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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Dear sir My son is suffering from tonsil problem since a long time and he is getting best treatment from the Doctor.But as the treatment completed the same problem comes within fifteen days or a month later. So you are requested to advise the best treatmebnt for my son.Age of my son is about ten years. Thanking you Best regards.
How should baby be protected by cold and cough in the peak Winter season and also if cough happens what should be the best medicine.
Hi there. My baby is just 22 days old. N she hasn't pooped for 2long days and today is the 3rd day. Earlier also we witnessed the same condition n I gave her bonnisan syrup from 2nd day and on 3rd day night she pooped. Again from 4th day she hasn't. As I stopped it as I didn't want it to become a habit for her. What could be the reason? N what should I do now.
My son is suffering frm bad stomach. Ache during potty. And smelly to its not loose motion. Suggest remedy please.
What should be given to 12 years old boy to make him strong internally. To boost his immunity. Is yokult good? how it works. My boy is allergic to dust. Please help.
I had my normal delivery using tools. And My newborn baby had its jaundice test when she was 5 days old and the bilirubin levels were high, so she was in phototherapy for 4 days. And as the doctor said it came to normal level, we was discharged. But now as she is 15 days old. I could still see her eyes are pale Yellow sometimes. Some said it is normal and will fade as she grows. But then am panicked. Is it normal? What should be concerned?
Dear Sir or mam, Mera 2 months ka baby boy hai use last ek months se loose motion ki problem hai wo motion din me 6 se 7 baar krta hai motion small quantity me krta hai uski jabse uski mummy ko last month bwaseer ki problem thi uski medicine chal rhi thi jab se he baby ko problem aa rhi hai abhi khaafi dino se uski mummy ne medicine chod rakhi hai jab bhi baby ko problem hai wo motion ek baar me nhi krta baar baar thodi thodi krta hai. Please help.
My nephew, who is 9 months old, got hurt on his fore head by a tap. He has not been vaccinated with tetanus. Is it ok if he s not vaccinated with TT.
My 3 and half months bay got vaccinated with pentavac 2 days back. But there is a hard swell amd reddish around the vaccinated area. What to do n what may be the reason. Does this cause problem to the leg after growth.
1) COLD & COUGH : Honey is highly soothing for temporary cough relief. You can prepare a warm drink with ginger, honey, and lemon juice to drink before bedtime. The ginger and lemon soothe the throat, and the honey loosens up mucus and also acts as a gentle cough suppressant. Don't give honey to babies ages one or under, though, due to the risk of infantile botulism. For the really little ones, a hot steam vaporizer usually does the trick.
2) NASAL CONGESTION: A stuffy nose is an added challenge with babies and toddlers, as they can’t blow their nose. Prepare a solution of salt in lukewarm water, put this saline solution into the nose, then let your baby lie down for a while, and use the aspirator to remove the loosened mucus. This remedy is safe for babies as well as toddlers.
3) STOMACH UPSET/VOMITING: Stomach aches or infections are the most difficult to get around and can be highly uneasy for the child. Try giving light liquids like dal/rice and vegetable stock, the best that works for everything is breat milk. If you can't breast feed, try to boil fennel seeds (sauf) in milk to make the baby's stomach feel better.
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Hello Doctor! I am 17 year old girl. I sometimes urinate on bed unconsciously even on periods. After getting wet, I realise I have drenched. I daily use to urinate till I was in 5th class. I have observed I mostly urinate when its cold. I am going to my relatives. I am afraid of drenching their bed. Please help.
My baby is 1 year old and her weight is 6.7 KG only, as she is active, she play well, nothing have history problem also nothing have any illness still weight not gain. Is this a worry subject or is there any other thing I need to do, please suggest.
Useful facts you should know:
1. After birth we can wait 24 hrs for first poop and 48 hrs for pee. If it is not immediately consult your doctor.
2. First 2 to 3 days baby can pass black stool which is called meconium so don't worry about black stool.
3. First two to three days after birth baby had concentrated urine rich of urate so we can get orange colured in diaper sometimes.
4. Sometimes baby can cry and irritated before passing urine or stool because of weak bladder and anal canal muscles which is strengthen with time.
5. If baby cry every time during and after passing urine we have to consult doctor for urinary infection.
6. Red colured urine or stool is always pathological immediately consult your doctor.
7. Neonate can pass stool ten to twelves times a day if baby is active and accepting feed well. Once in a week interval is also normal for breast feed baby.
8. Ash coloured stool is always pathological it is due neonatal cholestheasis.
9. Sometimes breast feed baby passes green cloured stool, it is mainly due to consumption of formilk only. It is advisable feed one breast at a time so baby can get formilk, midmilk and hind milk.
10. Sometimes newborn baby pass small amount of stool during micturition or crying it is normal if baby is active and accepting feed well.
Q1. What exactly is Laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is an alternative to 'Open' surgery wherein the abdomen is opened by tiny 'key hole' incisions and surgery is done. 'Scopy' means the use of an endoscope or telescope to see inside the abdomen. This is attached to a camera and a light source and the inside of the abdomen is projected on to a monitor. The surgeon performs surgery looking at this screen. The surgeon makes a total of 2-4 small cuts on the abdomen ranging from half to 1 cm through which the telescope and other thin surgical instruments are passed into the abdomen. When the uterus is removed , known as hysterectomy, there is also a cut at the top of the vagina where the uterus is attached.
Q2. What kind of gynaecological surgeries can be performed by Laparoscopy?
Most surgeries done in gynaecology can now be performed by Laparoscopy and do not require the large incision as for open surgery. Laparoscopy can be done sometimes only for diagnosis and is called Diagnostic Laparoscopy, as in checking whether the tubes are open or not and to look for any causes of infertility or pain outside the uterus. In women who are unable to conceive, Diagnostic Laparoscopy is often combined with Hysteroscopy (endoscope inside the uterus, inserted from below, via the vagina). When laparoscopy is done to perform some surgical procedure inside the abdomen it is called Operative Laparoscopy. This may be for simple procedures like sterilization, minor adhesions, drilling ovaries; or for intermediate or major reasons like fibroids, endometriosis, removal of ovaries or tubes or both or removal of uterus, for staging of cancers or radical surgeries for cancer. However, about 5% of all surgeries including those for cancer or very large tumours may benefit from open surgery.
Q3. Why does an expert surgeon recommend Laparoscopy over Open Surgery?
Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages above open surgery: the incisions are much smaller (open surgery incisions are 8-10 cms long), therefore pain is much less; requirement for pain killers (which can have side-effects like sleepiness, impaired judgement) is lesser; hospital stay is shorter; complications fewer; requirement for blood transfusions infrequent; recovery in terms of physical, emotional and mental state is much better and quicker; return to work is faster with consequent lesser loss of working and earning days. Surgery with laparoscope is more precise because it is magnified view. Further vision is much better because it's like having your eye behind the structure because you can see with the telescope at places where the surgeon's eye cannot reach.
Q4. If the cuts on the abdomen are so small in Laparoscopic surgery, how do you remove the uterus or a large tumour from inside the abdomen?
Quite often if the tumour is not malignant and contains fluid, it is punctured to collapse it into a smaller size. If it is solid, it can be cut into smaller pieces inside the abdomen using a special instrument. The collapsed or cut structures can be removed gently through the 1 cm cut on the abdomen which may be increased a bit if required. After hysterectomy, the uterus can be removed easily from below, through the vagina.
Q5. Will there be much pain or discomfort after Laparoscopic Surgery?
There may be some pain and discomfort in lower abdomen for one day to few days after Laparoscopic surgery but this is much less as compared to open surgery because the incisions on the abdomen are much smaller and there is much less tissue handling inside the abdomen by fine instruments instead of rough, big, gloved hands which can cause tissue injury in open surgery. There may be some pain in the shoulder following laparoscopy. This is not serious and is due to the gas used in the surgery to make space for instruments.
Q6. When can I be discharged from hospital?
Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or with simple Operative Laparoscopy you can expect to be discharged from hospital latest by the morning after surgery. In most other cases of intermediate or even major surgery, discharge is generally 1-2 days following the surgery unless there is some health issues prior to the surgery or any complication during the surgery. The complication rates for Laparoscopic surgery are not more than for open surgery and depend upon patient factors like anaemia, diabetes, obesity and skill of the surgeon.
Q7. When can I perform routine household activities or return to work after Laparoscopic Surgery?
Recovery after surgery depends upon many factors: presence of health problems before surgery; why the surgery is required; what surgery is being done; problems or complications of surgery, anaesthesia or blood transfusions. If all is well, one can perform routine household activities by 1 week, provided one doesn't feel tired. Although there may not be any harm, it may be unwise to be normally active within 48 hours of procedure. Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or Operative Laparoscopy for simple procedures, one can return to work in 1 week. For other procedures, a 2-3 week off from work is reasonable. It depends on the type of work you are returning to. Avoid too rapid return to work if it is manually hard or requires standing for long durations of time. Sometimes a surgical procedure brings on a well needed rest and break from a lifetime of work. Mostly, when you return to work depends upon your own body and its signals of tiredness. You need to listen to those signals.
For the growth and development of children, they need an essential nutrient Iron. It helps in the transfer of oxygen from lungs to the body's tissues. Red blood cells contain iron in the hemoglobin. The hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood to the different parts of the body. Iron has an important role to play in the development of brain and generating energy in a child's body. The lack of sufficient iron in the child's body can lead to anemia, which is a nutritional deficient illness and will require medical attention. When a child suffers from anemia, the lack of oxygen makes a child weak and sick.
There are certain symptoms of Iron deficiency in a child's body. These are:
- Infections and weak immune system can make a child suffer from frequent infections.
- Lethargy and fatigue is another common symptom of an iron deficient body. Due to deficiency of Iron it is difficult for the body to transport oxygen to cells in the body and hence it unable to generate enough energy levels.
- Breathlessness and increased sweating can be a sign that your child may be suffering from iron deficiency.
- Pica Children suffering from iron deficiency may find a special taste for non-food substances like chalk, dirt and clay.
- Lack of iron in the body hampers the physical growth of a child.
The deficiency of iron in children can be diagnosed through blood tests. Your doctor may recommend supplementing iron content orally or through multivitamin medicines. But the deficiency of Iron in a child's body should be taken care of with absolute urgency.
Proper steps should be taken to prevent the deficiency of Iron in children. Those notable precautions are mentioned below:
- Balanced diet: A well balanced diet is always recommended. For older children (within 9-12 years of age), red meat, chicken and fish would suffice as good sources of iron.
- Oral iron supplements: Oral iron supplements would be required for children with low weight at birth and who have a deficiency of iron in their daily diet.
- Vitamin C: Foods such as strawberries, tomatoes and potatoes help in providing the sufficient iron content when included in daily diets, thus reducing the chances of anemia.
My daughter don't want to eat regular food like milk, rice, vegetables etc. We have to feed her by force and she is very skinny but active all the time.
Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:
It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.
Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.
ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.
CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).
The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.
H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.
H.PYLORI AND PEPTIC ULCER
The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.
A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.
Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.
Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.
Gastric mucosal Biopsy
Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
Co vita B12 excretion test
Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods
THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH
Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.
By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.
Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.
Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.
In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.
Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium
Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation
Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion
Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food
Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action
Wants to lie down all the time
Pain in stomach always comes on after eating
Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach
Great craving for food at noon and night
Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco
Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer
Cancer of stomach
Vomits every kind of food
Heartburn and water brash
Concomitants – Profuse salivation
Intense burning thirst
Haemorrhage from bowels
ALSO MANY REMEDIES ARS.ALB. , SULPH, CAL.CARB.ETC