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Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. A person’s mood and emotions can be altered drastically due to bipolar disorder, but they do not have more than one personality. Split personalities problem is more commonly seen in those with dissociative disorders.
There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.
- Bipolar I Disorder— defined by manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible.
- Bipolar II Disorder— defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes described above.
- Cyclothymic Disorder (also called cyclothymia)— defined by numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms as well numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic episode and a depressive episode.
- Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders— defined by bipolar disorder symptoms that do not match the three categories listed above.
The disorder has two strong phases: 1) Bipolar Mania and 2) Depression.
Mania is a state of heightened energy and euphoria - an elevation of mood. It is in direct contrast to depression. Mania can vary in severity from hypomania, where, in addition to mood and energy elevation, the person shows mild impairment of judgement and insight, to severe mania with delusions and a level of manic excitement that can be so exhausting that hospitalisation is required to control the episode.
The mood, energy and other related symptoms define both mania and hypomania, with psychotic features being an 'add on' component experienced by a sub-set of individuals.
You have an intense sense of well-being, energy and optimism. It can be so strong that it affects your thinking and judgement. You may believe strange things about yourself, make bad decisions, and behave in embarrassing, harmful and - occasionally - dangerous ways.
Like depression, it can make it difficult or impossible to deal with day-to-day life. Mania can badly affect both your relationships and your work. When it isn't so extreme, it is called 'hypomania'.
If you become manic, you may notice that you are:
- very happy and excited
- irritated with other people who don't share your optimistic outlook
- feeling more important than usual.
- full of new and exciting ideas
- moving quickly from one idea to another
- hearing voices that other people can't hear
- full of energy
- unable or unwilling to sleep
- more interested in sex.
- making plans that are grandiose and unrealistic
- very active, moving around very quickly
- behaving unusually
- talking very quickly - other people may find it hard to understand what you are talking about
- making odd decisions on the spur of the moment, sometimes with disastrous consequences
- recklessly spending your money
- over-familiar or recklessly critical with other people
- less inhibited in general.
If you are in the middle of a manic episode for the first time, you may not realise that there is anything wrong – although your friends, family or colleagues will. You may even feel annoyed if someone tries to point this out to you. You increasingly lose touch with day-to-day issues – and with other people's feelings.
The feeling of depression is something we all experience from time to time. It can even help us to recognise and deal with problems in our lives. In clinical depression or bipolar disorder, the feeling of depression is much worse. It goes on for longer and makes it difficult or impossible to deal with the normal things of life. If you become depressed, you will notice some of these changes:
- feelings of unhappiness that don't go away
- feeling that you want to burst into tears for no reason
- losing interest in things
- being unable to enjoy things
- feeling restless and agitated
- losing self-confidence
- feeling useless, inadequate and hopeless
- feeling more irritable than usual
- thinking of suicide.
- can’t think positively or hopefully
- finding it hard to make even simple decisions
- difficulty in concentrating.
- losing appetite and weight
- difficulty in getting to sleep
- waking earlier than usual
- feeling utterly tired
- going off sex.
- difficulty in starting or completing things – even everyday chores
- crying a lot – or feeling like you want to cry, but not being able to
- avoiding contact with other people.
- Biological Causes: Experts say that patients with bipolar disorder often show physical changes in their brains. Nobody is sure why the changes lead to the disorder.
- Genetic Traits: Researchers are involved in finding out whether or not the causes of bipolar disorder arise out of genes and other hereditary factors. If you have a first-degree relative or a sibling who is/was affected by this condition, you would probably have it too.
- Neurotransmitters: Mood swing disorder is caused by an imbalance in brain chemicals known as ‘neurotransmitters’.
- Initial Treatment: The initial treatment method is to take medications to balance and control the mood swings. After the symptoms are in control, one has to start working with his/her trusted doctor for chalking out an effective and practical long-term treatment procedure.
Hospitalization: Hospitalization or immediate medical support is recommended in case of suicidal thoughts or when a person starts exhibiting erratic behavior (being psychotic).
Medications: Medications include the administration of antipsychotics (such as ziprasidone, olanzapine), antidepressants (usually in combination with a mood stabilizer or an anti-psychotic), mood stabilizers (such as valproic acid, lithium, divalproex sodium) and anti-anxiety medications.
Recovery from substance abuse: Problems related to excessive alcohol and drug abuse are solved by this therapy. Failing this step, this disorder can be unmanageable.
Day care treatment: Day care treatment programs can be recommended by your doctor. This treatment method includes counseling and support which keep the bipolar traits under control.
While being shy in unfamiliar conditions and with unknown people is normal for many people, it is considered a disorder when it starts to interfere with your life and stops you from seeking out new opportunities, meeting people or generally living your life to the fullest. The primary cause for this in most people is the fear of judgment or evaluation in the eyes of the others. Social anxiety may thus interfere with your personal as well as professional goals. Some of the ways you can take care of this problem are mentioned below.
- Take help from counseling or therapy: Some people may have serious issues interacting with other people in a social setting or have a fear of the stage although they want to get into public speaking and performance. In such cases, you may need to take the help of a doctor as it becomes necessary in order to be able to fulfill your professional goals.
- Have certain objective goals: One of the ways to overcome social anxiety disorder is to be able to achieve certain objective goals, even in social situations where there is no performance pressure. Say for example if you are with a group of people where you feel anxious, make two or three fruitful comments in your opinion in the group. This way, when you feel your voice is heard, it will help reduce social anxiety.
- Slowly expose yourself to incremental anxiety situations: One of the best ways to overcome anxiety is to expose yourself regularly to situations that may make you uncomfortable. You can write down a series of situations which have increased your level of anxiety. You can then expose yourself to the situation that scares you the least repeatedly until you become habituated to it. Then you can slowly move up the list and conquer each one of the socially fearful settings, one by one.
- Deep breathing and meditation: Meditation has been seen to clear up your mind and embolden you to face difficult situations. Practicing it daily can definitely help you overcome social anxiety. Even before you are about to engage in a large social or public gathering, deep breathing helps relax your muscles and also enables you to become calmer, thus reducing social anxiety.
- Self-help manuals: There are a lot of manuals out there which are meant to help you deal with your social anxiety; whether it is in general, with public speaking or in a room full of guests in an informal setting. Generally, these are used in conjunction with therapy from a professional, but you can try certain self-help books which can guide you through a detailed process and help you deal with the social anxiety that you may face in certain situations.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I am masturbating twice in a week from past 25 years and now I am getting marry, it may cause my future life.
Do you find it too hard to figure out what to wear? Does taking some important decision leave you feeling paralyzed? These indicate that you suffer from compulsive indecisiveness. Struggling with this problem leaves you stuck in one place and causes you distress. Fear of taking the wrong decision is the primary reason, which makes people indecisive. It is also likely for you to bother too much about what other people think of you.
Here are five important steps, which you should take for overcoming compulsive indecisiveness:
- Forget your fear: Fear of something often causes indecisiveness. You need to figure out and write down your fears and what you would do if these occur. If you are indecisive about a job change or whether the new job will be paying you less, you should analyze how the reduced income will affect your life and how you can deal with it.
- Tune into your emotions: Maximum people who suffer from compulsive indecisiveness and struggle at making major decisions tend to over analyze situations a bit too much. In some cases, you cannot create an easy perception or a suitable side for a situation in spite of stressing over it from various angles. The situation will remain the same, no matter how much you think. Write down your options, think about them, rate them, and choose the top rated option.
- Practice on small things: For improving upon your indecisiveness, you should start practicing by taking small decisions every day. Aim at taking 10 major decisions everyday such as where to go for lunch, which route to take to work and more. Slowly, practice taking decisions quickly instead of pondering over a situation. Try to make instant decisions in various spheres of life.
- Learn to trust yourself: You need to list all your strengths. Write down whether you think if you are smart, creative or funny. Ask yourself whether you can infuse your strengths into your process of decision making. Try to test your strengths in all kinds of matters. Once you are sure of your strengths, you will be able to achieve your goals without hesitation.
- Pick one thing at a time: You should pick things and matters one at a time to focus on. If there are several things which bother you and add to your indecisiveness, try to handle them one by one. This way you will be able to give all your focus to one matter, and overcome your fears related to it. After that, move on to another fear.
It is important for you to let go and refrain yourself from analyzing whether a decision which you had taken is right or wrong. Instead, focus on activities which matter to you and do not ponder over old decisions.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!