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Treatment of Spondylitis
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Patient Review Highlights
All of sudden I developed this foot pain and didn't know what to do. Dr Radhakrishnan Paulraj ensures that he gives enough time to each patient. It's been more than a year that I was experiencing this foot pain. My boss referred me Dr Radhakrishnan Paulraj. All the staff members were very helpful. With great ease Radhakrishnan Paulraj explained us the problem and how the treatment will be carried out.
I consulted a number of specialists but the way he treated me was the best. The lower back pain was increasing day by day. Never once that I felt that he is getting impatient, rather he has always responded to my each and every doubt with immense patience. The entire Ortho & Trauma Care was spotlessly, clean. The best thing about Dr Radhakrishnan is that he prescribes limited no. of medicines.
Not only he is very calm and composed, but is also a very understanding doctor. Even though the problem was not so big, but still the other doctors were not able to treat it. The I consulted Dr Paulraj for my leg pain treatment. Someone from the office, referred him. he has expert knowledge in the field. Both he and staff were very helpful. relief.
Dr. Radhakrishnan Paulraj provides answers that are caring. Thanks a lot sir... all things will be normal...
Cancer that originates in the bones of a human body is referred to as bone cancer. Any bone could come under the threat of this disease, but generally the longer bones of your body, so to say the bones of your limbs, are at a greater risk.
A few factors that might push you an inch closer to bone cancer are:
- Genes could jinx your health: A few typical genetic syndromes could increase a person's chances of contracting bone cancer. These syndromes could have been active in any person belonging to your lineage. One such syndrome is Li-Fraumeni.
- Treatment for one kind of cancer can make you prone to some other kind: Radiation affects your bones adversely. A patient of breast cancer might be undergoing radiation therapy that further increases his or her risk of contracting bone cancer in future.
- Paget's disease can have unfavorable implications: Paget's disease is a disease that affects elderly people. This condition, if left untreated, can turn into bone cancer at a later stage.
Several symptoms of bone cancer can be found below:
- Sudden loss of weight: If you lose a considerable amount of weight in a few weeks time without having made any effort at all, you should probably be worried about the health of your bones. Bone cancer can result in sudden and unintentional weight loss.
- Unexpected bone fracture or breakage: Cancer of the bones is known to gnaw at the strength of your bones. Weakened and diseased bones can break or get fractured very easily. An unexpected fracture should not be overlooked so as to prevent chances of anything more harmful.
- Long spans of unyielding exhaustion: Constant fatigue and sleepiness might be hinting at a more serious underlying problem. The bones in your body hold you together; cancerous bone cells can make you feel exhausted without much exertion as your bones lose their inherent potency.
- Persistent pain in the bones: Excruciating cramps or pangs of stinging pain in a person's bones either continuously or at odd hours, could be indicative of bone cancer. Such instances require the advice and guidance of an experienced oncologist.
- Bone swelling: The area affected by bone cancer can grow big and tender or the bone itself can swell up.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, which is characterized by the inflammation of the joint lining and gives rise to pain, stiffness, warmth and redness in the joints. The inflammation occurs in the tissue that normally produces lubricating fluids for the joint. This condition is progressive in nature, and can cause the destruction of joints, leading to functional and locomotive disability.
Though rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that can last for years, patients may not experience any symptoms for a long time. In some cases, the disease may affect other parts of the body like the eyes, lungs, and the heart.
The severity and duration of the symptoms are unpredictable, and the symptoms experienced are:
- At times, people experience increased disease conditions called flare-ups.
- They may also experience alternating periods when the symptoms fade or diminish, which is referred to as remission.
- Some of the common symptoms of the disease include lasting pain and stiffness for more than an hour in the morning, inflammation, fatigue, fever, and a general sense of discomfort.
- Inflammation in the joints close to the hands like wrists and fingers and other parts like neck, shoulders, elbows, knees and hips can also be affected.
- In some cases, both sides of the body are affected at the same time, which is known as inflammation in a symmetric pattern.
Rheumatoid arthritis is usually caused by the body's weakened immune system, which produces antigens to attack itself. The trigger to this reaction is not yet clearly deciphered.
It is diagnosed by clinical examination (American association of Rheumatology criterion) supported by relevant Investigations.
Management for Arthritis includes the following aspects:
1) To control disease activity and control of symptoms of pain, stiffness.
2) Medical treatment to prevent system effects of the disease.
3) Nonmedical treatments comprise of dietary therapy, physiotherapy, immunomodulation therapy.
4) Minimal surgical therapy like arthroscopic synovectomy to confirm the diagnosis as well as reduce disease activity. At times, with the advanced decline of joints, a major surgery like replacement therapy may be required for specific cases.
What's more important is to know that at any stage of the disease patient can adopt and live an active life with appropriate treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Sleep is a natural part of the daily biological functions and we spend some time of the 24 hours sleeping.
Sleep cycles are different for different persons and while 5 to 6 hours of sleep may be enough for some people, others may need up to 8 hours of sleep to feel refreshed. How you sleep is as important as the duration. This is one area which is often neglected by people.
Why sleeping positions are important?
Sleeping positions are very important as you stay in a single position for hours at a time every day, and if these habits are bad, they can contribute to spinal problems. Thus, many of the spinal problems can also be alleviated by sleeping correctly.
Some of the bad sleeping positions that may adversely affect your spine are as follows.
- On your stomach - This position is in overall a bad position as it curls up the spine, especially where the neck meets the spine and can cause spinal deformities over a long period of time. Certain adjustments to this position can lessen the effects, but it is important to try to change habits and sleep in a better position.
- The fetal position - Although this is one of the more natural positions and most babies are crouched up in this form in the mother's womb; as a sleeping position, it has its disadvantages as well. The lower spine is especially put under a lot of stress when someone curls up in this position.
- On your side - Although this is safer compared to the other two, sleeping on your sides straight would cause blood circulation issues and also put a lot of stress on the relevant organs, depending on the side you were sleeping on.
In all of the cases, slight adjustments to these positions will lessen the stress on the spine and also help you sleep better.
Some of the adjustments that you can make are:
1. Sleep with a pillow between your knees to align your hips and cause less strain on the spine.
2. If you don't have sleep apnea, put a pillow under your knees to raise them while lying on you back.
3. If you sleep on your back, try to consciously change your position to sleep on the side.
4. Try and actively change your posture throughout the day to ensure good sleeping position at night. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Knee replacement surgery — also known as knee arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee) — can help relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. During knee replacement, a surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers.
Why is it done?
The most common reason for knee replacement surgery is to relieve severe pain caused by osteoarthritis. People who need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some also have moderate or severe knee pain at rest.
The procedure begins with you being administered general anesthesia, after which, an incision of 9-12 inches is made on the knee. The part of the joint that has been damaged is gotten rid of, following which the surfaces of the bone are redesigned to hold an artificial joint. Cement is used to attach the artificial joint to the shin, knee cap and the thigh bone. Once the fitting is complete, the artificial joint is supported by the surrounding muscles.
For most people, knee replacement provides pain relief, improved mobility and a better quality of life. Talk with your doctor about what you can expect from knee replacement surgery.
Three to six weeks after surgery, you generally can resume most daily activities, such as shopping and light housekeeping. Driving is also possible at around three weeks if you can bend your knee far enough to sit in a car and if you have enough muscle control to operate the brakes and accelerator.
After you've recovered, you can enjoy a variety of low-impact activities, such as walking, swimming, golfing or biking. But you should avoid higher impact activities — such as jogging, skiing, tennis and sports that involve contact or jumping. Talk to your doctor about your limitations.
The duration of the hospital stay is around 2-3 days. The effects of the surgery start becoming noticeable within a month of the surgery being carried out. Initially, you may require walking aids. It takes about 5-6 weeks to regain your ability to walk without any external or physical support.
You will have to undergo physical therapy after the surgery to improve your muscle strength. The physiotherapist may prescribe various exercises to strengthen the muscles around the knees. You need to follow certain precautions after the surgery; squatting and kneeling become certain activities which you should avoid. Avoid activities that places undue stress on the knees. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Your knee is guarded and cushioned by a cartilage known as meniscus. A meniscus tear, therefore, is an extremely painful and discomforting situation. It occurs very frequently and has emerged as one of the most commonly occurring cartilage injuries. What makes a meniscus tear an extremely common phenomenon is the way it can tear that is all it takes is a twist of the knee for it to happen.
People involved in sports mostly face the brunt of this form of injury. The risk of getting meniscus torn increases with age and tends to occur at the slightest change of direction of movement.
Some of the symptoms of a torn meniscus are:
- Pain and inflammation: It goes without saying that an internal injury of the cartilage or tearing away of it would inevitably result in extreme pain and inflammation near the knee.
- Immobility: The extreme pain and inflammation, which follows will inevitably make it difficult to move. Since the pain occurs in the joint, you will have difficulty in walking and any forceful movement will only aggravate the pain.
- Locking of the knee: Locking of the knee refers to a situation when you are unable to move your knee. This occurs most commonly after you have your meniscus torn.
Notwithstanding its frequency of occurrence, there are several ways, by which you can treat a torn meniscus. Some of the ways are:
- Apply ice: In order to get some relief, applying ice is a suitable option. If you apply ice every day for some time, it wonders in reducing swelling and the consequent pain.
- Use a bandage: In order to control the swelling, it is important that you cover your knee with an elastic bandage.
- Change the posture: It is important that you keep the affected knee in an elevated plane, in order to ensure an efficient blood supply and a consequent relief from pain.
Some Medical Treatments
There are many things to consider when deciding how to treat your torn meniscus, including the extent and location of the tear, your pain level, your age and activity level, your doctor's preference, and when the injury occurred. Your medical treatment choices are:
- Nonsurgical treatment with compression, elevation, and physical therapy. This may include wearing a temporary shoulder brace.
- Surgical repair to sew the tear together.
- Partial meniscectomy, which is surgery to remove the torn section.
- Total meniscectomy, which is surgery to remove the entire meniscus. This is generally avoided, because this option increases the risk for osteoarthritis in the shoulder.
- Whenever possible, meniscus surgery is done using arthroscopy, rather than through a large cut in the shoulder.
Knee replacement is a procedure where the weight-carrying surfaces of knee joint are replaced surgically to ease the pain or any disability. People suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis undergo knee replacement. All these conditions revolve around stiffness and painful knee. This surgery is usually performed on people aged over 50.
Knee replacement is mainly of two main types:
- Total knee replacement where both the sides of knee joints are replaced
- Partial knee replacement where only single side of the joint is replaced
Procedure: In case of partial knee replacement with minimal invasion, a smaller incision, which is 3 to 5 inches, is required. This leads to minimal tissue damage and the surgeon can work between the fibres of the quadriceps muscles. Here, an incision through the tendon is not required. This may result in less pain, recovery time is reduced, and motion is better as scar tissue formation is less.
In total knee replacement, four steps are performed:
- Removal of damaged cartilage surfaces, which is at the ends of the femur and tibia, with a small quantity of underlying bone.
- Replacement with metal components, which help as a recreated surface of the joint
- Incision of knee cap with a resurface made of a plastic button, which is optional based on the case
- Insertion of a medical grade plastic spacer amid the metal components. This creates an effortless gliding surface.
After general or spinal anaesthesia, an incision of 8-12 inches is made in the front part of the knee. Joint part which is damaged is removed from the surface of the bones. The surfaces are then formed in a way to hold a metal or plastic artificial joint. The thigh bone shin as well as knee cap is attached to the artificial joint with either cement or a special material.
After Effects of the Procedure: After the surgery, patients may stay in a hospital for three to five days. Post surgery, notable improvement can be seen after a month or later. The patient is gradually relieved from pain with the construction of new gliding surface during surgery.
There will be slow progress in the movement. In the beginning, one may walk with a support of parallel bars and then with the help of crutches, walker, or cane. After full recovery in about six weeks, people can enjoy normal activities except running or jumping.
Presently, over 90% of total knee replacements function well even after 15 years of surgery. Hence, knee problem is no problem at all! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Staying healthy involves a wholesome state of being where the mind and body are in perfect sync. A less than properly functioning body can leave you in a state of potential depression after a certain point of time, while a depressive mind can leave you feeling less than stellar where you end up imagining and experiencing pain. The health of your bones and joints is one such area that requires even more care as you start growing older. Wear and tear is just one of the reasons for degeneration while fractures and injuries can lead to a sudden halt of normal functioning of the bones and joints too.
So how can you ensure bone and joint health in the long run? Follow our tips!
- Eating Right: Pick calcium rich food like dairy products that have a low fat content, including milk and yogurt. Also, have a daily dose of green, leafy vegetables and plenty of citrus fruit and juices for your fill of calcium. Further, food like eggs and soybeans which have lots of vitamin D can also help in retaining good bone and joint health. Vitamin C rich fruit like watermelon, oranges, squash and tomatoes also help in natural tissue and cartilage repair. And finally, get plenty of vitamin K to retain good bone density for a prolonged period with ingredients like leafy green vegetables, eggs and cheese.
- Exercise: This is the key to good bone and joint health. Much like machinery and tools, the bones and joints of your body can also wither with disuse and prolonged inactivity. Make sure that you indulge in exercises like long walks and muscle strengthening exercises which will give your joints and bones good amount of strength as well. Remember to speak with your doctor before you start a new exercise regime so that you avoid anything that may be harmful in case you have any other ailment. Low impact exercises will strengthen the spine, while fat burning and weight loss exercises will ensure that there is less pressure on the knees and lumbar area. Swimming and resistance building exercises can also be practised for these purposes.
- Abstinence: A major factor in promoting better bone and joint health is abstinence from all those things that can create problems in the long run, like smoking, drinking excessively and even too much consumption of caffeine and fatty food. All these things can create depletion of the natural bone mass. Also, switching to a lower heel for everyday wear footwear and changing your position during your time at your workstation are a few things that will go a long way.
Take care of your bones and joints the right way today, for a healthier tomorrow. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Adhesive capsulitis: an overview
If you are taken aback by the very mention of this condition, you must know this is something you face every now and then. The problem is not too serious until it persists and hence people do not bother to look up terrifying medical terms for the case. Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is a condition that could arise from a host of reasons. It is usually characterized by a marked stiffness in and around the shoulder blade felt either in the middle of the night, early in the morning or while trying to move a hand close to the end of its reach. Frozen shoulder might become a chronic problem in which case remedying it takes a minimum of one or two years.
Factors leading to Adhesive capsulitis
- This condition is prevalent amongst patients of diabetes.
- Lack of movement of a limb, either of the two hands, due to a fracture or a surgery can result in the same.
- Adhesive capsulitis occurs when the capsule of connective tissues ensconcing the ligaments and bones of your shoulder joint tightens around them hindering free and easy movement.
How is Adhesive Capsulitis Treated?
There are various treatments for adhesive capsulitis. Even though the condition usually gets better on its own, improvement can take two to three years. Over 90% of patients improve with non-surgical treatments, including the following:
- Physical therapy
- Corticosteroid injections
- Anti-inflammatory medications
Surgery can be performed for patients who see no improvement after non-surgical measures are taken.
How is subacromial bursitis different from Adhesive capsulitis?
While a frozen shoulder affects your entire shoulder area, subacromial bursitis affects a single point in the shoulder blade. The topmost boney part of the shoulder blade is referred to as the acromion. The acromion is placed above the ball- and- socket joint without touching the bones directly. The subacromial bursa is a soft cushion like thing that prohibits friction between the muscles or tendons of the shoulder joint and the acromion. An irritable subacromial bursa is referred to as subacromial bursitis.
How is Subacromial Bursitis Treated?
Subacromial Bursitis can be treated in a number of ways, including:
- Avoiding activities that aggravate the problem
- Resting the injured area
- Icing the area the day of the injury
- Taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicines
- What do you mean by rotator cuff tear?
Rotator cuff is a group of tendons and muscles located on top of the upper arm bone or humerus. The cuff helps to hold your arm in place allowing easy movement. Acute stress or physical exertion can lead to muscle cramps or might even make the tendons tear apart. Tennis players, swimmers, or people lifting heavy weights are prone to Rotator Cuff Tear. This condition leads to excruciating pain and tenderness in your shoulder blade.
What's the Treatment for a Rotator Cuff Tear?
As bad as these injuries can be, the good news is that many rotator cuff tears heal on their own. You just need to give them a little time. You also should:
- Rest the joint as much as possible. Avoid any movement or activity that hurts. You may need a sling.
- Ice your shoulder two to three times a day to reduce pain and swelling.
- Perform range-of-motion exercises, if your doctor recommends them.
- Consider physical therapy to strengthen the joint.
- Use anti-inflammatory painkillers, or NSAIDS, like Advil, Aleve, or Motrin.
More serious rotator cuff tears require surgery. One procedure is shoulder arthroscopy, usually an outpatient procedure. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Metabolic Bone Disease is a term used for various conditions of the bones that can be caused by a number of different disorders. Most of these disorders are developed due to nutritional deficiencies, defects in the bone metabolism procedure or due to hereditary defects in the skeletal structure. Conditions that fall under the category are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, Paget's disease, parathyroid conditions, chemotherapy induced bone loss and menopause induced bone loss.
Causes of Metabolic Bone Diseases:
- Imbalance in the level of calcium : Too much calcium or too little calcium can cause bone diseases. While the overabundance of calcium (hypercalcemia) in the body will lead to calculi formation, which can be harmful for the body, the lack of calcium (hypocalcemia) causes weakness, bone pain and restricted growth.
- Deficiency of phosphorus: Low phosphorus in blood (hypophosphatemia) leads to softening of the bone tissue and bone loss. Osteomalacia is commonly caused by phosphorus deficiencies.
- Deficiency of Vitamin D: Vitamin D is essential for the body to absorb calcium. Cells called osteoblasts need vitamin D in order to absorb calcium and secrete the bone tissue proteins. A deficiency of vitamin D can lead to a number of metabolic bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis.
- Over or under secretion of the parathyroid hormone:The parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the secretion of an enzyme, which converts the inactive circulatory form of vitamin D into its active usable form. The hormone can also increase the circulation of free or ionized calcium (Ca2+), which is not attached to proteins. Both underproduction and overproduction of the hormone causes skeletal problems.
Symptoms of Metabolic Bone Diseases:
The symptoms of most of the Metabolic Bone Diseases are similar, such as
- A dull, throbbing pain in the bones is the most common symptom. The pain is frequent and lasts for a long amount of time, but unlike muscular pain, the exact region of bone pain cannot be specified.
- Severe joint pains accompanied by stiffness and swelling of the joints. The patient experience pain during regular physical activities, especially during cold weather conditions.
- Frequent fractures are caused by most bone diseases because the bone mineral density decreases drastically. Severe bone injury may be caused by mild trauma.
- Defects in the bones can cause bowed out legs and a bent backbone.
- A general feeling of exhaustion is often caused by bone diseases.
- Kidney stones are an associated complication of metabolic bone diseases. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
Shin splints is a condition, which is characterized by pain in the shin bone, the bone that is present in front of the leg. Shin splints tend to occur quite frequently in runners and dancers as their activities tend to stress the shin bone.
Causes: When excess force is applied to the shinbone, it may result in swelling of the muscles, causing pain and inflammation. It may also occur from stress reactions to fractures in the bone. Cracks tend to develop due to constant application of force in the bones. If the area is not well rested then these cracks will not heal and ultimately lead to a complete fracture.
Some other causes of shin splints are:
- Muscle imbalance in the glutes or the thighs
- Anatomical deformity such as flat foot
- Not using proper form during training
- Lack of flexibility
- If you wear improper shoes during workouts, then it may lead to shin problems
- Running downhill may lead to excessive stress on the shin leading to shin splints
The symptoms of shin splints are:
- You may experience swelling in the lower leg
- A dull pain in the front portion of the leg
- Tenderness around the shin area
- Numbness around the shin area
- Inflammation in the shin area
- You may experience severe pain while walking
Treatment: The basic treatment for shin splints is the RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation) protocol. It means allowing the leg to rest, applying ice packs and wearing compression bandages. It is recommended to take rest and not exert the leg beyond a certain point to limit the damage. The complications that may result from shin splints are compartment syndrome, where there is buildup of pressure in the muscle. In some cases, where the muscle tears off from the bone, a surgery may be required to treat this condition. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an orthopedist.
The human hand has multiple bones, tendons, ligaments and muscles which in unison help us to grip things and manipulate other objects to do our work. Within the wrist lies a narrow passageway on the palm side which houses the main nerve for movement of the nine tendons. These tendons help us to move our fingers individually and grip things or accomplish any task we want with our hands.
What is Carpal tunnel syndrome?
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition where this nerve gets pinched due to a variety of factors and may have adverse effects. Some of the symptoms include tingling, numbness and pain with movements of the arm.
Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
The nerve within the wrist which is known as the median nerve can be pinched due to a variety of factors:
- Movements where the wrists are always higher and in an angle: Repetitive movements of the wrists where the hands are always at a lower angle, can increase the chances of carpal tunnel syndrome. This is usually a workplace related problem and thus be caused by bad hand posture.
- Medical Conditions: There are certain medical conditions that may also trigger the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome such as diabetes, thyroid, menopause and other problems.
- Pregnancy: Pregnancy has also known to cause carpal tunnel disorder as it can alter the balance of fluids within your body. However, other factors could also put your fluids in imbalance and cause problems with the median nerve.
- Conditions that may cause inflammation: Certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis can cause the inflammation within the joints which might lead to the median nerve being pinched which in turn might lead to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Some Preventive Measures from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
- Breaks from repetitive work: It is important for your wrists to have a break when you are doing repetitive tasks that might cause carpal tunnel syndrome. Relax and stretch your muscles within the break time
- Wear wrist splints: These are support devices which can help correct problems for repetitive actions throughout the day while you are sleeping.
- Take pain reliever if you start having chronic pains: If your wrist pain is not letting you functions normally, take a pain reliever such as ibuprofen or aspirin and go to a doctor as soon as possible for a more thorough treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an orthopaedist.
Rare forms of bone oriented tumours are giant cell tumours, which are mostly found in the bones that are long. This tumour is mostly found in young people between the age of 25 to 40 years and is more common in women than in men. The slow progressive growth of this tumour is more like a lesion rather than a mass, and it causes significant pain. It can also lead to bone destruction. Let us find out the various facets of these tumours including causes, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
- Causes: The actual cause of this condition is not yet known, although many orthopaedic specialists tend to associate it with Paget disease, which is a chronic bone disorder. The main symptoms of this disease include enlargement and deformity of the bones. Giant cell tumours are not associated with injuries, genetics or environmental factors.
- Symptoms: There are many symptoms that can point at the presence of the giant cell tumour. These include pain in the joints surrounding the bone on which the tumour is growing. Also, inflammation and fractures might be caused due to this growth. The surrounding joints may face difficulty as far as movement goes, and fluid retention might also take place.
- Diagnosis: The diagnosis of the condition is usually done by an orthopaedic specialist who will conduct an x-Ray to study the area surrounding the bone. This will help in throwing up images of the tissue, bones and other organs in the area. The doctor may also carry out a biopsy during which tissue samples will be procured for further examination under a microscope, so as to determine whether or not the growth is a malignant one. Also, radionuclide bone scans may be conducted to find out if there is any bone change due to other bone diseases and this tumour.
- Treatment: The treatment of this condition will depend largely on the patient's age and medical history where the doctor may take stock of any other ailments and diseases which may or may not interfere with the chosen path of treatment. One of the ways of treating this condition is with surgery that will help in removing the damaged bone. In very severe cases, amputation may also be required. Further, bone reconstruction surgery can also be followed for treatment.
- Prognosis: Local recurrence is a risk as far as giant cell tumours are concerned. A CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvic area should be carried out in a routine manner for at least two years after treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopaedist.