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Hey doctor, can you tell what is cancer and how does it occur. Is there any prevention method or cure for this disease?
Lungs are the most important organ of our body that has the responsibility of taking in the oxygen and releasing out carbon dioxide. When cancer develops in it, the entire body gets imbalanced. Lung cancer leads to more death than any other type of cancer, which is why identifying the symptoms and knowing the causes are instrumental in obtaining a timely diagnosis as well as in prevention of this disease.
Symptoms of Lung Cancer
In the early stages:
Loss of appetite
Sudden weight loss
Coughing up blood
In the later stages:
Sever chest pain
Causes of Lung Cancer:
- Smoking: People who smoke are more prone to lung cancer. With the increase in the number of cigarettes you smoke, your chances of getting lung cancer increase too. People who don't smoke but are surrounded by the smokers also have high chances of being affected by this form of cancer.
- Exposure to Asbestos: Asbestos is a group of mineral, which is present naturally in the environment. Lung cancer can occur due to the inhalation and ingestion of asbestos fibers.
- Exposure to Ranon Gas: Ranon is a radioactive gas, which is formed naturally on decaying of radioactive elements. It is found in low levels in the air that we breathe and the water that we drink. Consumption of air and water having this gas leads to lung cancer.
- High Levels of Air Pollution: Presence of high levels of dust particles and pollutants in the air that we breathe can cause lung cancer. 1-2% of lung cancer is caused because of it.
- High Levels of Arsenic in Drinking Water: Consuming water with arsenic content is harmful as it directly affects the lungs and when the arsenic content is too high, it may lead to lung cancer.
- Exposure to Chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals like uranium, coal products, gasoline, diesel exhaust and mustard gas can also cause lung cancer.
Family History of Lung Cancer: Chances of getting lung cancer increase if your parents, child or siblings are already prone to lung cancer.
Head and neck cancers usually start in the squamous cells and are also referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. It occurs in the nose, throat, mouth and salivary glands. Head and Neck cancers are further classified into various categories on the basis of the area of the neck and head where they occur. Although head and neck cancers are different, they both occur inside the mouth, sinuses, nose, salivary glands and throat, which are considered as a group.
Salivary gland cancers are generally very infrequent. An assortment of cancer causing cells is present in salivary glands, so various types of salivary gland cancers have been found to occur.
If you are habituated to consuming tobacco and alcohol, then you are at the highest risk of suffering from head and neck cancer; however, it can also be caused in people who suffer from infections caused by human Papilloma virus. Other factors may include:
- Oral health- Untreated gum diseases and oral cavity can be the reasons behind the development of the disease.
- Sex- Women are less prone to head and neck cancers than men.
- Lack of Nutrition- If your body is lacking in certain nutrients; you are more likely to catch the disease.
- Age- People above 40 years of age are more susceptible to head and neck cancer.
- Difficulty in swallowing- Inflammation and pain in throat, leading to a problem in swallowing.
- Hoarse Voice- Hoarseness or change in the voice.
Apart from this, there are some symptoms which show up in a specific area of your head and neck, such as:
- Oral Cavity- A red or white patch on the tongue, the gums or the lining of the mouth.
- Pharynx- Trouble in breathing and swallowing followed by a frequent headache.
- Surgery- Surgery is usually to remove the primary tumour in toto or as much as feasible. Also, clearence of the lymph nodes that are involved is done during surgery at the same time.
- Radiation Therapy- Radiation therapy is considered where functions like speech can be conserved.
- Chemotherapy- Radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy can help, if you are suffering from a more advanced form of head and neck cancers. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.
She is a cancer patient from last 3 yrs, now her hips joint broke 7 days early, in this case shall we operate her, is there any risk in operation.
I am 34 years old active smoker. Want to know early symptoms of throat cancer. Any quick test to rule out the same.
The exact causes of breast cancer aren't fully understood. However, there are certain factors known to increase the risk of breast cancer?
I am a 47 years old lady suffering from oral cancer. Due to chemo n radiation there is ulcer in my mouth so I am not taking any spices so give me suggestion what can I use to boost my immune system.
What are the causes of cancer and how can we prevent from cancer and what are the precautions we want to take to avoid cancer?
What are the tests for screening whole body for cancer? How much time does it takes? How much it approximately costs? TIA.
Please. Ask me cancer symptom's. And also define me its precautions. And please also tell me cancer types.
What is the advantage of hormone therapy after the operation and radiation treatment for breast cancer. How many years hormone therapy required? How do check growth of cancer cell in breast after hormone treatment.
Penile cancer occurs when cancerous cells form on tissues of the penis. If caught early, penile cancer is treatable. In early stages, a cancerous tumour can be removed with little or no damage to the penis. But if it is diagnosed late, a man may lose part of or all of his penis and sometimes his life too. Hence, it’s vital that you know more about this cancer.
But first, a small primer on the penis…
The penis has two types of erectile tissues, the spongy tissue that gets engorged with blood leading to an erection:
- Corpora cavernosa: This tissue forms most of the penis.
- Corpus spongiosum: This tissue forms a small portion of the penis. It also surrounds the urethra, a tube that transports urine and sperm to outside.
The erectile tissue comes wrapped in connective tissue and skin to form the organ.
Penile cancer is usually found on the ‘glans’ or tip of the penis, but can also occur on the shaft of the penis. Some of the common symptoms of penile cancer include sores and lumps on the penis, redness or irritation on the penis and blood discharge.
Factors that increase the risk of developing penile cancer
- Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus causes cervical cancer in women. Unprotected skin-to-skin contact as well as unprotected sex with multiple partners, increases the risk of a man getting HPV infection.
- Not being circumcised at birth: Circumcision, an operation in which a part or the entire foreskin is removed surgically is a big protection from penile cancer.
- Phimosis: This is a condition in which the foreskin cannot be pulled back over the glans or tip of the penis.
- Poor hygiene
- UV treatment for psoriasis
- Use of tobacco: The chemicals in tobacco smoke lead to genetic changes in cells of the penis, thereby leading to cancer.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Detection and diagnosis are done using tests like a biopsy in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the penis and tested for abnormalities due to cancer.
Chances of Survival
Treatment of penile cancer depends on what stage it is detected at and so is prognosis. The location and size of tumour, and whether cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred also affect prognosis.
For stage I and II penile cancer or cancer that is limited only to the penis, the five-year survival rate is 85%.
The survival rate dips substantially if cancer is diagnosed after it has spread to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes in stage III or IV. The five-year survival rate is just about 59%.