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Endocrinology deals with hormones, hormone systems and hormonal disorders. The organs that come under endocrinology are pituitary gland, adrenal glands, ovaries or testicles, thyroid gland and pancreas. These organs maintain the chemical balance of the body by secreting hormones which regulate all the body systems.
Relation between the endocrine system and diabetes:
The hormone insulin is secreted by the pancreatic beta cells called the islets of Langerhans. It is a peptide hormone that metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins and fats, stimulates the conversion of glycogen or stored protein to usable glucose and also helps the body cells to absorb the glucose. The movement of ionized or free calcium (Ca2+) is also somewhat dependent on insulin.
Insulin is secreted from the pancreas in two phases - the first phase occurs when blood sugar level is high and need to be absorbed into the cells while the second phase is associated with a slower production not influenced by blood sugar.
Types of diabetes and how they are affected by the endocrine system
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus: This condition is caused by underproduction of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells. It is called 'insulin dependent diabetes mellitus' (IDDM), since it is directly influenced by the hormone.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus: This type of the disorder is not directly dependent on insulin. It is usually caused by obesity and lack of physical exercise. The cells develop resistance to insulin and because of that blood sugar is not absorbed properly. This eventually leads to under-secretion of insulin.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus: Pregnant women might develop high levels of blood sugar even if they did not have diabetes in the past. This occurs due the changes in the regular hormonal cycles and secretion of pregnancyhormones and can result is complications and miscarriage.
Sub-specialties of diabetic endocrinology
- Diabetic renal disease: The kidneys filter the blood. If there are chronically high levels of sugar in blood, hormones like erythropoietin (regulates production of red blood cells) and renin (regulates blood plasma and fluid content) are not produced. As a result, the kidneys' capacity is reduced and waste materials build up in blood.
- Diabetic vision problems: Insulin problems may cause the blood vessels supplying the retina (light sensitive eye tissue) to expand or contract. This causes blurry and distorted vision and pain in the eyes.
Respected Sirs PLEASE HELP THIS OLD MAN OF 70 YEARS ,AS I AM IN TROUBLE .WHAT IS THE REMEDY OF ANTI TG SO HIGH Based on the feedback given earlier by Drs in this forum I have done an Anti- TPO Antibody test and also repeat TSH, FT3 and FT4 tests on 28/06/2014. Apollo Diagnostics have also MEASURED Anti-Thyroglobulin. While all the test results are OK, Result of Anti-Thyroglobulin IS NOT OK TSH is 4.76 µIU/mL, Free T3 is 3.14 pg/mL ,Free T4 is 0.89 µIU/mL ,Anti-TPO is 38.6 (<60 U/ml: Anti-TPO Negative, Anti-Thyroglobulin is 161.0*(Too Much)[>=60 U/ml: Anti-Tg Positive].I DO NOT KNOW THE IMPLICATION OF ANTI TG SO MUCH POSITIVE ORIGINAL CASE HISTORY OF THE PATIENT Without any symptom my wife (62 years) went for T3, T4, THS test as a routine check up ON 28/03/2017 1) Although TSH Level is Elevated is 7.87 uIU/ml (Normal Range-0.27-4.90), 2) T3 Level is Normal at 1.40 ng/ml (Normal Range-0.80 -2.0) 3) and T4 Level is Normal at 11.35.ug/dL (Normal Range-5.1-14.1). endocrinologist was consulted. The doctor opined it as Subclinical Hypothyroidism (beginning) and recommended Thyroxine Supplement.(Thyronorm 25 mcg) and advised to see him after 3 months of taking medicine and repeat tests. As a precautionary measure AFTER 28 DAYS ONLY I DID a REPEAT TEST FOR TSH ONLY in the same laboratory AND SURPRISINGLY TSH WAS FOUND TO BE ONLY 0.07 (Normal Range-0.34-5.60) I again went to the doctor concerned and he advised to STOP THYRONORM PLEASE ADVISE NOW. With thanks.
I have thyroid from three years. Since few days am so sleepy, am so hungry. Is this a chance to increase in thyroid levels. My report is normal.
For pre diabetes and ldl cholesterol just pp 206 (6 pts more than normal) and ldl 159 (1pt less upto 160 normal) if I need any medicine or by food exercise walk/standing/fruits/frequency of light food can bring this to normal and maintain. Thanks for your anticipated reply.
My tsh level is 11 rest t3 and t4 are normal. I am 40 years female with some symptoms of hairfall and mild weight gain.
I have lake of iron. And hypothyroidism. So please suggest the food should be eaten or avoid. Tsh 12.10 iu/ml Iron 53.3 ug/DL.
One of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to major heart problems. It is thus pertinent to take timely actions to control the insulin-related issues and save ourselves from CVD.
It is important to understand how diabetic patients are more prone to CVD than others to take pre-emptive actions to control it.
- Atrial Fibrillation: Atrial Fibrillation means an irregular and rapid heart rate which can increase the risk of stroke, heart failure and other cardiac issues. Individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation. This risk is higher among patients with a longer duration of treated diabetes and poorer glycemic control.
- Hyperglycemia: Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes, when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin.
- Hypertension: Hypertension in diabetes is considered a major contributor to the increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic patients, especially those with Type 2, need to always have their blood pressure checked every visit to the doctor. Self-monitoring at home is also a must to maintain and control the rise of blood pressure. The American Diabetes Association recommends a target blood pressure of not more than 130/85 mm Hg to maintain a good level of blood pressure.
- Smoking: Smoking has been determined dangerous to our health. Studies show that smoking indeed increase risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.