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Many children all over the world are affected by urinary tract infections or UTIs that can be resolved with simple antibiotics, but might also lead to complications at times. Most often, kids under 2 years of age are affected by it, and either the bladder or the kidney might be infected leading to cystitis or pyelonephritis , in smaller children kidneys are presumed to be infected unless proved otherwise.
Causes of UTIs
Though bacterial infections are the most common cause, viral or fungal infections might occur in some cases as well. Most UTI in infants are caused by structural abnormalities of urinary tract. Uncircumcised male infants or children with poor toilet habits, or female children with poor toilet hygiene are susceptible to this disease. Children suffering from a weak immune system might also be at a risk.
Symptoms and signs
Symptoms of UTI are very difficult to differentiate from any other illness in small kids under 2 years of age, symptoms include high fever, diarrhea vomiting, and dehydration. Basically any fever for which no cause is apparent must be evaluated for UTI. UTIs in older children beyond 5 years of age come with different signs including pain during urinating (dysuria), frequent urination, abnormal urge for urination, or bedwetting. Sometimes, fever, abdominal pain, blood in urine or vomiting might be signs as well.
Which doctor to consult?
In most cases, UTIs in children are treated by pediatricians, but if kidney function is troubled then a pediatric nephrologist needs to be contacted immediately. Pediatric Nephrologist to be consulted once the fever is over to look for cause of UTI.
- Tests carried out: To understand the underlying cause of the infection and any anatomical or functional risk factors, several examinations or tests are carried out. Vital signs like blood pressure, body temperature, and breathing rate are checked. The abdomen is palpated to find tenderness near the kidneys. Genital areas are also examined for signs of trauma, redness, discharge and such. Urine cultures are essential for diagnosing UTIs finally and this helps in assessing the antibiotic sensitivity profile too.
- Good to know: Right after an antibiotic is administered, UTI in children starts getting resolved. But recurrent UTIs might lead to urinary tract abnormalities like kidney malformation. Also note that UTI is not contagious, and cannot be passed on if children share a bath or if you sit on an infected toilet seat.
In most cases, UTIs respond well to oral antibiotics, though Pyelonephritis may require hospitalization and intravenous drip. Some studies are also carried out to check if the child is susceptible to renal scarring or kidney failure. These are as below:
- Renal ultrasound: Defines the location of the kidneys and their size and shape clearly.
- Voiding cysto-urethrogram: The bladder is filled with a dye through a catheter in this method. Then the catheter is removed to study if the bladder is getting emptied without any reflux or obstruction.
- Renal scan: To test the functioning of the kidneys and the risk of renal scarring, a bit of radioactive material is used.
- Intravenous pyelogram: Though rarely used, in this method, a dye is injected into the bloodstream and X-ray images are obtained.
- Maintaining proper hygiene: Girls should wipe from front to back and uncircumcised boys should be able to gently retract the foreskin to reveal the urethral opening.
- Complete voiding of bladder: Encourage kids to urinate every two to three hours, since they often ignore a full bladder to carry on playing.
- Consumption of fluids: Drink plenty of fluids and avoid constipation. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pediatrician.
Hello Dr. My son s 15 months old suffering from urine infection for past a week. We took urine test pus cell came as 0-1 where's as urine culture came as e-coli 10^4 col. My ped. Suggested to c urologist. Yesterday he retract the skin n asked to apply betadine ointment. And advices to apply coconut oil n asked to puldown ever day till one year. This s the second time he s getting this infection. Please advice me. I need the permanent solution. My ped. Suggested to do circumcision where's my urology saying not needed. My son s suffering this pblm every time. Wat the treatment I'm giving s correct or not. Please advice. Even he s putting more pressure to pass motion also. Today we went for check up. My urology told he s perfectly alright. Please advice whether that infection has cured due to this retract.
I have a single kidney by birth. Does this will create a problem while conceiving? what problems will I face.
I am 21 year old male. Before 6 months I have suffered urinary tract infection. It's was from the next morning of sex with my girlfriend. Doctor gave me some medicine after 7 days and it was cure in 5-6 days. But, still I fill pain and burning sensation while urination mostly on the day when I used to drink little less water. And sometimes getting fouling smell while urination. And sonography report shows minimally distorted gall bladder. I have done 3times medicine courses but problem is still continued. And mostly feels urine problem while urination after lunch or dinner. Please guide me what I need to do? Thank you.
I am 25 years old. I am suffering from burning sensation while urinating. Is it okay to have unprotected sex while having uti.
Chronic kidney disease also known as chronic renal disease is a form of kidney disorder where renal function is progressively lost over a long period. This disease has got unspecific symptoms and includes loss of appetite, feeling unwell, etc. People with high blood pressure or diabetes are more likely to have CKD. This disease leads to other complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anaemia and pericarditis.
Homeopathy is an ideal and effective form of treatment chronic kidney diseases. Homeopathy is natural and tries to correct all the underlying causes of the condition. General symptoms and constitutional indications are considered in homeopathy before choosing the best medicine. Here is a list of several homeopathic medicines, which are used to treat chronic kidney diseases like Kidney Stone Treatment, along with the symptoms in case of which they are used.
- Apis mellifica: This homeopathic medicine is not used in acute forms of CKD. Symptoms of this type include oedematous swelling on the face, paleness, headaches, pain in the back and limb, oedema pulmonum, etc. It is used when there are dull aches in the kidney, reduced urination and micturition. The urine contains albumen in high levels and blood corpuscles. Eruption of the skin occurs, and the patient feels drowsy.
- Arsenicum: This medicine is used in all stages of CKD and is one of the best remedies. It is used in later stages of the disease when the patient's skin becomes pale, and he develops a waxen appearance, excess thirst and diarrhoea. The shade of the urine is dark and full of albumen. Dyspnoea attacks are also observed while lying down during the night. Taking aconite produces a mucus and the patient gets relief.
- Aurum muriaticum: This homeopathic medicine is used to cure renal diseases such as morbus brightii caused from a gout or from syphilis. Digestive and nervous problems are indicated along with great irritability. Vertigo may also be caused.
- Belladonna: Belladonna is the ideal homeopathic remedy for treating inflammation of the kidneys accompanied by piercing or burning pain in the lumbar region of the kidney. The pain reappears repeatedly with increased intensity each time.
- Cantharis: This homeopathic cure is used in nephritis. There is a cutting pain in the lumbar region, the urine contains blood and the flow is in the form of drops. Cantharis is used in post diphtheric kidney disorders with dropsy.
- Conavallaria: Conavallaria is used in case of nephritis occurring due to heart disorders. It is used when the heart functions irregularly and also in anasarca and ascites because of mitral insufficiency.
Homeopathic medicines are very efficient for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. There are homeopathic cures for all types of renal diseases.