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Dr. Ponmalar

Gynaecologist, Chennai

100 at clinic
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Dr. Ponmalar Gynaecologist, Chennai
100 at clinic
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I pride myself in attending local and statewide seminars to stay current with the latest techniques, and treatment planning....more
I pride myself in attending local and statewide seminars to stay current with the latest techniques, and treatment planning.
More about Dr. Ponmalar
Dr. Ponmalar is a renowned Gynaecologist in Chintadripet, Chennai. Doctor is currently associated with Dr. Ponmalar@Appasamy Krishna Hospital in Chintadripet, Chennai. Don’t wait in a queue, book an instant appointment online with Dr. Ponmalar on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 44 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Chennai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Appasamy Krishna Hospital

#191,100 Feet Bye Pass Road, Vijayanagar, Velacheri. Landmark: Near To Naidu HallChennai Get Directions
100 at clinic
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Difficulty In Swallowing - Signs You Need To Be Aware Of!

MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Jaipur
Difficulty In Swallowing - Signs You Need To Be Aware Of!

Dysphagia is the medical term associated with difficulty in swallowing. This condition results from an impeded transport of liquids and solids from the pharyngeal opening to the stomach. Some people with dysphagia have difficulty in swallowing certain foods or liquids, while others are unable to swallow at all. Painful swallowing is termed as Odynophagia. It is usually caused by nerve or muscle problems and it can be painful. It is more common in older people and infants.

The different types of dysphagia are as follows:

  • Oral dysphagia (high dysphagia): Caused by tongue weakness after a stroke, difficulty in chewing food, or problems transporting food from the mouth. The causative factor is present in the oral cavity itself.
  • Pharyngeal dysphagia: Throat is the area of causation. Problems in the throat are often caused by a neurological problem that affects the nervous system (e.g. Parkinson's disease, stroke, or sclerosis).
  • Esophageal dysphagia (low dysphagia): Esophagus is affected primarily, usually due to a blockage or irritation. A surgical procedure is often required.

Causes of esophageal dysplasia include

Odynophagia is different condition.  It is possible to be suffering from both conditions at the same time. Globus is the sensation of something being stuck in the throat. Differential diagnosis should be made prior to treatment.

Signs and symptoms of dysphagia include:

  • Inability to swallow
  • Experiencing sensation of food getting stuck in throat or chest
  • Drooling
  • Hoarseness
  • Regurgitation
  • Frequent heartburn
  • Feeling of food or stomach acid back up into the throat
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Coughing or gagging during swallowing
  • Swallowing disorders needs proper diagnosis before treatment 

Risk factors: 

  • Aging affects the normal wear and tear of the esophagus and increases the risk of swallowing difficulties.  
  • Certain neurological or nervous system disorders are more likely to act as risk factors of dysphagia.
  • Upper GI tract endoscopy is done to provide a confirmatory diagnosis of dysphagia.
  • When the upper GI endoscopy is normal, biopsies are advised to rule out eosinophilic esophagitis.

Diagnosis

Investigations needed Endoscopy Biopsy Barium swallow Manometery(HRM)

Treatment:

Treatment of dysphagia is aimed at an elimination of the cause.

Oropharyngeal or high dysplasia: Since oropharyngeal dysphagia is commonly a neurological problem, provision of an effective treatment is challenging.

  • Targeted treatment is useful, e.g Patients with Parkinson's disease respond well to Parkinson's disease medication.
  • Swallowing therapy is done with a speech and language therapist.
  • The individual will learns different ways of swallowing properly and conveniently.
  • Exercises can help to improve the muscles and their response.
  • Dietary changes are advised.
  • Certain foods and liquids are easier to swallow.
  • A well-balanced diet easy to swallow diet is prescribed.
  • If the patient is at risk of pneumonia, a nasal feeding tube (nasogastric tube) or PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) is used to provide nutrition.
  • The PEG tubes are surgically implanted directly into the stomach. They are passed through a small incision in the abdomen.

Esophageal or low dysplasia: Surgical intervention is usually necessary. A dilatation procedure is undertaken to widen the esophagus. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3151 people found this helpful

I am having tightness in my right breast from past 2 days. I felt like a knot in my breast. Then I took a hot bag as it was paining allot. Now the tightness is less. And I can feel the pain only when I touch it. Little redness was there. But no excretion was there from my breast.

Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
Due to hormonal changes and also check whether you have pre menstrual syndrome where the chest congestion and lump or knot feel in the breast is quite common. It is called premenstrual syndrome, it is quite common to feel that sensation, if you are pregnant you may not sever back pain. If the back and the leg pain is severe in general it is due to the pre menstrual syndrome, since the periods are delayed by 3 days the intense pain is quite natural do not worry.

What Causes Infertility in Men?

M.D.Medicine, Diploma in Diabetology
Sexologist, Jaipur
What Causes Infertility in Men?

Both women and men suffer from infertility troubles. There are a host of causes that may lead to infertility in men such as lifestyle choices and obesity. Male infertility is characterized by irregular sperm function or reduced sperm count. Infertility has emerged as a common problem as a result of the modern day lifestyle. Extremely hectic schedules, stress, burnout, depression, unhealthy diets; all of these can contribute to fertility issues.

The various reasons for infertility in men are:

  1. If you are overweight, then it is time to lose those extra kilos. Obesity leads to a number of health problems, one of them being erectile dysfunction.
  2. Various hormonal problems such as complications of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands may lead to low testosterone levels in the body.
  3. Various infections such as inflammation of the testicles and epididymis that causes blockage of the tubes carrying the sperm can be a cause.
  4. Various medications such as using anabolic steroids, antifungal medications and chemotherapy may hamper production of the sperm and thus hit fertility.
  5. Both alcohol and cigarettes may cause problems in sperm production, and cause erectile dysfunction. Excessive drinking may lead to complications in the liver resulting in infertility.

The reasons of infertility may range from medical causes to lifestyle choices; some of the causes may be related to the environment. A common cause of infertility is due to problems with transportation of the sperm. These are mainly due to blockages in the tubes that carry the sperm.

Symptoms of infertility in men are:

  1. You may experience low libido
  2. Your sperm count may be low
  3. You may experience lumps or swellings in the testicles
  4. Chromosomal complications such as reduced body hair
  5. You may have chronic respiratory problems
3126 people found this helpful

I am taking medicine for pregnancy. But I want early pregnancy symptoms and I will wake step or not. Some people told do not go steps upper floor.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
I am taking medicine for pregnancy. But I want early pregnancy symptoms and I will wake step or not. Some people told...
You must do physical activity and can use steps . People have many wrong beliefs oir spread myths like you should not climb steps

I have been on carbimazole from 2 months. My initial readings were tsh <0.001 t3= 3.8, t4=20.9. Now after 2 months my readings are tsh=0.01, t3=1.5, t4=9.2 I am still on carbimazole 20 my in a day. However problem is m planning to conceive. Will these medication cause abnormal mentally challenged baby. Or will it affect my baby.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
I have been on carbimazole from 2 months. My initial readings were tsh <0.001 t3= 3.8, t4=20.9.
Now after 2 months my...
hyperthyroidism before pregnancy means through pregnancy there is antithyroid treatment on. Carbimazole crosses the placental barrier, hence can affect the development of thyroid gland in fetus causing hypothyroidism. So propylthiouracil is preferred as it does not cross the placental barrier. However, there are possible side effects of these drugs affecting the pregnancy. Usually antithyroid drugs are given for 12 to 18 months and stopped. That could be one option when hyperthyroidism is completely controlled.
1 person found this helpful

Within 24 hours the pregnancy symptoms are seen in body? We had sex and the very next day I am vomiting within 20 hours. This would be pregnancy symptoms? Should I worry? And I taken i-pill within 48 hours. Please help me ASAP.

MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Within 24 hours the pregnancy symptoms are seen in body? We had sex and the very next day I am vomiting within 20 hou...
No, pregnancy induced vomitting does not start within 24 hours of conception. The vomiting is related to your stress or because of i-pill.
5 people found this helpful

I was diagnosed with a multi septate cyst and a 3.5/cm fibroid, How do I get rid of them naturally and also improve my fertility since I am hoping to conceive soon?

BHMS
Homeopath, Hooghly
I was diagnosed with a multi septate cyst and a 3.5/cm fibroid, How do I get rid of them naturally and also improve m...
If u wants to cure it permanently without any surgery and complications then u have to do proper homoeopathic treatment

Hello Dr. I am 31 yr. married man. Its more than than 3 yrs. I got married. Now I want family planning. My question is what is the date to try for intercourse for getting a woman pregnant? Should I try repeatedly? If yes, how is the chance of having twins by doing so? If pregnancy occurs, on which day I can try pregnancy test through kit?

Art - Advance Course Infertility, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Hello Dr. I am 31 yr. married man. Its more than than 3 yrs. I got married. Now I want family planning. My question i...
Hello lybrate-user, if you are planning to get your wife pregnant so you can try on 10th day to 18th day from the first day of you wife's period cycle.
4 people found this helpful
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