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I am Dr. Anjuli Dixit running a nursing home at sector 84 J-Block, Greater Faridabad. I am going to talk about something regarding cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women which infects about 80 to 90% of the girls before attaining menarche. So it is important to discuss something about this. What is cervix? Cervix is the part connecting uterus to the vagina of the woman and this is the part through which sperms passes into the uterus. So this is the most important organ which gets involved during sexual intercourse. So this is the part which gets infected even before attaining menarche and we should know something regarding this because it is the most common cancer of the women. What causes cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is caused by HPV virus which is present in vaginal secretions and in the environment which infects vaginal discharge and causes cervical cancer.
How it infects the woman? It may cause infection through skin, through sexual intercourse or through secretions which may infect the women. Who are the potential candidates for the cervical cancer? Girls after attaining menarche, girls which start early sexual intercourse, in girls who are having multiple partners and cigarette smokers are also potential candidates for this cervical cancer. How does it present? It may present through genital warts, through vaginal warts, through cervical erosion and any long-lasting infection which infects the cervix. Pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic discharge which is long lasting, pelvic pain leading to dyspareunia these are the symptoms which it affects the women and which causes women to seek medical advice. When we should seek advice? We should get Pap smear done even at the age of 20-25 years or just after becoming sexually active.
And early detection always improves the outcome of the cervical cancer treatment because it is a very slow growing disease and its effect, infects the part early and it presents the disease in a later stage. So even in early 20s or 30s women may get infected with HPV but it may present the disease at the age of 50. Earliest detection always brings better outcome. We should get Pap smear done at the age of 25 years. We can even prevent the infection before being infected by cervical cancer vaccine which can be given at the age of 9 years.
It may be given in 2 doses between the age of 9 to 14 year and then 3 doses at the age of 14 years and it can be given up to the age of 45 years. It will prevent cervical cancer because this is the only cancer which can be prevented by vaccine and early detection may lead to better outcome of the disease so early detection and treatment always prevents the cervical cancer spread.
My mum has been suffering from lung cancer for 3 years. Treatment is going on but docters saying that they can remove that infected part from the lung it has spread out. But if we remove that part cancer cells will decrease in the body na. I want suggestion on it.
Hi doctor please suggest me ,my mother is breast cancer survival, now she has diagnosed with mild cardiomegaly in her X-ray ,as I am a medical student I forced her to take 2d echo it suggests that diastolic dysfunction +. And LVRP 60%. And mild aortic sclerosis, but onchosurgeon has suggested no need to worry and he said its normal ,plz suggest me your opinion.
Hi, In 2011 in my left Breast there is a lump without pain. Then I consult a doctor and do surgery. But after years 2018 in that left breast itself I saw a lump. Without pain. What is symptom of lumb ?I am very tensed.
I am aged 60 suffering from prostrate expansion since one year. I am not a sugar patient. I have burning sensation at sexual life. No other symptoms on urine passage. Suggest precautions.
Recently I heard an audio lecture that said health depends on quality and quantity of food and water intake. I have lost one of my friend to intestine cancer at 56. I would like to know more on good food practices.
Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.
Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:
Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways, but common symptoms being :
- Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
- Difficulty in passing urine
The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy under anesthesia.
Treatments for bladder cancer.depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.
- For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
- For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
- Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
- Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
- Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.