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Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Management of Postnatal Care
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Hello doctors, My daughter is 5 months old. 3 days after her birth doctor has done echocardiography and it was showing PFO 2 mm with L - > R Shunt. They have suggested that it will be closed with growth of the baby and I can consult any paediatric cardiologist after 6 months. I have consulted a doctor yesterday and he asked to do echo again. This time in echo it is showing that 3 mm ASD with L -> R shunt. Rest everything showing normal. And again doctor suggested that there is nothing to worry since the size is too small and you can just ignore for now and consult a doctor again after 1 year. I wanted to know through Lybrate that what is PFO and Asd. How come pfo is changed to ASD after 6 months. Is it the same or any difference. Any medication to fill the hole? How long it takes to fill the hole naturally. Is there any complication because of asd on my baby's health. Any precaution from my side? Kindly advice. Regards,
He is 8 years old. As for as features known of dyslexia. Those features he has. Difficulty in writing, does not have the patience in reading, writing, not respects elders. Though his behavior was tolerated by us. He will continue his rude behaviour until we beat him. Is it necessary to get him counselling by a psychiatrist. If at all, please refer one fine psychiatrist in bangalore.
My son 3 month old. We just returned from Goa to Bangalore. He is restless and taking feed properly. Constantly making sound like in pain and uneasiness.
Breastfeeding mothers need to be conscious and aware of their diets. How the mother eats is how the child gets its nutrition. While they do not need any major changes from what they were eating during the pregnancy, a few adjustments are advised. A few basic adjustments in daily routine are enough. They are:
1. Eat very well - Eat a balanced diet to suit your health. Remember, first it is important to meet your nutritional needs. Only when you are eating well would the quality and quantity of your milk be ideal for your baby. Do not diet under any circumstance. We understand you wish to lose all the pregnancy weight soon, but remember, you child is your priority now. When you diet, your body will start drawing on its reserves. This will affect milk production. By dieting, you will also lack the amount of stamina you need to take care of your baby. Be aware that feeling extra hungry during breastfeeding is normal. Your body is working around the clock. Eat small meals at regular intervals to keep your hunger satisfied, your weight concern at bay and your body strong.
2. Don't count your calories - Not until you are breastfeeding. You need at least 500 calories more than you did when you were not breastfeeding. Don't let this shock you, your child will be feeding off you. There are other ways to regulate your weight and lose the extra pounds gained during pregnancy, do not compromise on food at all.
3. Do not rush to exercise - Consult your doctor and ask for suitable exercises for your body. You might have stitches which are yet to dry, so don't be hasty. Get your workout regime planned professionally and under guidance.
4. Do not avoid fats - Eat healthy foods and opt for good fats. Foods that are good for you and for milk production are a big yes. Foods which do not contribute in any positive way can be done without. They will only harm you in the long run.
5. Avoid alcohol - Stay away, and if you do want to indulge consult your doctor. An occasional drink is usually okay, still it is better you abstain altogether until you stop breastfeeding. And if you do have a drink, feed at least after two hours.
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Good afternoon Dr. My son who is 5 years weight 12kg only has recently stated having red eyes and has minute discharge that comes after waking up from sleep. Worried about his eyes and want to put on some weight, as he is very skinny. Please advise.
I had cough from last week I tried cough syrup but it did not work So did I got T. B or any serious illness?
My son 12 years old, his motion is not free, he goes to later en one in a 3 or 4 days, he omits bad gas every 10 mins. So please cure his problem permanently with food and medicine or physical exercise. His wt is 30 kgs.
My daughter is 2 year old some say she is anemic some say calcium deficiency her weight is 11 kg tall. Is tonic for this have any side effect on her.
Diabetes is basically caused due to the lack of production of insulin or improper use of the produced insulin, which eventually leads to a deficiency in the blood glucose level. Diabetes is of two types, one where the insulin production is insufficient therefore the glucose level cannot be balanced; two when the body cannot produce insulin at all and therefore patients must inject insulin to maintain close levels. Apart from synthetic drugs, you can use various home remedies to cure or at least improve your diabetic condition. Here are some great home remedies to effectively maintain your blood sugar level:
bitter gourd have juice extracted from bitter gourd every morning on an empty stomach. Having this everyday for a few months will help maintain blood sugar levels.
guava: have guava every day after peeling the skin off. It contains vitamin c and fiber which help maintain the standard blood glucose level. Excessive guava eating is not recommended.
mango leaves- soak fresh mango leaves in water (say a one litre bottle) over night and consume first thing in the morning. You could even let them dry out, powder the leaves and have half a teaspoon everyday.
basil leaves- have 2 tablespoons of juice extracted from basil leaves empty stomach, in the morning. These are loaded with antioxidants that relieve stress and also contain oils that help lower blood sugar levels.
jamun- jamun's leaves, seeds and berries are effective in improving blood sugar levels and they also prevent spikes in the level of insulin. You could eat a handful of the berries or powder the leaves and seeds- which you should consume twice a day.
amla- combine 2 teaspoons of amla juice in water and have it as soon as you wake up. Make this a part of your everyday routine to maintain blood sugar levels.
flaxseeds- eat one tablespoon of flaxseed powder with a glass of warm water every morning, on an empty stomach. Flax seed can bring down your sugar level by almost 28%. But be careful not to have more than 2 tablespoons per day, as that could be bad for health.
neem- neem enhances insulin receptor sensitivity, improves circulation and lowers blood sugar levels thereby reducing your dependency on synthetic drugs. Drink the juice of the need shoot everyday on an empty stomach for best results.
Fruits- fruits are rich in fiber and other minerals which help stabilize blood sugar levels of the body. Consume at least 5 fruits a day! choose fruits like banana's, blackberries, cranberries, grape fruit, blueberries, kiwi and other citrus fruits.
Apple cider vinegar- mix 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar in a class water and consume before every large meal. The nutritional components in apple cider will help control the rise in blood sugar levels after eating.
In case of any query or to book an appointment with dt. Silky mahajan please send us a mail at info@foodsandnutrition. In or call on 080 6741 7780 (dial extension: 778)
More than half the patients with blood pressure are patients of diabetes too. Get your BP checked every time when you visit your doctor! Both BP and Diabetes have bad effects on kidney and as such should be controlled together asap!
Yesterday we putted sixth week vaccination to my baby. Now he got fever of 101 degree and he passed a motion two times in a yellowish watery type. Every six hours once I'm giving crocin drops of 0.7ml. Is it normal? How long the fever wil there. He s not sleeping from mrng onwards. Kindly advice.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways.
symptoms are wheeze, cough, breathing difficulty.
Asthma is a controllable disease.
asthma can be diagnosed based on history & Pulmonary function test.
Inhaled drugs are the best choice for asthma.
Inhaled drugs are safe and practically have no side effects.
Asthma symptoms are variable.
regular follow-up is required to titrate the drugs.
There is a kid about 11 months old in my locality. I noticed that he is v anaemic though the child is very playful. What should be done? I think parents are not providing proper diet. Child also looks small in size.
Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:
It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.
Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.
ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.
CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).
The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.
H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.
H.PYLORI AND PEPTIC ULCER
The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.
A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.
Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.
Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.
Gastric mucosal Biopsy
Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
Co vita B12 excretion test
Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods
THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH
Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.
By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.
Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.
Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.
In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.
Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium
Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation
Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion
Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food
Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action
Wants to lie down all the time
Pain in stomach always comes on after eating
Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach
Great craving for food at noon and night
Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco
Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer
Cancer of stomach
Vomits every kind of food
Heartburn and water brash
Concomitants – Profuse salivation
Intense burning thirst
Haemorrhage from bowels
ALSO MANY REMEDIES ARS.ALB. , SULPH, CAL.CARB.ETC