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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Good morning Doctor my problem is. I had sex with my boyfriend on 27of October, Last time I got period on 2nd. And this time I didn't still get my period. I'm following general motor diet from past 4 days. My doubt is why I didn't get periods. Am I pregnant r its because of my diet. Please Help me how to get rid from this problem.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use the insulin that is made. Insulin is the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to make fuel. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood and the body’s cells starve to death. If not managed properly, diabetes can have serious consequences for you and your growing baby.
If you already have diabetes and become pregnant, your condition is known as pre-gestational diabetes. The severity of your symptoms and complications often depends on the progression of your diabetes, especially if you have vascular (blood vessel) complications and poor blood glucose control.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which the glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy. Unlike other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes is not caused by a lack of insulin but by other hormones that block the insulin that is made. This condition is known as insulin resistance. If you have gestational diabetes, you may or may not be dependent on insulin.
In most cases, all diabetic symptoms disappear following delivery. However, if you experience gestational diabetes, you will have an increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. This is especially true if you were overweight before pregnancy.
Causes of Gestational Diabetes
Although the specific cause of gestational diabetes is unknown, there are several theories about the origin of this condition. For example, the placenta supplies the growing fetus with nutrients and water. It also makes a variety of hormones to maintain the pregnancy. Some of these hormones (estrogen, cortisol and human placental lactogen) can have a blocking effect on the mother’s insulin, which usually begins about 20 to 24 weeks into pregnancy.
As the placenta grows, it produces more of these hormones, increasing the level of insulin resistance in the mother. Normally, the mother’s pancreas is able to make additional insulin to overcome insulin resistance. However, if the mother’s production of insulin is not enough to overcome the effect of the placental hormones, gestational diabetes results.
Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes
The following factors increase your risk of developing gestational diabetes:
Age (over 25 years old)
A family history of diabetes
Previous delivery of a very large infant, a stillborn or a child with certain birth defects
Although increased glucose in the urine is often included in the list of risk factors, it is not believed to be a reliable indicator for gestational diabetes.
Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes
A glucose screening test is usually done between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. To complete this test, you will be asked to drink a special glucose beverage. Then, your doctor will measure your blood sugar level one hour later.
If the test shows an increased blood sugar level, a three-hour glucose tolerance test may be done. If the results of the second test are in the abnormal range, you will be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.
Treatment Options for Gestational Diabetes
Your health care provider or midwife will determine your specific treatment plan for gestational diabetes based on:
Age, overall health and medical history
Condition and the severity of the disease
Long-term expectations for the course of the disease
Tolerance for specific medicines, procedures or therapies
Treatment for gestational diabetes focuses on keeping blood glucose levels in the normal range. Your specific treatment plan may include:
A special diet
Daily blood glucose monitoring
Insulin injections or oral medications
Possible Fetal Complications from Gestational Diabetes
Unlike other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes generally does not cause birth defects. Birth defects usually originate sometime during the first trimester of pregnancy. They are more likely if you have pre-gestational diabetes, as you may have changes in blood glucose during that time. If you have gestational diabetes, you most likely had normal blood sugar levels during your critical first trimester.
The complications of gestational diabetes are usually manageable and preventable. The key to prevention is careful control of blood sugar levels as soon as the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made.
Infants of mothers with gestational diabetes are vulnerable to several imbalances, such as low-serum calcium and low-serum magnesium levels. In addition, gestational diabetes may cause the following:
Fetal macrosomia. This condition describes a baby that is considerably larger than normal. All of the nutrients your baby receives come directly from your blood. If your blood has too much glucose, your baby’s pancreas senses the high glucose levels and makes more insulin in an attempt to use this glucose. The extra glucose is then converted to fat. Even when you have gestational diabetes, your fetus is able to make all the insulin it needs. The combination of your high blood glucose levels and your baby’s high insulin levels may result in large deposits of fat that cause your baby to grow excessively large.
Birth injury. If your baby is large in size, it may be difficult to deliver and become injured in the process.
Hypoglycemia . This refers to low blood sugar in your baby right after delivery. This problem happens if your blood sugar levels have been consistently high, causing the fetus to have a high level of insulin in its circulation. After delivery, your baby continues to have a high insulin level, but it no longer has the high level of sugar from you. This results in the newborn’s blood sugar level becoming very low. Following delivery, your baby’s blood sugar level will be tested. If the level is too low, it may be necessary to administer glucose intravenously until your baby’s blood sugar stabilizes.
Respiratory distress (difficulty breathing). Too much insulin or too much glucose in a baby’s system may delay lung maturation and cause respiratory problems. This is more likely if it is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.
High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy
High blood pressure during pregnancy can lead to placental complications and slowed fetal growth. If left untreated, severe hypertension may cause dangerous seizures, stroke and even death in the mother and fetus.
If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will perform kidney function tests, ultrasounds for growth and testing of your baby more frequently to monitor your health and fetal development.
If you have high blood pressure before pregnancy, you will likely need to continue taking your antihypertensive medicine. Your health care provider may switch you to a safer antihypertensive medicine during pregnancy to help manage your condition.
Gestational hypertension occurs most often during a young woman’s first pregnancy. You are more likely to develop gestational hypertension during a twin pregnancy or if you had blood pressure problems during a previous pregnancy.
Pre-eclampsia (formerly called toxemia) is characterized by pregnancy-induced high blood pressure. This condition is usually accompanied by protein in the urine and may cause swelling due to fluid retention. If you have pre-eclampsia, you may need bed rest. Eclampsia, the most severe form of this condition, is diagnosed when you have a seizure caused by pre-eclampsia. Your doctor may recommend hospitalization, medications and often delivery to treat pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.
High-Risk Pregnancy: What You Need to Know
Many conditions affecting a mother or her baby before, during or after pregnancy can designate a pregnancy as high risk. Learn what causes a high-risk pregnancy and how maternal-fetal medicine specialists can help.
Infectious Diseases and Pregnancy
Infections during pregnancy can pose a threat to your baby. Even a simple urinary tract infection, which is common during pregnancy, should be treated right away. An infection that goes untreated can lead to preterm labor and a rupturing of the membranes surrounding the fetus.
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Although many people may have toxoplasma infection, very few exhibit symptoms because the immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. Babies who became infected with toxoplasmosis before birth can be born with serious mental or physical problems.
Toxoplasmosis often causes flulike symptoms, including swollen lymph glands or muscle aches and pains, which last for a few days to several weeks. You can be tested to see if you have developed an antibody to the illness. Fetal testing may include ultrasound and/or testing of the amniotic fluid or cord blood. Treatment may include antibiotics.
The following measures can help prevent toxoplasmosis infection:
Have someone who is healthy and not pregnant change your cat’s litter box, since cat feces can carry T. gondii. If this is not possible, wear gloves and clean the litter box daily. (The parasite found in cat feces can only infect you a few days after being passed.) Wash your hands well with soap and warm water afterward.
Wear gloves when you garden or do anything outdoors that involves handling soil. Since cats may use gardens and sandboxes as litter boxes, be cautious when handling soil/sand that could contain the parasite. Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water after outdoor activities, especially before you eat or prepare any food.
Have someone who is healthy and not pregnant handle raw meat for you. If this is not possible, wear clean latex gloves when you touch raw meat. Wash any surfaces and utensils that may have touched the raw meat. After handling the meat, wash your hands with soap and warm water.
Cook all meat thoroughly. It should be cooked until it is no longer pink in the center or until the juices run clear. Do not sample meat before it is fully cooked.
If you are pregnant, you should avoid eating undercooked or raw foods because of the risk of food poisoning. Food poisoning can dehydrate a mother and deprive the fetus of nourishment. In addition, food poisoning can cause meningitis and pneumonia in a fetus, resulting in possible death.
Follow these tips to prevent food poisoning:
Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources, such as beef, pork or poultry.
Wash raw vegetables before eating them.
Store uncooked meats in an area of the refrigerator that’s separate from vegetables, cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods.
Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or foods made from raw milk.
Wash hands, knives and cutting boards after handling uncooked foods.
Sexually Transmitted Disease
Chlamydia may be associated with premature labor and rupture of the membranes.
Patients with hepatitis experience inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common type that occurs during pregnancy in the United States.
HBV spreads mainly through contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact, and contaminated intravenous needles. The later in pregnancy you get the virus, the greater the risk of infecting your baby.
HBV Symptoms and Related Conditions
Although HBV resolves in most people, about 10 percent will develop chronic HBV. HBV can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and death. Infected pregnant women can pass the virus to their fetus during pregnancy and at delivery.
HBV Screening and Vaccination
A blood test for HBV is part of routine prenatal testing. If a risk of HBV is present, the following should occur:
Infants of HBV-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the hepatitis B vaccine during the first 12 hours of birth.
Babies of mothers with unknown HBV status should receive the hepatitis B vaccine in the first 12 hours of birth.
Babies of mothers with negative HBV status should be vaccinated before leaving the hospital.
Premature infants weighing less than 4.5 pounds who are born to mothers with negative HBV status should have their first vaccine dose delayed until one month after birth or leaving the hospital.
All babies should complete the hepatitis B vaccine series to be fully protected from HBV infection.
If you have HIV, you have a one in four chance of infecting your fetus with the virus if you are not on medication. AIDS is caused by HIV. This virus kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers. The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of an HIV infection.
HIV is most commonly transmitted by sexual contact with an infected partner. HIV may also be spread through contact with infected blood. This happens mostly by sharing needles, syringes or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus.
According to the National Institutes of Health, HIV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy, labor/delivery or breast-feeding has accounted for nearly all AIDS cases reported among children in the United States.
Some people may develop a flulike illness within a month or two of exposure to the HIV virus, although many people do not develop any symptoms at all when they first become infected. In adults, it may take 10 years or more for persistent or severe symptoms to surface. Symptoms may appear within two years in children born with an HIV infection.
HIV Testing and Treatment
Prenatal care that includes HIV counseling, testing and treatment for infected mothers and their children saves lives and resources. Since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began recommending routine HIV screening for all pregnant women in 1995, the estimated incidence of mother-to-child transmission has dropped by approximately 85 percent.
If you have tested positive for HIV while pregnant, your doctor may recommend:
Having blood tests to check the amount of virus present.
Taking a number of drugs during pregnancy, labor and delivery.
Delivering via Cesarean section if you have a high viral load.
Administering medicine to your newborn baby. Studies have found that giving a mother antiretroviral medicines during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and then to the baby for six weeks after delivery can reduce the chance of a mother’s transmission of HIV to her baby. This reduction is from 25 percent to less than 2 percent.
Refraining from breast-feeding. Studies show that breast-feeding increases the risk of HIV transmission.
Herpes is a chronic, sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Herpes infections can cause blisters and ulcers on the mouth or face (oral herpes), or in the genital area (genital herpes).
A first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy creates a greater risk of transmission of the virus to the newborn. Because of this risk, it is important that you avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy. Protection from genital herpes includes abstaining from sex when symptoms are present and using latex condoms between outbreaks.
For severe cases of genital herpes during pregnancy, your doctor may administer an antiviral medicine. If you have active genital herpes (shedding the virus) at the time of delivery, your doctor will likely recommend a Cesarean delivery to prevent a potentially fatal infection in your baby. Fortunately, infection of an infant is rare among women with genital herpes infection.
Hi ,my name is lalitha. Present I am 9 th month of pregnant lady. Past 3 months onwards I got some black spots on my face. Some body said it's common for pregnant ladies. After delivery automatically it will clear .but some people said it is a mango it spread my total face . Presently on my chicks and nose has got the problem. So give me suggestion what can I do .
Here are some Do's and Don'ts at the time of high risk pregnancy
I was 5 week pregnant as on 8 sep 2016 (I had calculated based on my last period date 3rd aug 2016 and no period had taken place on 3rd sep 2016 ), I have taken MTP kit having 5 tab one mifepristone and 4 nos. 200 mg Misoprostol by diluting in water ,In diluted mifepristone I had a pain and after taking diluted Misoprostol (2 Tab) I started bleeding, then also I took 2 more diluted Misoprostol, My bleeding continued till 8-9 days (Stating heavily and gradually lighter) After that I did not went for ultrasound or pregnancy test KIT or any test as it was not possible for me as each & everyone knows my family in surrounding. After 2 week I was in doubt (because I use to feel nausea some times and back pain) that whether my pregnancy is still ON or has been stopped, to make it 100 % sure after two week (7th Week) again I took 2 Misportal only diluted in water ,Now I am feeling that my belly has come out for 0.5 inch approx. And again I am worried that the diluted medicine I had taken, worked or not. My Query is that Can I repeat the course of MTP Kit (5 Tab) once again in same process (By Diluting in water), If my pregnancy is ON then now It is 8.5 week as if now. Pls reply urgently as delay in response may lead to difficulty in taking decision.
I am 36 years female has 55kg weight, how often can I take calcium and vitamins supplement and in what dosage? kindly suggest.
Hi Doctor, I am from AP, a diabetic type 2 patient since 2010. Got lately married at around 38 years age (Aug 2016). My wife's age 36 and conceived recently (3 weeks before). My wife working as staff nurse in a govt. Hospital doing rotational shifts is not taking proper food. Recently I got her tested for complete blood picture. Her Hemoglobin levels are 8.4 below the normal range. Please suggest some iron and folic acid combination supplement during first trimester of pregnancy. My father aged 68, diabetic and my mother non diabetic and also clarify what precautions necessary during first trimester of pregnancy in order to avoid miscarriage.
I am 7 weeks pregnant. I went for torch test which states my cmv igg and rubella igg are positive and cmv igm and rubella igm are negative . I already had abortion twice before. Does this cause problem this time.
My mother is 42 years old and she feels very tired on her body and remain pain on her whole body she has taken many medicine like jointace c2 and other pain killer but haven't got relief what should she do?
Hello madam, me mere gf k sath unprotected sex kiya tha, but sperms under nhi gya tha, mene risk nhi liya, or unwanted 72 khila diya within 2 days, fir 8 days baad periods Ho gya tha, lekin uske baad 24 th February ko periods hona tha, lekin aaj 4 th March ho gya usko periods nhi ho rha hai, so madam please help me.
I am 5 weeks 5 days pregnant. yesterday had bleeding so went for checkup doctor advised for USG and in the reports heartbeat was not found doctor injected Proluton depot and asked for another USG done after 10 days. Today I am not having bleeding. Is there chances for my proper pregnancy. I am very nervous. I had miscarriage before 2 years.
Hi I am pregnant 6 week n 1 day ki pregnancy he muje. Pr 2 days se muje blinding ho rhi he. Esa ku? Kya Mera abortion hoga?
I have PCOD problem from last 15 yrs. Started from delay period in the age of 20. My doc suggest glycomet in liquid form as some symptom of PCOS seen in my ultrasound report. At age of 22 my first baby girl born and after 2 years my second baby boy born. All going perfectly after marriage without any medicine. But from past 7 years PCOS became PCOD. N I have put weight from 62 (constant) to 78 now. I have taken homeopathy medicine, 5 time took 6 month medicine pills also. But all in vein. After stopping medicine. Problem again happen. Now issue is what is the reason behind dis problem? How it can be cure without medicine. Is my weight will come down after taking its medicine regularly? Is glycomet safe if regular takes.
Hello wife ki first time mother ban ne ke sahi age ki limit kya hai? Aur kya first time sex se wo mother ban sakti hai? Aur Kis sex se mother banega yeah kaise pta chalega?
Every time I wear condom before sex, it breaks while sex, which causes chances of pregnancy. What should I do to avoid breakage. I have tried all top brands store, manforce, durex. I have also tried wearing 2 at the same time.
Tea is known for many beneficial properties that it contains. Whether it is black tea, green tea, white tea or any other kind of tea, there are numerous health, home and cosmetic benefits attached to tea. Tea bags once used do not necessarily need be thrown in the trash once they have been dunked and seeped into the boiling water and milk, if you are using any. There are a number of uses which one can derive easily from these tea bags so that one can get glowing skin and varied other health benefits. Read on to know more about the hidden benefits of these tea bags!
- Tea bags for your eyes: The number of antioxidants present in tea makes it ideal when it comes to banishing those under eye bags and dark circles. You could freeze these tea bags in the freezer after you use them and then press them onto your eyes for a few minutes the next day. This will help in visibly lightening the area and clearing the bags that may have formed under the eyes due to long hours spent working and other factors like stress.
- Tea bags for food flavouring: You can use these tea bags to flavor various dishes as well. That’s right this can be used as a robust condiment with pasta, grains and chicken. You can use these tea bags in the water which will be used to boil grains and pasta so that the flavor can get infused in these ingredients. You can use flavored tea bags like chamomile and cinnamon to make a difference to the dish that you are preparing.
- Tea bags in the garden: Whether you have a large garden, a small patch or a few pots that grow herbs and other smaller flowers and vegetables, you can easily use tea bags in the water that you use for watering these plants. This will help in preventing the onset of any kind of fungal infection as far as the plants go. You can also use these bags as ingredients for your comps bins so that you have natural fertilizer containing the rich goodness of tea as well.
- Tea bags to deal with odours: Tea bags can be placed in muslin bags and hung from various rods and placed in corners, to act as a deodourising agent. You can also place these tea bags inside the refrigerator so that you eliminate the various scents and odors that are not too pleasant.
- Tea bags for cleaning: You can also use these tea bags to clean your rugs and carpets. These can be frozen before they are opened and the dried tea leaves can be spread over the various stains before being brushed away. The stains will also lighten gradually. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.
So what can cause your hair to fall at an alarming rate?
The reasons behind hair loss could be many, but here are 6 major ones:
1. Lack of protein in your diet
When you exclude protein from your diet, your body starts to conserve the protein that it has by altering the growth cycle of your hair. In such cases, your hair enters into the resting stage, resulting in zero hair growth.
In India, 9 out of 10 people are said to suffer from low amounts of protein in their diet, with 91% vegetarians reporting protein deficiency.
2. Iron deficiency
Iron plays a very important role in the transportation of oxygen to the different organs of the body. Lack of iron in your diet (which is the principle reason behind anaemia) can give rise to several health problems including hair loss. Your body attempts to direct oxygen to important organs so as to support their functioning. As a result, your scalp witnesses a low supply of oxygen, which causes hair loss.
3. Vitamin D-3 deficiency
Deficiency of vitamin D-3 gives rise to a type of hair loss called Telogen Effluvium (TE). This is a temporary hair thinning phenomenon that takes place when the all the hair on your scalp enter the resting phase at the same time, subsequently causing you to shed a large amount of hair later on.
Smoking can also affect the health of your hair, especially the rate at which it falls and the number of strands lost in a day. A research carried out by the Harvard School of Public Health has revealed that smoking can cause a rise in a hormone called dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
An increase in DHT level prevents new hair cells from growing and causes hair follicles to reduce in size with each hair cycle. As a result, the area on your scalp that gets affected by DHT experiences a lack of hair growth.
5. Use of testosterone supplements in gym
Intake of testosterone in the form of supplements and injections to build muscle mass can trigger hair loss in men. This takes place when the testosterone in these supplements gets changed into DHT, thereby affecting your hair loss rate and amount.
6. Past illnesses (dengue, TB and typhoid)
Falling of hair can also be brought on by illnesses such as typhoid, TB and dengue as the hair growth cycle comes to a stop. Hormonal or metabolic stress that is experienced during the course of such diseases may cause hairfall.
What are the treatments available to cure hair loss?
1. Hair transplant
Hair transplant is a minimally invasive surgical technique that transfers hair follicles taken from other parts of your body to the balding area. Known by the name of Follicular Unit Transplantation, this hair loss treatment can help to bring back the natural appearance of a fuller head of hair. Hair follicles are harvested using two procedures- follicular unit extraction and strip harvesting. Procedure can vary from 4-8 hours or more depending on the case.
2. Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP)
Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) is another treatment alternative that can reverse hair loss. It’s a simple non-surgical procedure that lasts about 60-90 minutes. In this form of hair treatment, the patient’s own blood cells, more specifically blood platelets are injected into the scalp. Usually 8 sittings are required with each sitting being 2 weeks apart for better results.
3. Low Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT)
This form of hair therapy utilises light energy of a specific wavelength and threshold to stimulate cellular activity, thereby promoting hair growth. Various controlled clinical tests have revealed its effectiveness in encouraging hair growth in both the genders.
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