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Treatment of Neurological Problems
Treatment of Nerve And Muscle Disorders
Treatment of Paralysis
Cerebral Palsy Treatment
Brain Tumor Surgery
Electroconvulsive Therapy (Ect) Treatment
Surgery Of The Facial Nerve
Radiofrequency Neurotomy Procedure
Spine Surgery Treatment
Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi) Treatment
Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi)
Assistive Walking Device Training
Vagus Nerve Stimulation ( Epilepsy )
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When particular nerve cells in the brain don't function properly, it leads to epilepsy, which is a common brain disorder. There are several variants of epilepsy, and the one that you are suffering from would play a major role in the type of seizure you are likely to have. Here are the two most common type of seizures:
Common types of Seizures
- Generalized seizures: This type of seizures take place when nerve cells on both sides of the brain start misfiring. They may lead to black out, fall or muscle spasms.
- Focal seizures: It starts in a particular area of the brain, and the names of the seizure are based on the affected area of the brain. They may lead to both emotional and physical effects which may affect the way a person feels or sees or hear things that have no real presence. In particular cases, the symptoms of focal seizures are regarded of some other kinds of mental or nervous disorder.
Seizures are not considered an either-or thing since some people tend to have a particular type of seizure which gradually alters its course. It is not always easy to classify certain types of seizures which are called unknown-onset seizures and may lead to both physical and sensory symptoms. Both focal and generalized seizures can be categorized into various groups. The most common are listed below:
Subcategories of focal and generalized seizures
- Simple focal seizures: It may change how the senses read the surroundings of a person. It can make a familiar taste or smell appear strange. Some people feel dizzy or visualize flashes of light or make the affected individual feel nauseated or sweaty.
- Complex focal seizures: It normally happens when a part of the brain which controls emotion and memory gets affected. The affected person may feel awake even when he has lost consciousness. It can take several minutes for a person to come out of the problem.
Secondary generalized seizures: It starts when a part of the brain spreads to the nerve cells. They may lead to a few physical symptoms including muscle slackness and convulsions.
On the other hand, there are six variants of generalized seizures:
- Clinic seizure: The muscles tend to have spasms which make a face, neck, and arms jerk rhythmically. It can last for minutes together.
- Tonic-clonic seizure: These are the most notable type of seizures and leads to stiffening of the body, jerking and shaking along with the loss of consciousness. It can last between 1 to 3 minutes, and in case they go for a longer span, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. It may lead to breathing issues and may cause the person to bite his tongue or cheek.
- Tonic seizures: When the muscled in the legs or arms or trunk tense up for more than 20 seconds, it is called a tonic seizure. If the affected person is in standing position, he or she may end up falling.
Other types of generalized seizure include atonic seizure, absence seizure and myoclonic seizure which are commonly seen in people who have epilepsy.
As children, you have probably learnt that paralysis is complete inability to move, sense, touch or control other bodily sensations. But little did we know that paralysis comes in many forms depending on the extent to which a person is immobilized. So, what is the difference between partial and total paralysis?
What is Total Paralysis?
Whether temporary or permanent, paralysis is the inability to move part of the body due to nerve damage. However it does not mean that people with total paralysis cannot move any parts of the body – they can still use their faces and necks. The extensive form of paralysis is typically referred to as quadriplegia, which involves diminished or absence of movement in the trunk, arms, legs, hands and feet. Some common symptoms of total paralysis are as follows:
- Difficulty swallowing
- Unable to control bowels and bladder
- Pain anywhere in the body
- No sensation below the site of injury
- Difficulty breathing
What is partial paralysis?
A smaller portion of the body is affected by partial paralysis. One of the most common types of partial paralysis is Paraplegia that occurs below the waist. If affects both the legs, hips and other functions. Other forms of partial paralysis can be Monoplegia where a single area like one limb gets affected and Hemiplegia where parts of the body on the same side get affected. Some common symptoms of partial paralysis are as follows:
- Inability to walk
- Difficulty with sexual functioning
- Pain below the site of injury
- Unable to feel or move your legs or arms
How to Predict the type of paralysis?
The location of the injury or site of nerve damage will usually determine the type of paralysis. Damages in the cervical spinal cord almost inevitably lead to total paralysis associated with quadriplegia. The higher the injury is located, the more extensive the paralysis will be. Lower injuries commonly lead to partial paralysis. The prognosis is generally much better with this type of paralysis. With proper care and therapy, individuals may experience intermittent difficulties with movement and can regain.
Can paralysis be treated?
Whether it is total paralysis or partial paralysis, the positive prognosis is certainly possible, given the condition of the patient and other factors. Physical therapy involves teaching the brain and spinal cord to work around the damage and also aid neuron healing over time. Paralysis can be classified under a number of ways and the most basic classification is that of partial or complete paralysis. Talk to your doctor to understand what type of paralysis you have and adopt a positive outlook to help you towards recovery. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A stroke, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult(CVI), or brain attack, occurs when a part of the brain is deprived of blood flow. When the brain cells are deprived of oxygen they begin to die. When brain cells die, the functions controlled by that part of the brain also stops, which results in different types of disabilities among stroke survivors.
There are two types of strokes
- Ischemic stroke
The first is caused when a brain aneurysm or a weak blood vessel bursts. Most of the time, this type of stroke leads to death. The second one happens when a clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain. Patients suffering from stroke suffer from various side-effects, the most common ones being paralysis or loss of feeling in a certain part of the body, problem in understanding or talking and loss of vision in one side. The side-effects start showing up regularly after a person has had a stroke.
In certain conditions, blood flow to a certain part of the brain stops for only some time and hence the body suffers stroke like symptoms which only last a couple of hours before disappearing. This is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Unfortunately, the effects of a stroke can be debilitating and also permanent. Hence its important to know the symptoms of a stroke and rush the patient to a doctor as soon as possible. Sometimes early treatment can save a lot of damage.
The primary symptoms of stroke are as follows:
- Confusion and problems with talking and comprehension
- Headache along with alteration of consciousness or vomiting
- Numbness of the face, arms or legs, especially on one side of the body
- Issue with seeing, in one or both eyes
- Inability to walk with stability, including disrupted coordination
- Problems with the bladder and bowel control
- Acute depression
- Body temperature fluctuates, and pain worsens with movement
- Paralysis on one side of the body along with fatigue
- Problem in expressing or controlling emotions
Diagnosis of stroke
Several tests are carried out to determine the type of stroke acquired. They are:
- Physical examination, which involves observing the patient's overall condition.
- Blood tests
- CT scans
- MRI scans
- Cerebral angiogram
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes a degradation and eventually death of the brain cells. People with Alzheimer's disease suffer from a memory loss. There is also a progressive decline in the cognitive capacity of the brain.Today, Alzheimer's disease and dementia have become almost synonymous with old age. It is a heartbreaking experience to see aged people with Alzheimer's disease. They have little or no memory of the present time, of their loved people or the things around them.
The Alzheimer's disease starts off as a mild condition and then gradually progresses through stages. In this article, we will discuss the different stages associated with Alzheimer's disease.
- The first stage: This stage shows no significant changes in the affected person. Thus, without any diagnostic tests (such as a PET scan), it will be difficult to detect the condition in the initial stage.
- The second stage: This stage brings about some changes in the person. The person might misplace things or may even forget words (something that is often brushed aside as a small problem). However, this seldom interferes with their daily activities. Like the first stage, this stage, in most cases, goes unnoticed.
- The third stage: This is the stage that brings about visible changes in the person concerned such as
- The fourth stage: This stage marks a further decline in the mental health. The person gets forgetful about himself or herself. They also start mixing up with the dates and months or makes major goof up while cooking (misses out on ingredients).
- The fifth stage: The mental deterioration reaches a step further. The person slowly starts forgetting about the present, such as their address, the time of the day, their profession and even phone numbers.
- The sixth stage: The problem is getting worse. Hallucination is slowly setting in. The person is starting to forget people and their faces, mixing one identity with another.
- The seventh stage: The final and unfortunately, the worst stage. The person stops talking to people, eating, or even walking. They stay confined to their world, oblivious of their immediate surrounding.
Dealing with an Alzheimer patient
- In addition to the treatment and medication, a person with Alzheimer's disease needs the love, care, and support of their close and dear ones. Isolating them will only worsen the situation.
- It may not be easy to deal with an Alzheimer's patient as the disease progresses, but do not be rude to them. Give them the confidence.
- Always keep a paper containing their name, address and emergency contact number in their wallet.
- People after the age of 50 should undergo regular health check ups.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
June is known as the Brain Tumour Month worldwide. It’s worthwhile to raise public awareness and educate people about brain tumour, a disease which, though is rare is but can be really deadly. More than 500 new cases are diagnosed with brain tumour every day worldwide. The number of patients with secondary tumours are even higher than 500. However, it is common across all ages. A primary brain tumour is a tumour that begins in the brain. It can be either malignant, which means it contains cancer cells or benign i.e. does not contain cancer cells. A secondary or metastatic brain tumour is usually cancerous. It starts elsewhere in the body and sends cancerous cells which grow in the brain.
Here are a few facts that each one of us should know about this dangerous disease
- Brain tumours can occur at any age.
- We don’t know what causes brain tumors. Family history and high dose radiation like X-rays increases your risk.
- Doctors group brain tumors by grade which means the way the brain cells look under a microscope. A higher grade number means the cells appear more abnormal and the more aggressively the tumour usually behaves.
- Brain tumors are graded as grade I, grade II, or grade III, or grade IV.
The symptoms of brain tumour depend on the size, type, and location of the brain tumour. Some common symptoms which should not be ignored are-
- Problems with vision
- Mental and personality changes
- Balance problems and trouble walking
- Problems in speaking
Brain tumours are diagnosed by the doctor based on the medical history and physical examination along with a slew of specialized tests of the brain and nervous system.
- Radiation therapy
- Anti-seizure medicines
- Ventricular peritoneal shunt
- Combination of treatments
How can you safeguard yourself?
The primary tool to prevent brain tumours is by controlling your lifestyle. This means eating healthy, exercising, avoiding known carcinogens in your environment, and reducing stress.
- Sleep: Sleep is a friend for brain health. An adequate amount of rest with eyes shut keeps your brain health.
- Frankincense oil: Along with yoga, meditation, and breathing exercises to reduce stress, inhaling frankincense oil can help alleviate inflammation in the brain.
- Anti cancer diet: Consuming a diet rich in cancer-fighting nutrients like antioxidants is critical in preventing brain tumors.
- Ketogenic diet: A ketogenic diet is a high protein diet. It reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain which is associated with brain tumours. It also shuts down the nutrient supply to tumors.
- Calorie restriction: Dietary restriction, especially fasting has anti-carcinogenic properties just as the ketogenic diet.
- Limit exposure to mobile phones: Cell phones use increases risk for brain tumours. So restriction prevents these tumours.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If you are being treated for Parkinson's disease. How can you maximize the effect of Levodopa? The effect of levodopa can be maximized by increasing its absorption from the digestive system. In particular, taking levodopa on an empty stomach is very important.
- Take on an empty stomach: Do not eat anything 1 hour before taking levodopa. Do not eat anything for at least 30 minutes and if possible 1 hour after taking it. Take the pill with 2 glasses of water so that it can dissolve. If taking the levodopa on an empty stomach makes you nauseous, confirm that your medication has the right amount of carbidopa in relation to the levodopa (25%). If you continue to feel nauseous, you can eat a piece of white bread around the time that you take levodopa. Do not apply any butter, yogurt, cheese or similar high protein spreads. Protein can drastically decrease the absorption of levodopa.
- Get your constipation treated: This is critically important too. Being constipated can slow down the passage of levodopa through the digestive system. In most patients, drinking adequate water and taking stool softeners is helpful.
- Get your ulcer treated: It can be difficult to recognize that you have a gastric ulcer. However, if you have a burning sensation in your stomach at any time, or belch frequently, you may have a gastric ulcer. If you think you have an ulcer you should get tested (there is a simple breath test now) and treated with antibiotics (not antacids!)
- Do not take levodopa with iron tablets: The iron binds to levodopa and prevents its absorption. Keep a gap of at least two hours between these two medications.
- Try taking levodopa with orange juice and carbonated water (soda): Mix equal quantities of orange juice and carbonated water (soda). Take your regular levodopa with a glass of this preparation instead of water. The carbonated water hastens disintegration of the tablet, and the acidity of both things helps in levodopa absorption. There are special tablets of levodopa (dispersible levodopa, Madopar) which can be dissolved in this preparation. Talk to your doctor about it.
The relationship between intelligence and brain size, both among people and between various species, has never been precisely well defined. People often believe that their outstanding psychological capacities must mean that they are superior to all animals as far as brain size is concerned. However, it is not true since whales and elephants have much bigger brains than humans and humans have the same brain-to-body mass proportion as mice do.
Here are a number of ways by which the brain size can be determined:
- Encephalization remainder: Since it would be against human instinct to admit loss and defeat, researchers have created a measure to determine the brain size called the encephalization remainder. It is the proportion of actual brain mass with respect to the anticipated cerebrum mass for the animal’s size (based on the suspicion that bigger animals require somewhat less brain matter with respect to their size, compared to little animals). By this metric, human beings prove to be the best, with an EQ of 7.5 outperforming the dolphin's 5.3 and the mouse's 0.5.
- IQ testing: Without a solitary and evident method for measuring intelligence, some improved tests like IQ (Intelligence Quotient) are by and large acknowledged as a moderately decent working device. IQ estimations are not without issues, and there is a great deal of criticism about their significance. IQ testing uses government sanctioned tests, for example, the WAIS–III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). The normal IQ is somewhere around 90 and 110. The scores beneath the normal may demonstrate changing degrees of pathology, for example, marginal intellectual function, or mental hindrance of different severity. Over the normal range is regularly connected with knowledge, splendour, talent, or genius. However, as with computers of a few eras, size and intellect do not precisely relate. Present day portable computers weighing around one or two kilogrammes can store more data and perform a greater number of assignments than supercomputers from the 1980s that used to possess expansive structures. This is a contrast amongst quantity and quality. Numerous scientists now hold the view that it is not the whole brain, which is bigger in a human with a higher IQ, yet rather certain zones that are denser and might be bigger. A fascinating late revelation is that these ranges can be expanded in size and enhanced in usefulness during the course of our life.
- NeuroplasticityIt refers to the dynamic procedure of repair and maintenance that our brains are continually experiencing. We are conceived with around hundred billion neurones, yet lose around two hundred thousand a day to a procedure called pruning. As we develop and grow, pathways in the brain that are not required are detached, and the neurones pass on. However, in a compensatory procedure, new neurones are delivered and more detailed associations are built up between neurones that are more dynamic. This is the procedure of de-cluttering, in which our brains develop to work at most extreme effectiveness.
It is common belief that alcohol consumption is a social menace and is injurious to health. It is the third leading lifestyle causes of death in the United States and takes a toll on the health care costs of the country. Many organs like the liver, kidney, heart, and brain are affected in people who are addicted to alcohol. However, it has been proven that alcohol consumption in minor amounts can have beneficial effects on the human body including the heart.
The side effects depend on a number of factors listed below.
- Type of alcohol consumption (social or habitual drinker)
- Amount of alcohol consumed
- Frequency of drinking
- Age, gender, and genetic predisposition of the person to develop alcohol-related diseases
- Family history of alcoholism and its related diseases
- Age at which the person started drinking
- The number of years that a person has been consuming alcohol
- Overall health condition of the person
- Exposure to alcohol as a fetus
Like the adage goes, anything in excess is bad. It is not necessary that a habitual or social drinker who consumes a drink or two per week would end up with these issues. In fact, if recent studies are to be believed, mild to moderate intake of alcohol does have a benefit to overall health.
- The cardiovascular benefits are the most prominent. Red wine and beer, in particular, are shown to provide benefits against cardiovascular damage in the long run. This could be due to the antioxidant properties of red wine. Alcohol itself (ethanol or ethyl alcohol) also has a positive effect. Some varieties of beer, porter and stout varieties in particular, are also shown to be beneficial. The anti-inflammatory properties and antiatherogenic (effect on plaque formation in the blood vessel) are what contribute to these positive effects.
- There is evidence to show that cholesterol profile is improved (good cholesterol increase) and clotting function is improved in people who have mild alcohol consumption.
- The insulin sensitivity is also better, leading to better control of sugar levels.
- Light alcohol consumption also is believed to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, heavy alcohol consumption is believed to increase the risk of stroke and other cerebral events.
- Limited alcohol use is also linked with reduced risk of dementia. Heavy consumption leads to faster memory decline.
- The key to note is that these benefits are only when the alcohol consumption is mild to moderate. In excess, the negative effects of alcohol are well established and numerous. Some of the most significant ones being cirrhosis of the liver and cancers of various organs including mouth, liver, larynx, oesophagus, colon, breast, pancreas, etc. To reduce these effects, alcohol screening and brief counselling to reduce habituation are helpful.
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person’s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer’s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer’s affected brain. These plaques are given the name “amyloid plaques” because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.
There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-
- Anti-anxiety medications
- Hitting on the head too many times
- Regularly sleep-deprived
- Diabetes in the brain
- Old age
- Genetic line
- Down’s syndrome
- Cardiovascular diseases
Alzheimer’s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-
- Memory loss
- Agitation and mood swings
- Poor judgment
- The trouble with money calculations
- Difficulty doing familiar tasks
- Trouble in planning or solving a problem
- Confusion with time and place
- Difficulty in communicating
- Loss of motivation
- Inappropriate behavior
- Aggressive personality
- Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer’s disease:
Alzheimer’s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it’s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer’s disease are-
- Eating more fruits and vegetables.
- Eating berries every day.
- Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
- Taking folic acid supplements.
- Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
- Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
- Controlling the blood pressure.
- Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease:
- Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is a long time process.
- First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
- Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
- Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
- Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
- After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.
Alzheimer’s disease is undoubtedly the worst kind of disease. Hence, it is highly recommended to contact a doctor as soon as any symptom is noticed.