happens inside the brain.
The thalamus is the central hub for sights and sounds. The thalamus breaks down incoming visual cues by size, shape and colour, and auditory cues by volume and dissonance, and then signals the cortex.
The cortex then gives raw sights and sounds meaning enabling you to be conscious of what you are seeing and hearing. And i'll mention here that the prefrontal cortex is vital to turning off the anxiety response once the threat has passed.
The amygdala is the emotional core of the brain whose primary role is to trigger the fear response. Information passing through the amygdala is associated with an emotional significance.
The bed nucleus of the stria terminals is particularly interesting when we discuss anxiety. While the amygdala sets off an immediate burst of fear whilst the bnst perpetuates the fear response, causing longer term unease typical of anxiety.
The locus ceruleus receives signals from the amygdala and initiates the classic anxiety response: rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure, sweating and pupil dilation.
The hippocampus is your memory centre storing raw information from the senses, along with emotional baggage attached to the data by the amygdala.
Now we know these key parts, what happens when we are anxious, stressed or fearful?
Anxiety, stress and, of course, fear are triggered primarily through your senses:
Sight and sound are first processed by the thalamus, filtering incoming cues and sent directly to the amygdala or the cortex.
Smells and touch go directly to the amygdala, bypassing the thalamus altogether. (this is why smells often evoke powerful memories or feelings).
Any cues from your incoming senses that are associated with a threat in the amygdala (real or not, current or not) are immediately processed to trigger the fear response. This is the expressway. It happens before you consciously feel the fear.
The hippothalmus and pituitary gland cause the adrenal glands to pump out high levels of the stress hormone coritsol. Too much short circuits the cells of the hippocampus making it difficult to organize the memory of a trauma or stressful experience. Memories lose context and become fragmented.
The body's sympathetic nervous system shifts into overdrive causing the heart to beat faster, blood pressure to rise and the lungs hyperventilate. Perspiration increases and the skin's nerve endings tingle, causing goosebumps.
Your senses become hyper-alert, freezing you momentarily as you drink in every detail. Adrenaline floods to the muscles preparing you to fight or run away.
The brain shifts focus away from digestion to focus on potential dangers. Sometimes causing evacuation of the digestive tract thorough urination, defecation or vomiting. Heck, if you are about to be eaten as someone else's dinner why bother digesting your own?
Only after the fear response has been activated does the conscious mind kick in. Some sensory information, takes a more thoughtful route from the thalamus to the cortex. The cortex decides whether the sensory information warrants a fear response. If the fear is a genuine threat in space and time, the cortex signals the amygdala to continue being on alert.
Fear is a good, useful response essential to survival. However, anxiety is a fear of something that cannot be located in space and time.
Most often it is that indefinable something triggered initially by something real that you sense, that in itself is not threatening but it is associated with a fearful memory. And the bed nucleus of the stria terminals perpetuate the fear response. Anxiety is a real fear response for the individual feeling anxious. Anxiety can be debilitating for the sufferer.
Now that you know how anxiety happens in your brain, we can pay attention to how we can deliberately use our pre-frontal cortex to turn off an inappropriate anxiety response once a threat has passed.
Mujhe gussa bhot aane lga h kuch time se aur choti choti baat se ched jati hu. Mere body mein pain bhot Rehta h puri body mein.
My daughter age 24, is having severe and untimely pain in arms and legs from past 20-25 days, yesterday there was pain in hand only and spinal area on her back, in hand pain accompanied with temperature gain in arms and head and when pain disappear it becomes cold. She just married last year in may and her in-laws behavior is not good, she is very much mentally disturb, her husband do not say any thing but does not oppose his family for wrong things which disturb her. Please suggest what good can be done and what medical problem she might be having ? please help
I am basically from Madhya Pradesh yet residing at Indore. I have some psychology and addication of ciggrate from many year. I had also concerns some psycatrist earlier but its not works then I tried to made some willpower to move up from the my problem, but not resolve yet. Its lead depression,laziness and lack of mind at work,etc along with some sexologist issues which badly effects my personal and professional life. So kindly provide me the right person and doctor were I will share my problem freely and moreover provide me the right treatment for the my ilness. Best Regards
Obsessive compulsive behaviour is form of anxiety disorder in which unreasonable thoughts and fears, which are obsessions that lead one to do repetitive compulsive behaviour. Root causes of obsessive compulsiveness are complex and often deep seated. The underlying emotional states may include the fear of unknown, not being in control, negative outcomes, failure, rejection, shame, annihilation or embarrassment
Signs and symptoms of OCD
Most people with obsessive-compulsive disorder have both obsessions and compulsions, but some people experience just one or the other.
Common obsessive thoughts in OCD include:
- Fear of being contaminated by germs or dirt or contaminating others
- Fear of losing control and harming yourself or others
- Intrusive sexually explicit or violent thoughts and images
- Excessive focus on religious or moral ideas
- Fear of losing or not having things you might need
- Order and symmetry: the idea that everything must line up “just right”
- Superstitions; excessive attention to something considered lucky or unlucky
Common compulsive behaviors in OCD include:
- Excessive double-checking of things, such as locks, appliances, and switches
- Repeatedly checking in on loved ones to make sure they’re safe
- Counting, tapping, repeating certain words, or doing other senseless things to reduce anxiety
- Spending a lot of time washing or cleaning
- Ordering or arranging things “just so”
- Praying excessively or engaging in rituals triggered by religious fear
You can eliminate mild obsessive compulsion easily, whereas, severe obsessive compulsiveness, require support of medical and mental health professionals.
When you start pondering or obsessing over an activity, you must try to stop the negative pattern, and provide control and security. A good anchor code stops an obsessive thought pattern and provides fact-based security for new action. One can get it under control and recover from it, however at the present, there is no cure. It is a potential that will always be there in the background, even when one's life is no longer affected by it.
The treatment for obsessive compulsive behaviour depends on the how much the condition is affecting the daily life of the person. There are two main treatments, firstly Cognitive-behavioural therapy, which involves graded exposure and response prevention and the second being medication. The cognitive behaviour therapy emboldens one to face one's fear and let the obsessive thoughts occur without neutralising them with compulsions. In second case, treatment is by medication to control one's symptoms by altering the balance of chemicals in brain.
Obsessive compulsive behaviour that has a relatively minor impact on one's daily life is usually treated with a short course of cognitive behavioural therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy involves exposure and response prevention that is used to help people with all severities. People with mild to moderate behaviour usually need about 10 hours of therapist treatment, combined with exercises to be done at home between sessions. Those with moderate to severe symptoms may need a more intensive course of therapy that lasts longer than 10 hours.
During the sessions, one works with therapist to break down the problems into their separate parts like physical feelings, thoughts and actions. The therapist encourages you to face your fear and let the obsessive thoughts occur without putting them right. It requires motivation and one should start with situations that cause the least anxiety first. These exposure exercises need to take place many times a day, and need to be done for one to two hours without engaging in compulsions to undo them. People with Obsessive compulsive behaviour find that when they confront their anxiety without carrying the compulsion, the anxiety goes away. Each time, the chances of anxiety reduces and last for a shorter period of time.
Once you have one exposure task, you can move on to a more difficult task, until you have overcome all of the situations that make you anxious. It is important to remember it can take several months before a treatment has a noticeable effect. It is extremely vital to remember that no one is perfect, nor can anyone recover perfectly. Even in well maintained recoveries, people can occasionally mess up and forget what they are supposed to be doing. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.