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Dr. Padmanaban

Pediatrician, Chennai

Dr. Padmanaban Pediatrician, Chennai
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I pride myself in attending local and statewide seminars to stay current with the latest techniques, and treatment planning....more
I pride myself in attending local and statewide seminars to stay current with the latest techniques, and treatment planning.
More about Dr. Padmanaban
Dr. Padmanaban is one of the best Pediatricians in Rakshith Hospital, Chennai. Doctor is currently practising at Royal Hospital in Rakshith Hospital, Chennai. You can book an instant appointment online with Dr. Padmanaban on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Pediatricians in India. You will find Pediatricians with more than 29 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Pediatricians online in Chennai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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#1, Jawaharlal Nehru Street, Alwarthirunagar. Landmark: Opp To Mega Mart, ChennaiChennai Get Directions
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Dear sir My son is suffering from tonsil problem since a long time and he is getting best treatment from the Doctor.But as the treatment completed the same problem comes within fifteen days or a month later. So you are requested to advise the best treatmebnt for my son.Age of my son is about ten years. Thanking you Best regards.

MD - Internal Medicine
General Physician, Bangalore
HI Recurrent Tonsils Infections are very common in small kids . Avoid giving him outside food , outside cold drinks or fruits juices and Ice creams . If his frequency of throat infection in more than 4 times a year you can consider for surgical removal of Tonsils.
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How should baby be protected by cold and cough in the peak Winter season and also if cough happens what should be the best medicine.

MBBS
General Physician, Faridabad
avoid exposure of the child to chilly air, use warm clothes layer. use sinrest drops or tariminic syr, it will help. thanks
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Hi there. My baby is just 22 days old. N she hasn't pooped for 2long days and today is the 3rd day. Earlier also we witnessed the same condition n I gave her bonnisan syrup from 2nd day and on 3rd day night she pooped. Again from 4th day she hasn't. As I stopped it as I didn't want it to become a habit for her. What could be the reason? N what should I do now.

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), F.I.A.M.S. (Pediatrics)
Pediatrician, Muzaffarnagar
If you have started powdered milk and avoiding your feed, stop powered milk and give exclusive breastfeeding. If potty is normal and baby taking feed normally with gaining wt approximately 30 gm per day, there is no cause of worry and do not give bonison or like.
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My son is suffering frm bad stomach. Ache during potty. And smelly to its not loose motion. Suggest remedy please.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Jaipur
Give him plenty of water & other fluids by mouth in addition to normal home made diet. May use suppositary if needed
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What should be given to 12 years old boy to make him strong internally. To boost his immunity. Is yokult good? how it works. My boy is allergic to dust. Please help.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Tumkur
Yogurt is good. Nutritious diet and physical activity will increase immunity. For dust allergy best remedy is to avoid.
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I had my normal delivery using tools. And My newborn baby had its jaundice test when she was 5 days old and the bilirubin levels were high, so she was in phototherapy for 4 days. And as the doctor said it came to normal level, we was discharged. But now as she is 15 days old. I could still see her eyes are pale Yellow sometimes. Some said it is normal and will fade as she grows. But then am panicked. Is it normal? What should be concerned?

MBBS, MD, DM - Neonatology
Pediatrician, Delhi
Eye clearance would take about 1 month, last site of clearance. Just recheked her Total serum bilirubin with blood or Transcutaneous bilirubinometer (a non prick techneque), If it is below phototherapy level, no need to worry.
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Dear Sir or mam, Mera 2 months ka baby boy hai use last ek months se loose motion ki problem hai wo motion din me 6 se 7 baar krta hai motion small quantity me krta hai uski jabse uski mummy ko last month bwaseer ki problem thi uski medicine chal rhi thi jab se he baby ko problem aa rhi hai abhi khaafi dino se uski mummy ne medicine chod rakhi hai jab bhi baby ko problem hai wo motion ek baar me nhi krta baar baar thodi thodi krta hai. Please help.

M.D.Pediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Mumbai
Dear lybrate-user bahut achha laga ki ek papa ne question poochha hai. 6se 7 mahaine tak bachhe jitni baar dudh piyange utni baar motion karenge. Jo ki kuch patli hogi aur itni hi baar vo thori thori motion krenge. So nothing mch to worry ma feed dete rho dhire dhire normal routine ho jayegi. Kuch aur puchhana to likhna.
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My nephew, who is 9 months old, got hurt on his fore head by a tap. He has not been vaccinated with tetanus. Is it ok if he s not vaccinated with TT.

MBBS, MD
Pediatrician, Gurgaon
You should now get him vaccinated by triple or quadruple vaccine. Both these contain tetanus vaccine.
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BDS (GOLD MEDALIST)
Dentist, Jamshedpur
The tiny tots must use a toothbrush with a small rounded brush head and soft bristles. It helps in cleaning their milk teeth thoroughly.

My 3 and half months bay got vaccinated with pentavac 2 days back. But there is a hard swell amd reddish around the vaccinated area. What to do n what may be the reason. Does this cause problem to the leg after growth.

FELLOWSHIP IN PCCM, FELLOW-PEDIATRIC FLEXIBLE BRONCHOSCOPY, FELLOWSHIP IN PEDIATRIC CARDIAC CRITICAL CARE, D.C.H., M.B.B.S
Pediatrician, Ahmedabad
no worry at all. this vaccine is reactogenic and causes swelling , lump and fever for few variable days --> just apply ice at that hardened part and it fades away in 4 weeks . if it is causing reduced leg movement or persistence of fever then only u shall be worried- well no long term effects !
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3 Must-know Home Remedies For Every Parent

MD-Ayurveda, Basic Life Support (B.L.S), Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Ahmednagar
3 Must-know Home Remedies For Every Parent
It is nightmarish when your babies have cough, congestion and stomach aches – and they happen often. The littles ones can't express very well, but as parents you might be able to figure out. Here are common and highly effective home remedies to these baby ailments.

1) COLD & COUGH : Honey is highly soothing for temporary cough relief. You can prepare a warm drink with ginger, honey, and lemon juice to drink before bedtime. The ginger and lemon soothe the throat, and the honey loosens up mucus and also acts as a gentle cough suppressant. Don't give honey to babies ages one or under, though, due to the risk of infantile botulism. For the really little ones, a hot steam vaporizer usually does the trick.

2) NASAL CONGESTION: A stuffy nose is an added challenge with babies and toddlers, as they can’t blow their nose. Prepare a solution of salt in lukewarm water, put this saline solution into the nose, then let your baby lie down for a while, and use the aspirator to remove the loosened mucus. This remedy is safe for babies as well as toddlers.

3) STOMACH UPSET/VOMITING: Stomach aches or infections are the most difficult to get around and can be highly uneasy for the child. Try giving light liquids like dal/rice and vegetable stock, the best that works for everything is breat milk. If you can't breast feed, try to boil fennel seeds (sauf) in milk to make the baby's stomach feel better.

Click on Consult Privately to ask me a private question about your child's health.

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Hello Doctor! I am 17 year old girl. I sometimes urinate on bed unconsciously even on periods. After getting wet, I realise I have drenched. I daily use to urinate till I was in 5th class. I have observed I mostly urinate when its cold. I am going to my relatives. I am afraid of drenching their bed. Please help.

PG Diploma in Clinical Research, Diploma in Acupuncture, MBBS, College Of Physicians & Surgeons
General Physician, Mumbai
Control your fluid intake after7pm. Before going to bed urinate, before going to bed for few minutes remind your mind to get up for urination. Its training your mind, it works or you keep an alarm to get up 2 to3 hrs after sleep to get up &urinate. Consultation &drug therapy sos.
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My baby is 1 year old and her weight is 6.7 KG only, as she is active, she play well, nothing have history problem also nothing have any illness still weight not gain. Is this a worry subject or is there any other thing I need to do, please suggest.

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), F.I.A.M.S. (Pediatrics)
Pediatrician, Muzaffarnagar
Expected wt at this age is 10 kg. Give him good nourishing diet well cooked in ghee of his choice, milk and/or its products seasonal vegetables n fruits. Continue breastfeeding.
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10 Things You Should Know About Poop And Pee Of Your Baby

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
Pediatrician, Seoni

Useful facts you should know:

1. After birth we can wait 24 hrs for first poop and 48 hrs for pee. If it is not immediately consult your doctor.

2. First 2 to 3 days baby can pass black stool which is called meconium so don't worry about black stool.

3. First two to three days after birth baby had concentrated urine rich of urate so we can get orange colured in diaper sometimes.

4. Sometimes baby can cry and irritated before passing urine or stool because of weak bladder and anal canal muscles which is strengthen with time.

5. If baby cry every time during and after passing urine we have to consult doctor for urinary infection.

6. Red colured urine or stool is always pathological immediately consult your doctor.

7. Neonate can pass stool ten to twelves times a day if baby is active and accepting feed well. Once in a week interval is also normal for breast feed baby.

8. Ash coloured stool is always pathological it is due neonatal cholestheasis.

9. Sometimes breast feed baby passes green cloured stool, it is mainly due to consumption of formilk only. It is advisable feed one breast at a time so baby can get formilk, midmilk and hind milk.

10. Sometimes newborn baby pass small amount of stool during micturition or crying it is normal if baby is active and accepting feed well.

Know All About Gynae Laparoscopy Surgery

Panchkula & Delhi
Mother and Child Care, Panchkula
Know All About Gynae Laparoscopy Surgery

Q1. What exactly is Laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy is an alternative to 'Open' surgery wherein the abdomen is opened by tiny 'key hole' incisions and surgery is done. 'Scopy' means the use of an endoscope or telescope to see inside the abdomen. This is attached to a camera and a light source and the inside of the abdomen is projected on to a monitor. The surgeon performs surgery looking at this screen. The surgeon makes a total of 2-4 small cuts on the abdomen ranging from half to 1 cm through which the telescope and other thin surgical instruments are passed into the abdomen. When the uterus is removed , known as hysterectomy, there is also a cut at the top of the vagina where the uterus is attached.

Q2. What kind of gynaecological surgeries can be performed by Laparoscopy?

Most surgeries done in gynaecology can now be performed by Laparoscopy and do not require the large incision as for open surgery. Laparoscopy can be done sometimes only for diagnosis and is called Diagnostic Laparoscopy, as in checking whether the tubes are open or not and to look for any causes of infertility or pain outside the uterus. In women who are unable to conceive, Diagnostic Laparoscopy is often combined with Hysteroscopy (endoscope inside the uterus, inserted from below, via the vagina). When laparoscopy is done to perform some surgical procedure inside the abdomen it is called Operative Laparoscopy. This may be for simple procedures like sterilization, minor adhesions, drilling ovaries; or for intermediate or major reasons like fibroids, endometriosis, removal of ovaries or tubes or both or removal of uterus, for staging of cancers or radical surgeries for cancer. However, about 5% of all surgeries including those for cancer or very large tumours may benefit from open surgery.

Q3. Why does an expert surgeon recommend Laparoscopy over Open Surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages above open surgery: the incisions are much smaller (open surgery incisions are 8-10 cms long), therefore pain is much less; requirement for pain killers (which can have side-effects like sleepiness, impaired judgement) is lesser; hospital stay is shorter; complications fewer; requirement for blood transfusions infrequent; recovery in terms of physical, emotional and mental state is much better and quicker; return to work is faster with consequent lesser loss of working and earning days. Surgery with laparoscope is more precise because it is magnified view. Further vision is much better because it's like having your eye behind the structure because you can see with the telescope at places where the surgeon's eye cannot reach.

Q4. If the cuts on the abdomen are so small in Laparoscopic surgery, how do you remove the uterus or a large tumour from inside the abdomen?

Quite often if the tumour is not malignant and contains fluid, it is punctured to collapse it into a smaller size. If it is solid, it can be cut into smaller pieces inside the abdomen using a special instrument. The collapsed or cut structures can be removed gently through the 1 cm cut on the abdomen which may be increased a bit if required. After hysterectomy, the uterus can be removed easily from below, through the vagina.

Q5. Will there be much pain or discomfort after Laparoscopic Surgery?

There may be some pain and discomfort in lower abdomen for one day to few days after Laparoscopic surgery but this is much less as compared to open surgery because the incisions on the abdomen are much smaller and there is much less tissue handling inside the abdomen by fine instruments instead of rough, big, gloved hands which can cause tissue injury in open surgery. There may be some pain in the shoulder following laparoscopy. This is not serious and is due to the gas used in the surgery to make space for instruments.

Q6. When can I be discharged from hospital?

Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or with simple Operative Laparoscopy you can expect to be discharged from hospital latest by the morning after surgery. In most other cases of intermediate or even major surgery, discharge is generally 1-2 days following the surgery unless there is some health issues prior to the surgery or any complication during the surgery. The complication rates for Laparoscopic surgery are not more than for open surgery and depend upon patient factors like anaemia, diabetes, obesity and skill of the surgeon.

Q7. When can I perform routine household activities or return to work after Laparoscopic Surgery?

Recovery after surgery depends upon many factors: presence of health problems before surgery; why the surgery is required; what surgery is being done; problems or complications of surgery, anaesthesia or blood transfusions. If all is well, one can perform routine household activities by 1 week, provided one doesn't feel tired. Although there may not be any harm, it may be unwise to be normally active within 48 hours of procedure. Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or Operative Laparoscopy for simple procedures, one can return to work in 1 week. For other procedures, a 2-3 week off from work is reasonable. It depends on the type of work you are returning to. Avoid too rapid return to work if it is manually hard or requires standing for long durations of time. Sometimes a surgical procedure brings on a well needed rest and break from a lifetime of work. Mostly, when you return to work depends upon your own body and its signals of tiredness. You need to listen to those signals.

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Deficiency of Iron in Children

PALS, MD, MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Deficiency of Iron in Children

For the growth and development of children, they need an essential nutrient Iron. It helps in the transfer of oxygen from lungs to the body's tissues. Red blood cells contain iron in the hemoglobin. The hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood to the different parts of the body. Iron has an important role to play in the development of brain and generating energy in a child's body. The lack of sufficient iron in the child's body can lead to anemia, which is a nutritional deficient illness and will require medical attention. When a child suffers from anemia, the lack of oxygen makes a child weak and sick.

There are certain symptoms of Iron deficiency in a child's body. These are:

  1. Infections and weak immune system can make a child suffer from frequent infections.
  2. Lethargy and fatigue is another common symptom of an iron deficient body. Due to deficiency of Iron it is difficult for the body to transport oxygen to cells in the body and hence it unable to generate enough energy levels.
  3. Breathlessness and increased sweating can be a sign that your child may be suffering from iron deficiency.
  4. Pica Children suffering from iron deficiency may find a special taste for non-food substances like chalk, dirt and clay.
  5. Lack of iron in the body hampers the physical growth of a child.

The deficiency of iron in children can be diagnosed through blood tests. Your doctor may recommend supplementing iron content orally or through multivitamin medicines. But the deficiency of Iron in a child's body should be taken care of with absolute urgency.

Proper steps should be taken to prevent the deficiency of Iron in children. Those notable precautions are mentioned below:

  1. Balanced diet: A well balanced diet is always recommended. For older children (within 9-12 years of age), red meat, chicken and fish would suffice as good sources of iron.
  2. Oral iron supplements: Oral iron supplements would be required for children with low weight at birth and who have a deficiency of iron in their daily diet.
  3. Vitamin C: Foods such as strawberries, tomatoes and potatoes help in providing the sufficient iron content when included in daily diets, thus reducing the chances of anemia.
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My daughter don't want to eat regular food like milk, rice, vegetables etc. We have to feed her by force and she is very skinny but active all the time.

Visiting Consultant - Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Hospital, Saroj Super Speciality Hospital, D.N.B. PEDIATRICS, MD - Paediatrics, MBBS, Bhagwati Hospital, Rainbow Hospital- Panipat
Pediatrician, Delhi
Hji some kids are fussy eaters. Try to inculcate good eating habits. Don't introduce wrong foods. If she is active and then skinny you don't need to worry much. Whatever is being made at home should be served. Take care.
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International Academy of Classical Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath,
HOMOEOPATHIC TIPS FOR GASTRITIS



Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:

It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.


Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.



ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.



CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).

Symptoms:

The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.

H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.



H.PYLORI AND PEPTIC ULCER



DUODENAL ULCER:

The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.

A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.



GASTRIC ULCER:

Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.

Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.



INVESTIGATION

Gastric mucosal Biopsy
Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
Co vita B12 excretion test
Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods


THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH

Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.

By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.

Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.

Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.

In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.



ABIES CANADENSIS:

Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium

Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation

Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion

Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food

Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action

Wants to lie down all the time



ABIES NIGRA:

Pain in stomach always comes on after eating

Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach

Great craving for food at noon and night

Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco

Sour eructation



ACETIC ACID

Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.

Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer

Cancer of stomach

Sour eructation

Vomits every kind of food

Heartburn and water brash

Hyperchlorhydria

Concomitants – Profuse salivation

Intense burning thirst

Haemorrhage from bowels

ALSO MANY REMEDIES ARS.ALB. , SULPH, CAL.CARB.ETC

thanks.

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Is PCV vaccine really required. It's not in government immunisation vaccines. My daughter is 4 month old. She got PCV first dose in 6 weeks.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
It can be taken as optional vaccine for additional protection. Govt gives only essential ones for the cost part of it Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus)
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I want detail about s.m.a. (spinal muscular atrophy). Please give me answer with its treatment , because my child born with that disease. What reason for this condition and where and when we create the plane for new baby.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
SMA (spinal muscular atrophy) is a disease that robs people of physical strength by affecting the motor nerve cells in the spinal cord, taking away the ability to walk, eat, or breathe. It is the number one genetic cause of death for infants. SMA is caused by a mutation in the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1. Chromosome 5 SMA is caused by a deficiency of a motor neuron protein called SMN, for “survival of motor neuron.” This protein, as its name implies, seems to be necessary for normal motor neuron function. Its deficiency is caused by genetic flaws (mutations) on chromosome 5 in a gene called SMN1. Neighboring SMN2 genes can in part compensate for nonfunctional SMN1 genes. Other rare forms of SMA (non-chromosome 5) are caused by mutations in genes besides SMN. In several forms of SMA, respiratory muscle weakness is a significant problem. It’s the most common cause of death in types 1 and type 2 chromosome 5 (SMN-related) SMA. When the respiratory muscles weaken, air doesn’t move into and out of the lungs very well, with subsequent adverse effects on general health. Signs of weakening respiratory muscles are headaches, difficulty sleeping at night, excess sleepiness during the day, poor concentration, chest infections and, eventually, heart damage and respiratory failure. Often, in infantile-onset SMA, the muscles between the baby's ribs are very weak, while the diaphragm muscle stays fairly strong. This leads to children who appear to be breathing by moving their bellies rather than their chests and to a pear-shaped body in these infants. For chromosomal changes there is hardly no specific treatment and you have to explain the nature of your child's trouble . He needs a neurological treatment for relief of symptoms.
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