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Dr. P Prathiba Rajalakshmi

Radiologist, Chennai

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Dr. P Prathiba Rajalakshmi Radiologist, Chennai
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Our team includes experienced and caring professionals who share the belief that our care should be comprehensive and courteous - responding fully to your individual needs and preferences....more
Our team includes experienced and caring professionals who share the belief that our care should be comprehensive and courteous - responding fully to your individual needs and preferences.
More about Dr. P Prathiba Rajalakshmi
Dr. P Prathiba Rajalakshmi is a renowned Radiologist in sholinganallur, Chennai. He is currently associated with Global Hospital And Health City in sholinganallur, Chennai. You can book an instant appointment online with Dr. P Prathiba Rajalakshmi on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 27 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Chennai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Awards and Recognitions
Prize winner in Bleumont Quiz of the day at IRIA National conference held at Hyderabad
Professional Memberships
Indian Radiological and Imaging Association

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Global Hospital And Health City

#439, Medavakkam Road, Cheran Nagar, Sholinganallur, Perumbakkam. Landmark: Near HCl & Near Shollinznumur Junction, ChennaiChennai Get Directions
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439, Cheran Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600100Chennai Get Directions
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I am 30 years old. Diagnosed with 11 % of vitamin D. Calcium and phosphate levels are also down. Besides cervical 6-7 disc have chronic black bulge. Pain in neck shoulder upper back. Also lumbar spine 4-5 also bulge. It is sending pain down till sole of feet. What is the treatment ways?

MBBS, D.P.H
General Physician, Gurgaon
I am 30 years old. Diagnosed with 11 % of vitamin D. Calcium and phosphate levels are also down.
Besides cervical 6-7...
Madam lybrate-user you have sever deficiency of these minrals and vitakins with L4- 5 bulge in my openion you should immediately consult local Orthopedic surgeon and got your treatment according to his advice. At this age this short of deficiency can lead to further complication.
1 person found this helpful
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I am 34 years old male. I am suffering from back pain for the last 3 years. I have done MRI. In MRI it is found that 1. MILD DIFFUSE DISC BULGE IS NOTED AT L3-4 LEVEL CAUSING ANTERIORTHECAL SAC indentation MINIMAL NARROWING OF BILATERAL NEURAL forminal AS WELL AS LATERAL RECESSES. 2. MILD DIFFUSE DISC BULGE IS NOTED AT L4-5LEVEL CAUSING ANTERIOR THECAL SAC INDENTATION AND NARROWING OF BILATERAL NEURAL forminal AS WELL AS LATERAL RECESSES. MILD facial ARTHROPATHY IS NOTED BILATERALLY. please MAKE ME UNDERSTAND WHAT IS THE PROBLEM AND WHAT IS THE SOLUTION.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
I am 34 years old male. I am suffering from back pain for the last 3 years. I have done MRI. In MRI it is found that ...
the problem is you have disc bulge at 2 intervertebral levels causing compression of the nerve root that comes out of the spinal canal at that level causing pain in the back and legs . (disc is like gelatinous cushion inbetween two vertebral bones and it acts like a shock absorber . sometimes the disc comes out of its normal position and presses on the nerve which comes from the spinal cord. depending on the nerve that is compressed you can get pain in the back and / or legs, numbness, weakness etc.
5 people found this helpful
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I am suffering from slipped disc in cervical spine from 6 months. So my question is that I am a dance choreographer should I continue with my dance or not can you suggest me and how this problem Will be cured.

Fellowship in Joint Replacement, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Dhamtari
24 years old with slipped cervical disc. Depends upon the extent of slip and your symptoms if you are experiencing neck pain and upper limb pain then you should not do activities involving sudden, jerking movements of neck. Medicines and neck muscle strengthening exercises can very well take care of this problem further intervention is needed only of disc is causing nerve or cord compression.
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I am 43 years old and I have taken scan and in my report there is a small fibre on the both wall of the uterus, can you please tell me whether it is danger or not.

BHMS
Homeopath, Chennai
Homeopathy is much more effective in treatment of uterine fibroids. Out of all possible alternatives, Homeopathy is the best non surgical treatment for fibroids. The homeopathic medicines slowly but surely retard the growth of fibroids. Over a period of time, the fibroids disappear completely. This is a far more effective and the most convenient treatment of fibroids.
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Breast Cancer - Ways It Can Be Prevented!

FACS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Gurgaon
Breast Cancer - Ways It Can Be Prevented!

The very term 'breast cancer' can send shivers down a woman's spine. The associated pain, agony, sufferings are enough to deter a person. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the stage in which the condition is detected. Unfortunately, many women neglect and overlook the early signs, thereby delaying the treatment.

Self-awareness is vital for prevention, early detection and treatment of breast cancer. Treatment and prevention can only work when a person is alert and agile. If you notice any unusual symptoms, waste no time and consult an experienced physician at the earliest. However, prevention is always better than a cure. A few healthy habits, if practiced diligently, can go a long way to prevent and reduce the incidences of breast cancer.

  1. A healthy body weight: Overweight and obese women are at a greater risk of suffering from breast cancer. The key to this problem is as simple as shedding off the extra kilos. Research suggests that incidences of breast cancer are slightly lower in women who maintain body weight within healthy limits. Enrich your diet with fruits and vegetables. Drink water and other healthy fluids (coconut water, fresh fruit juice,) at regular intervals.
  2. Breastfeed for a healthy breast: Breastfeeding is important for the health of both the baby and the mother. While babies get the necessary nourishment, women who are into breastfeeding are less likely to suffer from breast cancer. Thus, all healthy lactating mothers should breastfeed their babies.
  3. Keep the vices at bay: Severe smoking and alcohol consumption can harm your body beyond imagination, with breast cancer being one the many harmful side effects. Drinking within limits (1 drink or even less per day) is still acceptable, but anything in excess is sure to spell doom.
  4. Some of the imaging and diagnostic tests can be harmful to your body: Repeated exposure to the radiations from CT-scan can put a woman at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Limiting the exposure to such radiations may help to check the incidences of breast cancer.
  5. Physically active and agile: Lack of physical exercise and an unhealthy lifestyle can wreak havoc with health complications as serious as breast cancer. It is important to keep your body physically active. Light to moderate exercise (for 30 minutes), jogging, cycling, swimming and other physical activities can work wonders for your body. Avoid stress and anxiety. Proper rest and a sound sleep are equally important.

Various research and studies suggest that women who are into hormone therapy are more susceptible to breast cancer. Such patients are often advised to avoid and replace hormone therapy with alternative treatments. However under extreme conditions (where the alternative treatments fail to produce the desired result), limiting the duration as well as the dosage of the hormone therapy may be helpful. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.

1820 people found this helpful

Left paracentral L5-S1 disc protrusion causing compression of left traversing nerve roots associated with diffuse L1-L2 Disc bulge. Now what is best treatment for me.

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
Best treatment is to do go for laparoscopic surgery and treatment depends on the symptoms and if there are bearable symptoms than we can do ESWT through a physiotherapist.
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I am bodybuilder I had a disc replacement due to bulge in my disc. Is it possible to continue bodybuilding. Lifting weights etc. Plzz help me.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
lifting weights is not advisable once you have had problems in your spine. there are other discs in the spine that can always create the same problem you had initially.
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Know More About Meningitis!

Fellowship in Neonatology, MRCPCH(UK), Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Know More About Meningitis!

Arguably one of the most fatal diseases that threaten human life, Meningitis has been the cause of a lot of recent deaths. Essentially Meningitis is triggered off by the anomalous inflammation of the protective membranes called meninges in the brain and spinal cord. Spurred by some sort of a bacterial or viral attack, this condition emanates from an infection of the fluids in the cranial chamber. Often such conditions are also stimulated by some external injury, cancerous development or even certain kinds of reaction from a given drug or the other. 

Depending on the precise cause of the disease, Meningitis may be categorized as Bacterial Meningitis, Viral Meningitis or Fungal Meningitis. Other forms of Meningitis include parasitic Meningitis, Amebic Meningitis and Non-Infectious Meningitis. Meningitis could potentially be contagious. Through lengthy and proximal contact like coughing or kissing, if saliva or spit gets exchanged, Meningitis causing germs may spread from one person to the other.

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria Meningitidis are the two of the most rampant Meningitis causing bacteria. They have the potential of causing irreversible damage to several vital organs. However, with substantive progress in medical science, effective and suitable medication has been made available to the larger populace. But, immediate attention is imperative in this case.

Viral Meningitis
Viral Meningitis is relatively milder than the other forms of meningitis. Enteroviruses, arboviruses and herpes virus are some of the most common sources of this kind of Meningitis. People with strong immunity are usually able to overcome this without much ado. Vaccines are available widely in the markets to cure viral meningitis.

Fungal Meningitis
Fungal Meningitis are caused primarily from external influences. Inhaling fungal spores from the environment is one of the most prominent factors that lead to Meningitis. People suffering from fatal diseases like cancer, diabetes or HIV are more susceptible to fungal Meningitis. While these are a few of the primary forms of meningitis, other triggers to this disease occur due to various environmental interventions. These are consequent upon interactions with various disease causing allergens. Cure to meningitis is available in the form of intravenous injections. But timely diagnosis and treatment is essential for a good outcome. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.

4481 people found this helpful

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB - Orthopedics, mch
Orthopedist, Delhi
Play video

Different methods to treat Disc problems

Hello friends, I am Dr Gaurav Khera. I am an orthopaedic surgeon, doing joint replacements and spine surgeries at the Access healthcare. Now today I will be talking about the lumbar degenerative disc disease. Now it sounds very big, but it is not as complicated as it sounds. It basically is what you people commonly know as a disc disease. So it is a fairly common problem that is seen in our population today. In fact about 30 or 40% of the patients who come to our OPD have lower back pains, some have other disc problems and very commonly seen after 40 years of age and this incidence gradually increases up to 60-70 years of age. The other ecological factors which are associated with this are, first of all smoking, secondly it is, mild to moderate trauma, thirdly its seen in people who lift heavy weights, fourth is obesity, especially central obesity, that is if you have a very heavy waistline.

Now what is Lumbar degenerative disc disease? Now, our spine is composed of multiple bones, which are starting from your neck and they come all the way down to your hip, divided into the cervical, dorsal, lumbar and sacral spine. And between these bones, there are these small pieces of discs, which act as cushions. When your body walks, these act as shock absorbers between your body’s bones. Now this discs, when these come out of their normal place, it gives or presses against the nerves which are passing through these areas and it causes pain. This is what happens in the disc disease. Basically, in the patient it will come as a lower back pain, and this pain will be travelling down to the hip, and it will also be coming down to the legs. Some people complain that as they walk, the pain increases.

They also complain of tingling numbness. They complain that sometimes their fingers or their toes are feeling numb. These are some of the very common symptoms which are being seen. Few people may have only lower back pain, and these are the people who do not have very significant disc disease. Now there are two main causes of the disc disease. First is an inflammatory reaction that occurs in the disc, and second is the micro motion instabilities that occur. Inflammatory reactions may occur as a result of some small traumas which may occur such as when you may injure your back. Such inflammatory reactions occur in the form of small swellings in the body. And micro motion instabilities are when the body ages, the disc which has an outer fibrous thick layer, that degenerates, and as it degenerates, the pulp which is there at the centre, of the discs, tends to degenerate. What I mean is it comes out of its normal space. And as it comes out of the normal place, it comes and tends to press on the nerves and these are the two most common causes.

All disc patients are not to be operated. When we get these patients, the first and foremost investigation that we do is a X-Ray. And if required, we go in for a MRI. Frankly MRI is the known standard to diagnose the disc disease. The findings of a MRI are always coordinated with the clinical findings. Once we have diagnosed that it is a disc problem, we have to establish that what the compression on the nerves is. If the nerve compression is a lot, and if we think that we cannot do anything other than surgery, then we take the patient for a surgery.

If not, we take the patient fro physiotherapy, lifestyle changes and few medications. These medications may carry on for few weeks to few months. And a lot of exercise has to be carried on regularly. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, stoppage of smoking is very important. And if you can achieve this, then your problems are very easily solved. If you have any queries regarding your disc problems or back pains, then you can get in touch with me for the same.

You can reach me in my clinic, which is there in Indrapuri, by the name of Dr Khera’s Wellness Clinic or you can also contact me through Lybrate for the same. Thank You.
 

3713 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - The Most Common Cancer In India

FICMCH, Diploma In Laproscopic Surgery, Certified in Laparoscopy & Hysteroscopy, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Breast Cancer - The Most Common Cancer In India

Breast cancer(स्तन कैंसर) is on the rise in india. Surveys show that every 4 out of 5 Indian women who have breast cancer, suffer from an advanced stage of the disease by the time they reach the doctor. Urban women are at two times more risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer than rural women. Being overweight, eating unhealthy food, and consuming excessive alcohol or tobacco are some of causes that can make you susceptible to this disease.

How you can avoid breast cancer?

  1. Every woman should do a self-breast examination every month after the periods. You should check for any abnormal lump, change in skin texture or any abnormal discharge from the nipples. Any abnormality above aspects should be promptly investigated by a doctor's appointment, and an ultrasound or Mammography, as required.
  2. Apart from self-examining your breasts every month for a lump, going for a mammography (an X-Ray of the breast) is vital for early detection of the problem.
  3. Consult a gynaecologist before going for the test as its frequency depends on your age and risk factor. About 80-90% of tumours can be traced through this screening.

Breast cancer may run in family. If there is no family history of breast cancer, you start doing mammogram at 40 yrs of age but if there is a family history you start even earlier as advised by your gynaecologist.

3692 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer Prevention:

Homeopath,

Breast Cancer Prevention:

  1. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer protective factor.

  2. Some risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors for some types of cancer. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may lower your risk but it does not mean that you will not get cancer. Different ways to prevent cancer are being studied, including:

  3. Changing lifestyle or eating habits. Avoiding things known to cause cancer. Taking medicine to treat a precancerous condition or to keep cancer from starting.


 

General information about breast cancer:

Key points:

  1. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in india

  2. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast.

  3. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes, which have many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by thin tubes called ducts.

  4. Enlarge Drawing of female breast anatomy showing the lymph nodes, nipple, areola, chest wall, ribs, muscle, fatty tissue, lobe, ducts, and lobules.

  5. Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola are shown on the outside of the breast. The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, and other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown.

  6. Each breast also has blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels carry an almost colorless fluid called lymph. Lymph vessels lead to organs called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body. They filter lymph and store white blood cells that help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone, and in the chest.

     

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. The following are risk factors for breast cancer:

  1. Older agea personal history of breast cancer or benign (noncancer) breast diseasea family history of breast cancerinherited gene changesdense breasts

  2. Exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made in the bodytaking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause radiation therapy


 

The following are protective factors for breast cancer:

  1. Less exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made by the bodytaking estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy,

  2. Estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomyselective estrogen receptor modulatorsaromatase inhibitors and inactivators

  3. Risk-reducing mastectomy ovarian ablationgetting enough exercise


 

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of breast cancer:

  1. Oral contraceptives

  2. Factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk


 

Older age:

  1. Older age is the main risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

  2. A personal history of breast cancer or benign (noncancer) breast disease

     

Women with any of the following have an increased risk of breast cancer:

  1. A personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis), or lobular carcinoma in situ (lcis). A personal history of benign (noncancer) breast disease.

  2. A family history of breast cancer

  3. Women with a family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) have an increased risk of breast cancer.


 

Inherited gene changes:

  1. Women who have inherited changes in the brca1 and brca2 genes or in certain other genes have a higher risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and maybe colon cancer. The risk of breast cancer caused by inherited gene changes depends on the type of gene mutation, family history of cancer, and other factors.

  2. Men who have inherited certain changes in the brca2 gene have a higher risk of breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, and lymphoma.


 

Dense breasts:

  1. Having breast tissue that is dense on a mammogram is a factor in breast cancer risk. The level of risk depends on how dense the breast tissue is. Women with very dense breasts have a higher risk of breast cancer than women with low breast density.

  2. Increased breast density is often an inherited trait, but it may also occur in women who have not had children, have a first pregnancy late in life, take postmenopausal hormones, or drink alcohol.

  3. Exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made in the body

  4. Estrogen is a hormone made by the body. It helps the body develop and maintain female sex characteristics. Being exposed to estrogen over a long time may increase the risk of breast cancer. Estrogen levels are highest during the years a woman is menstruating.


 

A woman's exposure to estrogen is increased in the following ways:

Early menstruation: beginning to have menstrual periods at age 11 or younger increases the number of years the breast tissue is exposed to estrogen. Starting menopause at a later age: the more years a woman menstruates, the longer her breast tissue is exposed to estrogen. Older age at first birth or never having given birth: because estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy, breast tissue is exposed to more estrogen in women who become pregnant for the first time after age 35 or who never become pregnant.

 

Taking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause:

Hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, can be made into a pill form in a laboratory. Estrogen, progestin, or both may be given to replace the estrogen no longer made by the ovaries in postmenopausal women or women who have had their ovaries removed. This is called hormone replacement therapy (hrt) or hormone therapy (ht). Combination hrt/ht is estrogen combined with progestin. This type of hrt/ht increases the risk of breast cancer. Studies show that when women stop taking estrogen combined with progestin, the risk of breast cancer decreases.


 

Radiation therapy to the breast or chest:

  1. Radiation therapy to the chest for the treatment of cancer increases the risk of breast cancer, starting 10 years after treatment. The risk of breast cancer depends on the dose of radiation and the age at which it is given. The risk is highest if radiation treatment was used during puberty, when breasts are forming.

  2. Radiation therapy to treat cancer in one breast does not appear to increase the risk of cancer in the other breast.

  3. For women who have inherited changes in the brca1 and brca2 genes, exposure to radiation, such as that from chest x-rays, may further increase the risk of breast cancer, especially in women who were x-rayed before 20 years of age.


 

Obesity:

Obesity increases the risk of breast cancer, especially in postmenopausal women who have not used hormone replacement therapy.


 

Drinking alcohol:

Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. The level of risk rises as the amount of alcohol consumed rises.


 

The following are protective factors for breast cancer:

  1. Less exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made by the body

  2. Decreasing the length of time a woman's breast tissue is exposed to estrogen may help prevent breast cancer. Exposure to estrogen is reduced in the following ways:


 

Early pregnancy: estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy. Women who have a full-term pregnancy before age 20 have a lower risk of breast cancer than women who have not had children or who give birth to their first child after age 35. Breast-feeding: estrogen levels may remain lower while a woman is breast-feeding. Women who breastfed have a lower risk of breast cancer than women who have had children but did not breastfeed.

Taking estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, or aromatase inhibitors and inactivators


 

Estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy

Hormone therapy with estrogen only may be given to women who have had a hysterectomy. In these women, estrogen-only therapy after menopause may decrease the risk of breast cancer. There is an increased risk of stroke and heart and blood vessel disease in postmenopausal women who take estrogen after a hysterectomy.


 

Selective estrogen receptor modulators:

Tamoxifen and raloxifene belong to the family of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (serms). Serms act like estrogen on some tissues in the body, but block the effect of estrogen on other tissues.


 

Treatment with tamoxifen lowers the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (er-positive) breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ in premenopausal and postmenopausal women at high risk. Treatment with raloxifene also lowers the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. With either drug, the reduced risk lasts for several years or longer after treatment is stopped. Lower rates of broken bones have been noted in patients taking raloxifene.


 

Taking tamoxifen increases the risk of hot flashes, endometrial cancer, stroke, cataracts, and blood clots (especially in the lungs and legs). The risk of having these problems increases with age. Women younger than 50 years who have a high risk of breast cancer may benefit the most from taking tamoxifen. The risk of having these problems decreases after tamoxifen is stopped.


 

Taking raloxifene increases the risk of blood clots in the lungs and legs, but does not appear to increase the risk of endometrial cancer. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (decreased bone density), raloxifene lowers the risk of breast cancer for women who have a high or low risk of breast cancer. It is not known if raloxifene would have the same effect in women who do not have osteoporosis. Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking this drug.


 

Aromatase inhibitors and inactivators:

Aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole) and inactivators (exemestane) lower the risk of a new breast cancer in women who have a history of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors also decrease the risk of breast cancer in women with the following conditions:

Postmenopausal women with a personal history of breast cancer. Women with no personal history of breast cancer who are 60 years and older, have a history of ductal carcinoma in situ with mastectomy, or have a high risk of breast cancer based on the gail model tool (a tool used to estimate the risk of breast cancer).

In women with an increased risk of breast cancer, taking aromatase inhibitors decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body. Before menopause, estrogen is made by the ovaries and other tissues in a woman's body, including the brain, fat tissue, and skin. After menopause, the ovaries stop making estrogen, but the other tissues do not. Aromatase inhibitors block the action of an enzyme called aromatase, which is used to make all of the body's estrogen. Aromatase inactivators stop the enzyme from working.


 

Possible harms from taking aromatase inhibitors include muscle and joint pain, osteoporosis, hot flashes, and feeling very tired.


 

Risk-reducing mastectomy:

Some women who have a high risk of breast cancer may choose to have a risk-reducing mastectomy (the removal of both breasts when there are no signs of cancer). The risk of breast cancer is much lower in these women and most feel less anxious about their risk of breast cancer. However, it is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling about the different ways to prevent breast cancer before making this decision.


 

Ovarian ablation:

The ovaries make most of the estrogen that is made by the body. Treatments that stop or lower the amount of estrogen made by the ovaries include surgery to remove the ovaries, radiation therapy, or taking certain drugs. This is called ovarian ablation.


 

Premenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer due to certain changes in the brca1 and brca2 genes may choose to have a risk-reducing oophorectomy (the removal of both ovaries when there are no signs of cancer). This decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body and lowers the risk of breast cancer. Risk-reducing oophorectomy also lowers the risk of breast cancer in normal premenopausal women and in women with an increased risk of breast cancer due to radiation to the chest. However, it is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling before making this decision. The sudden drop in estrogen levels may cause the symptoms of menopause to begin. These include hot flashes, trouble sleeping, anxiety, and depression. Long-term effects include decreased sex drive, vaginal dryness, and decreased bone density.


 

Getting enough exercise:

Women who exercise four or more hours a week have a lower risk of breast cancer. The effect of exercise on breast cancer risk may be greatest in premenopausal women who have normal or low body weight.


 

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of breast cancer:

  1. Oral contraceptives

  2. Certain oral contraceptives contain estrogen. Some studies have shown that taking oral contraceptives (" the pill") may slightly increase the risk of breast cancer in current users. This risk decreases over time. Other studies have not shown an increased risk of breast cancer in women who take oral contraceptives.

  3. Progestin -only contraceptives that are injected or implanted do not appear to increase the risk of breast cancer. More studies are needed to know whether progestin-only oral contraceptives increase the risk of breast cancer.


 

Environment

  1. Studies have not proven that being exposed to certain substances in the environment, such as chemicals, increases the risk of breast cancer.

  2. Studies have shown that some factors do not affect the risk of breast cancer.


 

The following do not affect the risk of breast cancer:

  1. Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more fruits and vegetables. Taking vitamins, including fenretinide (a type of vitamin a). Cigarette smoking, both active and passive (inhaling secondhand smoke). Using underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. Taking statins (cholesterol -lowering drugs). Taking bisphosphonates (drugs used to treat osteoporosis and hypercalcemia) by mouth or by intravenous infusion.

  2. Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.

As per my MRI report for lumber spine, disc protrusion seen at L5-S1 indenting anterior thecal sac and narrowing left neural recess. Disc hydration is Los at L5-S1. I have severe lower back pain for last one month. What is the ideal plan for treatment?

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
As per my MRI report for lumber spine, disc protrusion seen at L5-S1 indenting anterior thecal sac and narrowing left...
Take bed rest for 15 days. Consult physio they will guide you better. Avoid forward bending. Use hot pack for 15 mint at lower back.
3 people found this helpful
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I want to know about exercises being done in case of diffuse disc bulge at l1-l2 level indenting anterior the cal sac mildly with bilateral mild neural foraminal narrowing.

Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis
Radiologist, Shimla
If pain is there no exercise indicated, after relief mild passive exercises, lumber exercise, lumbo-sacral exercise, mild lumber extension exercise; click on private quastion in my name for any clarification.
1 person found this helpful
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Sir I have a problem of slipped disc in cervical spine. I am a dance choreographer so I should do my profession or I should stop it.

Fellowship in Shoulder and Upper Limb, Fellowship in Joint Replacement, MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Mumbai
If the problem is recent and correctly diagnosed you should take rest for a couple of weeks and then start gradually with neck physio. Once your neck muscles are strong then you can gradually restart your dance activity.
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I have noticed that the space between c5 and c6 of my spine have increased and as a result my neck and shoulder are very painful. I have also little tmj. What will I do now? Please Please help me.

PG Diploma in Emergency Medicine Services (PGDEMS), Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MD - Alternate Medicine
Ayurveda, Ghaziabad
Hello Lybrate user according to Ayurveda Vata vikriti is the main factor for pain. Treatment- 1-apply prasarini oil or pranacharya restopain oil on your affected part and give hot water fomentation. 2-take yograj guggul and agni tundi vati after lunch and dinner with warm water. 3-Take maha rasnadi kwath 2-2 tsf twice a day. 4-Take pranacharya vatari capsule and syrup twice a day. Diet- Avoid fermented food. Junk food. Potato rice. Sleep well.
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I'm 42 years old. I'm suffering from l-s 4 slip disc. please tell what can be done?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
(A) Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. (B) Use no pillow under the head. (C) Kindly take BioD3 Max 1 tab dailyx10 Paracetamol 250mg OD & SOS x5days (D) Do back(spine)/shoulder/knee exercises (E)Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take (F) Do not ignore it. It could be beginning of a serious problem. (G) If no relief in 4_5 days,then contact me again. (H) Contact your family doctor or nearest hospital for emergency help.
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Diseased Uterus - Can it be Replaced?

Health and Medical ARC Fertility
IVF Specialist, Chennai
Diseased Uterus - Can it be Replaced?

In case you have a diseased uterus, which makes you infertile, you can undergo a procedure known as uterus transplant or uterine transplant to get pregnant. In the process of sexual reproduction, a diseased uterus does not allow embryonic implantation. This factor is referred to as uterine factor infertility or UFI. As a result, you will not be able to get pregnant. Learn more about having healthy pregnancy.

Who requires a uterus transplant?
This procedure involves women who have UFI and women who had their uterus removed by hysterectomy. Women who have a damaged uterus on account of an injury or infection, which does not function anymore, can also undergo a uterus transplant procedure. Women from the age of 21 to 45 are eligible for this procedure. Many women are born without having a uterus. This condition is called Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

Procedure
Uterus transplantation begins with undertaking a uterus retrieval surgery on the uterus donor. The uterus, which is recovered has to be stored and transported to the location of the patient undergoing the transplant. An ischemic tolerance may last over 24 hours. Three major surgeries have to be carried out with the recipient. Firstly, a transplantation surgery is required in which the donor’s uterus gets transplanted. In case pregnancy develops, a caesarean section surgery has to be performed. The patient is given immune suppressive therapy. After childbirth, a hysterectomy is done in order to terminate the immune suppressive therapy.

Will the women be able to get pregnant after having sex?
Women receiving a uterus transplant will not be capable of becoming pregnant without undergoing fertility treatments. The transplanted uterus is not connected with the fallopian tubes, which is the location of the normal fertilisation process. The women will require to carry out IVF or in vitro fertilisation to become pregnant after a uterus transplant. IVF is a process in which the eggs are removed from the ovaries and get fertilised in a laboratory. Then, they are implanted in the uterus. After undergoing the uterus transplant procedure, a woman has to wait for a period of one year. The uterus requires time for healing and after recovery, the embryo may be implanted for pregnancy. After giving birth successfully, a woman will be able to keep the transplanted uterus. This is a reason why IVF is a popular procedure.

She has the option to get pregnant again. However, after giving birth twice, a hysterectomy must be carried out for the removal of the uterus. This is done so that the woman can stop using the immune suppressant drugs, which are associated with major risks. Uterus transplant is a relatively new technology. In October 2014, the first healthy baby was born to a woman who had undergone a uterus transplant. This surgery is kind of experimental in nature and is usually the last option for getting pregnant.

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